nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒07‒18
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The Double Burden of Female Protracted Displacement: Survey Evidence on Gendered Livelihoods in El Fasher, Darfur By Wolfgang Stojetz; Tilman Brück
  2. Information, Anxiety, and Persuasion: Analyzing Return Intentions of Displaced Persons By Onah Peter Thompson; Jonathan Hall; James Igoe Walsh
  3. Adolescents' Transition to Adulthood and Their Assimilation from Violent to Peaceful Contexts By Lina María Sánchez-Céspedes
  4. How Do Gender Norms Shape Education and Domestic Work Outcomes? The Case of Syrian Refugee Adolescents in Jordan By Caroline Krafft; Ragui Assaad; Isabel Pastoor
  5. Power Shifts, Emigration, and Population Sorting By Michaël Aklin; Vera Z. Eichenauer
  6. The gender-remittances nexus and the impact of COVID-19 By Van den bosch, Catherine; Mavrotas, George
  7. The development of entrepreneurial orientation among female migrants and its influence on venture internationalization: a qualitative studybased on the French Context. By Eunice Cascant
  8. Intended and Unintended Impacts of Minimum Wage Change: The Pivotal Role of Migration in the Philippines By Deborah Kim Sy; Nobuhiro Hosoe

  1. By: Wolfgang Stojetz (ISDC – International Security and Development Center); Tilman Brück (ISDC – International Security and Development Center, University of Greenwich, Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops (IGZ))
    Abstract: During protracted displacement, women and girls often face serious gender-specific challenges and vulnerabilities, including adverse norms and institutional barriers. Yet, quantitative evidence on gendered drivers and differentials during protracted displacement remains scarce. Using survey data from 18,533 displaced and non-displaced individuals in El Fasher, Sudan, this paper documents that livelihood outcomes are significantly shaped by strong and complex intersectionality between long-term displacement and gender. Being female and being a long-term displaced person have separate negative impacts on work and welfare. Therefore, being a long-term displaced woman is particularly challenging: internally displaced women work more than non–internally displaced women but are poorer, on average. For men, there is no such difference in employment between the internally displaced and non–internally displaced. These outcomes are the result of the 'double burden of female displacement': women are disadvantaged by norms and institutions both at their destination (due to being a displaced person) and their place of origin (due to their gender). The double burden is strongest for older displaced women. In contrast, protracted displacement can be an opportunity for younger displaced women. Future policies should address the challenges stemming from the intersectionality of gender and displacement and develop targeted programs.
    Keywords: gender, forced displacement, internally displaced persons, livelihoods
    JEL: D74 J16 J24 O15
    Date: 2021–11
  2. By: Onah Peter Thompson (University of North Carolina at Charlotte); Jonathan Hall (Uppsala University); James Igoe Walsh (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
    Abstract: Anxiety influences how people attend to, interpret, and respond to information and potential threats. How does anxiety influence attempts to persuade? We hypothesize that the relationship depends on the interaction between an individual's level of anxiety and the trustworthiness of a source that provides information. Individuals with lower levels of anxiety can be persuaded by a trustworthy source. But persistent and high levels of anxiety lead to hypervigiliance and mistrust in others. This means that even trustworthy sources of information cannot persuade anxious individuals. We test our hypotheses with a factoral survey experiment, drawing participants from residents of internally displaced person (IDP) camps in northeastern Nigeria. We find that information from a more trustworthy source leads to increased return intentions. However, the more participants exhibit psychological distress the less of an effect source trustworthiness has on their return intentions. We conclude by discussing the implications for return of displaced persons and political and personal decision-making more generally.
    Keywords: Stress, psychosocial function, political psychology, displacement, conflict
    Date: 2021–12
  3. By: Lina María Sánchez-Céspedes (University of Essex)
    Abstract: We study the assimilation to peaceful contexts among adolescents who were exposed to violence (armed conflict) regarding three transitions: marriage/cohabitation, household management and childbearing. The change of context from violent to peaceful is achieved using migrants. We formulate and test nine paths to describe adolescents' assimilation. These paths are the combinations of the three possible effects of current exposure to violence, and the possible changes of behaviour when adolescents move to peaceful areas. The possible effects are: no effects, positive effect and negative effect. The possible changes of behaviours are: persistency, adaptation and disturbance. Persistency occurs when adolescents' behaviour continues to be the same after migration. Adaptation indicates that although they were affected by violence before migration, after migrating to peaceful areas they behave as adolescents who have never been exposed to violence. Disturbance describes when the effect of violence is more than countered in a peaceful context. We find that the effects of the exposure to armed conflict on adolescents' transition to adulthood differ according to adolescents' features and the nature of the transition. In general, the level of poverty increases the vulnerability of adolescents who are currently exposed to violence, promoting their early transition to marriage/cohabitation, household management and childbearing. After moving to a peaceful environment, adolescents' behaviour also depends on their characteristics. As result, the assimilation paths also vary between adolescents.
    Keywords: armed conflict, displacement, war, adolescents' behaviour, marriage/cohabitation, household management and childbearing, assimilation process
    Date: 2021–11
  4. By: Caroline Krafft (Department of Economics and Political Science, St. Catherine University); Ragui Assaad (Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota); Isabel Pastoor (Department of Economics and Political Science, St. Catherine University)
    Abstract: Forced displacement has disrupted Syrian refugees' lives and exposed them to new communities and norms. This paper assesses how gender norms shape the lives of Syrian refugee adolescent girls in Jordan, using nationally representative data. Factor analysis is used to summarize a variety of beliefs and behavioral aspects of norms: gender role attitudes, justification of domestic violence, decision making, and mobility. The paper compares these outcomes by sex, nationality, and for adolescents versus adults. It complements the data on individual beliefs and behaviors with family and community beliefs and behaviors as proxies for others' expectations and behaviors. The paper then examines how own, family, and community gender norms relate to two key adolescent outcomes: domestic work and enrollment in school. The findings show that while gender role attitudes are similar across generations and nationalities, Syrian adolescent girls are particularly restricted in their mobility. Nonetheless, they have similar educational outcomes as boys and, after accounting for differences in socioeconomic status, as Jordanian girls. While gender inequality in domestic work is substantial, higher levels of own and mother's decision making predict lower domestic workloads, illustrating the linkages between different dimensions of gender norms and social and economic outcomes.
    Keywords: Gender norms, Refugees, Education, Care work, Syrians, Jordan
    JEL: J16 J22 I24 F22 F51
    Date: 2021–12
  5. By: Michaël Aklin; Vera Z. Eichenauer
    Abstract: We investigate the consequences of a peaceful shift of power from one social group to another. Theoretically, we show that an individual’s decision to stay put or migrate depends on the difference between the political preferences of groups and the change in tax. Empirically, we use the case of the unexpected creation of the Canton of Jura in Switzerland, which witnessed a power shift from German to French speakers in the 1970s. We find robust evidence supporting the model’s predictions using data at the municipal and individual levels. Our research sheds light on population sorting in the shadow of power transitions.
    Keywords: social identity, status displacement, migration, federalism, secession
    JEL: H31 H77 D72 J15
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Van den bosch, Catherine; Mavrotas, George
    Abstract: Remittances are an important source of development finance, particularly in recent years due also to increased migration flows at global level. The recent COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a sudden drop of remittances and an alarming aspect of the pandemic is that it particularly affected female migrants. Despite the importance of gender for remittance sending and usage, research about international migration and remittances insufficiently takes into account its role. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to partially fill this gap in the relevant literature by trying to address the following important questions: (1) In what ways is gender important in understanding the sending and the usage of remittances?; and (2) what is the relationship between gender, COVID-19 and pandemic-induced remittance reductions? In doing so, we provide an overview of the (limited) literature on the vast influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on female migrants and we also assess whether gender has had an influence on the extent to which remittance inflows decreased as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic by conducting a preliminary empirical analysis based on some recent data (albeit limited) on the above nexus. Surprisingly, we found a negative correlation between COVID-19-induced changes in remittances and female emigration rates. This contrasts with insights about the higher vulnerability of female migrants for the pandemic. However, this finding seems to be in line with the stand of the literature which seems to suggest that female migrants remit more during periods of crisis than male ones, and that they tend to remit a larger percentage of their income than male migrants. This paper contributes to the relevant literature in multiple ways. First, our detailed discussion of the influence of gender on remittances and the impact of COVID-19 on female migrants has revealed other important aspects in the overall relationship that can stimulate further research on these topics and also raise important policy questions for policymakers. Second, our preliminary findings of a possible negative correlation between COVID-19-induced changes in remittances and female emigration rates is very relevant. In view of the insights we gained from the discussion of the relevant literature, these findings raise important concerns about female migrants’ well-being during the pandemic and call for further empirical research in this crucial area once more reliable data become available.
    Keywords: remittances, gender, COVID-19
    Date: 2022–05
  7. By: Eunice Cascant (Laboratoire de Recherche Magellan - UJML - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon 3 - Université de Lyon - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Lyon)
    Abstract: Despite being on top of geopolitical and economic agendas, migration has continued drastically increase especially in the 21 ST century. This phenomenon has led to the rise on an intertwined migrant activity referred to as Migrant entrepreneurship, with no exception of female migrant entrepreneurship as a result of the loopholes that exist in the economic and main stream labor integration policies .Migrant entrepreneurship not only contributes to the gross domestic product of the host countries but also that of the country of origin through remittances, hence making it a win-win situation. However, most studies reveal the existence of a gender gap between the male and female migrant entrepreneurs as both groups are far from homogeneity as they come from different countries of origins, age groups, past experience and motivating factors. Nevertheless, recent studies have depicted migrants as more entrepreneurial then the host country natives. Whereas other literature credits migrant entrepreneurship as a way of integration with in the host society. Based on the mixed embeddedness and effectual approaches, the research will investigate how female migrants develop entrepreneurial orientations and its influence on venture creation. In supportive of the effectual approach, an analysis of the impact of the host country's extant resources, opportunity recognition and decision making based on volatile and uncertain environments. We will as well highlight the role of the individual habitus, social capital and networks. This research is qualitative in nature based on female migrant case studies in the context of France. Our key findings, are four-fold; First, the results reveal when it comes to migrant entrepreneurship ,there is a significant gap between male and female migrant entrepreneurs.Secondly ,we un cover that female migrants develop entrepreneurial orientations through five main dimensions namely: (i) Innovativeness (ii) Proactiveness (iii) Risk taking (iv) Competitive aggressiveness and (v) Autonomy .Thirdly our research highlights the key role female migrant entrepreneurs play by including sustainability in their business models .Lastly, results show that female migrant entrepreneurial orientation development can be encouraged by policies designed to promote resources fit for migrants that in the end helps them leverage their capabilities and networks to open up ventures with in the host countries and further to international markets.
    Keywords: female migrant entrepreneurship,Migrant entrepreneurship,migrant entrepreneurial orientation,migrant ventures,migrant internationalisation,female entrepreneurship
    Date: 2021–12–10
  8. By: Deborah Kim Sy (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan); Nobuhiro Hosoe (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan)
    Abstract: Minimum wage is used as a support for low-wage workers, but it is expected to increase unemployment and cause deterioration of the welfare of the unemployed. While earlier studies identify negative side effects of minimum wage, that may not be the case in the Philippines, where many workers migrate and send home large remittances. This study uses a computable general equilibrium model to examine the impacts of an increase in the domestic minimum wage on unemployment, migration, and output, as well as on welfare and inequality, in the Philippines. Our simulation results show that a minimum wage increase would indeed reduce domestic labor demand and prompt many unemployed workers to migrate out, leaving relatively few unemployed at home. While an increased volume of remittances would improve household welfare, it would also have some unintended effects, such as currency appreciation; decreased domestic production in labor-intensive and export-oriented industries; greater income disparity; and tax base erosion.
    Keywords: Minimum wage, International Migration, Remittances, Income Inequality
    Date: 2022–06

This nep-mig issue is ©2022 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.