nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒07‒11
five papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Immigrant and native export benefiting from business collaborations: a global study By Shayegheh Ashourizadeh; Mehrzad Saeedikiya
  2. Robotization, Internal Migration and Rural Depopulation in Austria By Bekhtiar, Karim
  3. Can the evolution of joint savings agreements counter the effect of higher costs of migration on its intensity? By Stark, Oded; Jakubek, Marcin
  4. Immigrants and COVID-19 Travel Restrictions By Jang, Young-ook
  5. Culture, Female Labour Force Participation, and Selective Migrationː New Meta-Analytic Evidence By Markowsky, Eva

  1. By: Shayegheh Ashourizadeh; Mehrzad Saeedikiya
    Abstract: The authors hypothesised that export develops in the network of business collaborations that are embedded in migration status. In that, collaborative networking positively affects export performance and immigrant entrepreneurs enjoy higher collaborative networking than native entrepreneurs due to their advantage of being embedded in the home and the host country. Moreover, the advantage of being an immigrant promotes the benefits of collaborative networking for export compared to those of native entrepreneurs. A total of 47,200 entrepreneurs starting, running and owning firms in 71 countries were surveyed by Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and analysed through the hierarchical linear modelling technique. Collaborative networking facilitated export and migration status influenced entrepreneur networking, in that, immigrant entrepreneurs had a higher level of collaborative networking than native entrepreneurs. Consequently, immigrant entrepreneurs seemed to have benefited from their network collaborations more than their native counterparts did. This study sheds light on how immigrant entrepreneur network collaborations can be effective for their exporting.
    Date: 2022–05
  2. By: Bekhtiar, Karim (IHS, Vienna)
    Abstract: Internal migration flows from rural to urban areas have greatly contributed to population declines in many rural areas across both Europe and the US. At the same time there is mounting evidence for a tight connection between internal migration and shifts in labor demand, with the latter being heavily affected by the rise of automation technologies. Therefore this paper analyzes the effects industrial robotization has had on manufacturing employment and internal migration in Austria during the period 2003-2016, specifically focusing on rural-to-urban migration flows. The results show that robotization has caused significant declines in manufacturing employment to which populations reacted by increased out-migration. This migratory response takes the form of rural-to-urban migration, thereby contributing to population declines in many rural areas in Austria. These rural-to-urban movements are primarily driven by young and medium/low skilled individuals, i.e. those groups that bear the strongest shock incidence.
    Keywords: Employment, internal migration, robots, rural depopulation
    JEL: J21 J23 J61 R23
    Date: 2022–06
  3. By: Stark, Oded; Jakubek, Marcin
    Abstract: In this paper we consider a population of would-be migrants in a developing country. To begin with, this population is divided into two sets: those who save by themselves to pay for the cost of their migration, and those who pool their savings with the savings of another would-be migrant to pay for the cost. Saving jointly brings forward the timing of migration: funds needed to pay for the migration of one of the co-savers can be accumulated more quickly, enabling him, using his higher income at destination than at origin, to speed up the migration of his co-saver. However, people may hesitate to save jointly for fear that a co-saver who is the first to migrate might fail to keep his part of the agreement. We show that an increase in the cost of migration stimulates the formation of co-financing, joint-saving arrangements that enable would-be migrants to cushion the impact of the increase. The evolution of joint-saving arrangements can create a time window during which the intensity of migration need not decrease: no fewer people (and conceivably even more of them) will migrate during a time interval that follows the increase in the cost. This prediction is at variance with the canonical economic model of migration according to which if migration is costlier, then there will be less of it.
    Keywords: Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Development, Labor and Human Capital, Public Economics, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–06–14
    Abstract: This study attempts to examine the impact of the presence of foreign workers on COVID-19 related border closures. In the countries that are highly dependent on foreign workers, there have been difficulties in supplying labor due to entry restrictions and border closure during the COVID-19 pandemic. The empirical analysis shows that the entry restrictions were passively imposed where the share of immigrant is high. This trend was observed more conspicuously in high-income countries where various policy combinations could be used in addition to entry restrictions. The cost of entry restrictions could be alleviated by placing other measures which are deemed more efficient, including 3T (test, trace/isolate, treatment) strategy and Special Entry Procedure. It is necessary to develop policies to minimize negative effects on immigration and immigrants, while controlling epidemic waves at the same time.
    Keywords: Immigrant; COVID-19; Travel Restriction
    Date: 2022–05–11
  5. By: Markowsky, Eva
    Abstract: I analyse about 160 estimates of the relationship between female migrants' labour force participation and ancestry culture, integrating studies from economics and sociology that were previously unconnected. The literature exhibits large heterogeneity in results that is only partly explained by differences in data, sample selection, and methods. Part of the excess heterogeneity seems to be driven by selective reporting with preference given to studies that ftnd positive and statistically significant correlations between ancestry culture and female labour force participation. Differential composition of countries of ancestry proves another important source of heterogeneity. Estimations drawn from data with higher average ancestry-gender equality ftnd lager culture effects, implying that the behaviour of women from low-gender equality countries might not be representative for their country of origing culture. I discuss how cultural selection of immigration could explain this relationship and why it can bias measured culture effects. The analysis provides valuable insights for future applications of the socio-epidemiological approach.
    Date: 2022

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