nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒05‒23
four papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Unregistered work among refugees: Evidence from a list experiment in Germany By Doerr, Annabelle; Hartmann, Carina; Sajons, Christoph
  2. Employer Attitudes and the Hiring of Immigrants and International Students: Evidence from a Survey of Employers in Canada By Fang, Tony; Xiao, Na; Zhu, Jane; Hartley, John
  3. Bad Weather, Social Network, and Internal Migration; Case of Japanese Sumo Wrestlers 1946-1985 By Eiji Yamamura
  4. Neighbourhood gentrification, displacement, and poverty dynamics in post-recession England By Fransham, Mark

  1. By: Doerr, Annabelle; Hartmann, Carina; Sajons, Christoph
    Abstract: The integration of refugees in host countries' labor markets is complicated by structural barriers, missing formal qualification and language deficiencies. This leads to widespread concern that refugees may end up in informal and precarious employment relationships. Empirical evidence on the prevalence of unregistered work is missing, however, due to the sensitive and illegal nature of this phenomenon. In this paper, we conduct a list experiment to measure unregistered work among refugees in Germany. Our results indicate that 31% have had experience with an unregistered job since their arrival. Refugees who report that they do not have work permission show a significantly higher likelihood of experiencing unregistered work. Furthermore, the lack of post-secondary education and vocational degrees, and a low German proficiency predict the risk to work without registration.
    Keywords: Unregistered work, Informal employment, List experiment, Refugees, Germany, Survey experiment
    JEL: J46 J61 C83
    Date: 2022–01–04
  2. By: Fang, Tony (Memorial University of Newfoundland); Xiao, Na (Laurentian University); Zhu, Jane (Memorial University of Newfoundland); Hartley, John (Memorial University of Newfoundland)
    Abstract: What are the perceptions of employers towards hiring immigrants and international students in Atlantic Canada? How are they related to hiring outcomes? Our analysis based on a 2019 random, representative survey of 801 employers finds that those employers who report beliefs that multiculturalism is creativity-enhancing in the workplace and that immigrants are harder working than local workers are more likely to report hiring or intending to hire newcomers and international students Although most employers report positive attitudes towards newcomers and international students, employers who report perceptions that immigrants tend to take jobs from domestic workers, accept lower pay, have a lower retention probability, face language barriers, have higher training costs, and hold unreliable credentials are less likely to report hiring from this group.
    Keywords: immigrants, international students, labour and skill shortages, employer hiring attitudes, employer survey, Atlantic Canada
    JEL: J23 J61 J63 J68
    Date: 2022–04
  3. By: Eiji Yamamura
    Abstract: Post-World War II , there was massive internal migration from rural to urban areas in Japan. The location of Sumo stables was concentrated in Tokyo. Hence, supply of Sumo wrestlers from rural areas to Tokyo was considered as migration. Using a panel dataset covering forty years, specifically 1946-1985, this study investigates how weather conditions and social networks influenced the labor supply of Sumo wrestlers. Major findings are; (1) inclemency of the weather in local areas increased supply of Sumo wrestlers in the period 1946-1965, (2) the effect of the bad weather conditions is greater in the locality where large number of Sumo wrestlers were supplied in the pre-war period, (3) neither the occurrence of bad weather conditions nor their interactions with sumo-wrestlers influenced the supply of Sumo wrestlers in the period 1966-1985. These findings imply that the negative shock of bad weather conditions on agriculture in the rural areas incentivized young individuals to be apprenticed in Sumo stables in Tokyo. Additionally, in such situations, the social networks within Sumo wrestler communities from the same locality are important. However, once the share of workers in agricultural sectors became very low, this mechanism did not work.
    Date: 2022–04
  4. By: Fransham, Mark
    Abstract: A recent “return to the city” by middle-class professionals in England, with the increasing “suburbanisation” of poverty and an ongoing housing crisis, has increased the salience of concerns about neighbourhood gentrification via the involuntary displacement of established working class residents. This paper reports a systematic analysis of gentrification and income poverty in England that adopts innovative methodological approaches: a multivariate index of gentrification, propensity score matching to establish a comparison group, and sensitivity testing with respect to different “gentrification” definitions. The paper investigates three possible theoretical processes that could have driven the observed decline in income poverty rates in gentrifying areas: inward mobility to areas, outward mobility from areas, and in situ changes in poverty status. The post-recession period 2010–2014 is studied using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study. There is good evidence from aggregate and individual-level analyses for a relationship between “inward” mobility, poverty status, and area gentrification. In addition, people moving to gentrifying areas were more likely to have a university degree and more likely to be in the professional occupational class than people who moved to nongentrifying comparison areas. On the other hand, no such relationships are found for “outward” mobility. The strongest evidence is found for “exclusionary displacement” (the restricted ability of low-income households to move in to an area) rather than “direct displacement” (increased outward mobility of existing residents) as the dominant driver of gentrification in this period.
    Keywords: gentrification; longitudinal analysis; migration; neighbourhood change; poverty dynamics; residential mobility; ES/J500112/1; EP/K503113/1; EP/L505031/1; EP/M50659X/1
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2020–07–01

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