nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒04‒25
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Conflict as a Cause of Migration By Crippa, Andrea; d'Agostino, Giorgio; Dunne, Paul; Pieroni, Luca
  2. ‘When a Stranger Shall Sojourn with Thee': The Impact of the Venezuelan Exodus on Colombian Labor Markets By Santamaria, J.
  3. Unemployment Gap between Long-term Immigrants and Natives in Japan: Considering Heterogeneity Among Immigrants from Asia, the U.S. and UK, and South America By LIU Yang
  4. Intra-EU Migration, Public Transfers, and Assimilation: Evidence for the Netherlands By Suari-Andreu, Eduard; van Vliet, Olaf
  5. Export Expansion and Investment in Children’s Human Capital: Evidence from the U.S.-Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement By Brian McCaig; Minh Nguyen; Robert Kaestner
  6. The Long-Run Effects of Immigration: Evidence Across a Barrier to Refugee Settlement By Antonio Ciccone; Jan Nimczik
  7. Migrant and refugee students from the Global South at Austrian universities: A typology for targeted support By Kohlenberger, Judith; Herzog, Theresa; Schnitzler, Tobias
  8. The link between migratory background and crime perceptions. A repeated cross-sectional analysis with household data By Bortoletto, Gianluca
  9. Reducing Frictions in Healthcare Access: The ActionHealth NYC Experiment for Undocumented Immigrants By Jonathan Gruber; Adrienne Sabety; Rishi Sood; Jin Yung Bae
  10. Can labour mobility reduce imbalances in the euro area? By Berger, Johannes; Strohner, Ludwig

  1. By: Crippa, Andrea; d'Agostino, Giorgio; Dunne, Paul; Pieroni, Luca
    Abstract: Much of the literature on the determinants of migration considers push and pull and while conflict is considered a push factor it has received surprisingly little empirical scrutiny. When it has the focus is on the most visible result, refugee flows. While political oppression, economic adversities and environmental degradation are important determinants of migration, conflict and wars account for the bulk of low income country refugees and migrants. This paper considers the role that conflict plays in migration, beyond refugee flows, across a range of countries for which data is available. It estimates the impact of conflict on migration allowing for other important factors and different measures of conflict. A large effect of conflict on net migration is found for low income countries.
    Keywords: Migration, internal conflict, income, panel data
    JEL: C33 D74 F22 O5
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Santamaria, J.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of open-door immigration policies on local labor markets. Using the sharp and unprecedented surge of Venezuelan refugees into Colombia, I study the impact on wages and employment in a context where work permits were granted at scale. To identify which labor markets immigrants are entering, I overcome limitations in offcial records and generate novel evidence of refugee settlement patterns by tracking the geographical distribution of Internet search terms that Venezuelans but not Colombians use. While offcial records suggest migrants are concentrated in a few cities, the Internet search index shows migrants are located across the country. Using this index, high-frequency labor market data, and a difference-in-differences design, I find precise null effects on employment and wages in the formal and informal sectors. A machine learning approach that compares counterfactual cities with locations most impacted by immigration yields similar results. All in all, the results suggest that open-door policies do not harm labor markets in the host community.
    Keywords: Migration; Employment; Wages; Google searches
    JEL: J61 J68 C81
    Date: 2022–02–07
  3. By: LIU Yang
    Abstract: This study provides some of the first evidence for unemployment of long-term immigrants in Japan, considering heterogeneity among three immigrant groups from Asia, U.S. and UK, and South America. This study uses large-scale population census data from Japan, conducted in 2010, which is the most updated census data including education and other detailed individual information in the country. First, compared to the natives, the unemployment rate is generally lower for U.S. and UK immigrants, while it is higher for immigrants from Asian and South American countries. However, controlling for human capital, individual and household characteristics, and residential regions, the study finds that immigrants from all the sample countries have higher unemployment probabilities compared to natives. Further, the gaps of permanent employment still exist after controlling for observed factors including industries and occupations, except for women from the U.S. and UK. Moreover, the non-liner decomposition analysis result indicates the different contributions of observed factors among immigrant groups. The results suggest that immigration policies that consider the differences among immigration groups may achieve better outcomes, and that ethnic penalties should be tackled for both high-performing and low-performing immigrant groups.
    Date: 2022–03
  4. By: Suari-Andreu, Eduard; van Vliet, Olaf
    Abstract: In this study we investigate public transfer receipt and assimilation of EU migrants in the Netherlands. To do so, we use high quality administrative panel data containing comprehensive information on all public transfers individuals can receive. Results show that, after controlling for composition effects, EU migrants are less likely to receive public transfers compared to Dutch natives and they receive significantly lower amounts conditional on transfer receipt. These differences are particularly large during the �first years after arrival in the Netherlands. Three to five years after arrival, the differences become indistinguishable from zero, indicating that EU migrants gradually assimilate into public transfer receipt. The size and the sign of the differences depend on whether we consider contributory or non-contributory transfers. Further exploration by means of an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition shows that the composition effects are mostly due to differences in age and variables related to family structure.
    Keywords: Migration, Mobility, European Union, Public Transfers, Migrant Assimilation
    JEL: D1 D14 H2 H53 H55 J6 J61
    Date: 2022–03–21
  5. By: Brian McCaig; Minh Nguyen; Robert Kaestner
    Abstract: We examine how export expansion induced by the U.S-Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement (BTA) affected migration, school enrollment, work and healthcare use of young children and adolescents in Vietnam. To do so, we exploit variation in tariff reductions across industries associated with the BTA and differences in industry employment shares across Vietnamese provinces prior to the policy change. We find that the BTA led to migration to the most affected provinces, particularly by adolescents (15 to 18) and young adults (19 to 29). The BTA also increased household expenditures, slightly decreased employment among nonmigrant adults and increased employment among migrant adults. Among adolescents, enrolment increased among non-migrants, but fell among migrants, with the opposite pattern for working. For children (7 to 14), enrolment did not change among non-migrants, but fell for migrants, who typically moved with their family. Conditional on being enrolled, education expenditures increased for both children and adolescents. We find evidence that healthcare utilization decreased for both children and adolescents.
    JEL: F16 I25 O15
    Date: 2022–03
  6. By: Antonio Ciccone; Jan Nimczik
    Abstract: After the end of World War II in 1945, millions of refugees arrived in what in 1949 became the Federal Republic of Germany. We examine their e ect on today's productivity, wages, income, rents, education, and population density at the municipality level. Our identification strategy is based on a spatial discontinuity in refugee settlement at the border between the French and US occupation zones in the South-West of post-war Germany. These occupation zones were established in 1945 and dissolved in 1949. The spatial discontinuity arose because the US zone admitted refugees during the 1945-1949 occupation period whereas the French zone restricted access. By 1950, refugee settlement had raised population density on the former US side of the 1945-1949 border significantly above density on the former French side. Before the war, there never had been significant di erences in population density. The higher density on the former US side persists entirely in 2020 and coincides with higher rents as well as higher productivity, wages, and education levels. We examine whether today's economic di erences across the former border are the result of the di erence in refugee admission; the legacy of other policy di erences between the 1945-1949 occupation zones; or the consequence of socio-economic di erences predating WWII. Taken together, our results indicate that today's economic di erences are the result of agglomeration e ects triggered by the arrival of refugees in the former US zone. We estimate that exposure to the arrival of refugees raised income per capita by around 13% and hourly wages by around 10%.
    Keywords: immigration, productivity wages, refugess, long-run effects
    JEL: O4 O11 R11
    Date: 2022–04
  7. By: Kohlenberger, Judith; Herzog, Theresa; Schnitzler, Tobias
    Abstract: Drawing on qualitative data from five focus group discussions (N=23), we developed a typology with migrant and refugee students from the Global South living in Vienna and studying at an Austrian university. Our findings indicate that different levels of support are required, depending on both structural and personal factors that respondents displayed. Structural factors include residence permit, field and level of study and conditions at the university (such as digital access, student representation, supervision by professors, workload). Personal factors involve respondents' social capital in terms of social network and friends/colleagues, in particular in the form of in/formal mentoring, language skills and other qualifications, personal resilience and aspirations, and mental health. Based on these factors, our typology differentiates between four different types of migrant and refugee students from the Global South, who differ with regard to the quality of their experience at university and their general well-being, which in turn impacts their study success.
    Keywords: refugees,higher education,Global South,development,university,inclusion,typology,Austria
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Bortoletto, Gianluca
    Abstract: The link between immigration and the crime rates, especially in the host countries, has been extensively studied in the previous literature. In this study, I explore how country of birth and citizenship at individual-level, defined as EU, non-EU or native (e.g., a person living in Italy who is born in another EU country will be categorised as a EU-born, non-EU if born in a non-EU country and native if born in Italy and the same holds for citizenship) affect crime perceptions at household-level. I explore this research question in a repeated cross-sectional framework using data form the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) for a pool of European countries over the period 2004-10. I also consider the interaction effect of citizenship and country of birth with other variables that the literature predicts to be relevant in affecting crime rates. I do not find evidence of a significant impact of country of birth or citizenship on crime. Also, while other factors, such as socio-economic status, population density in the area of living and others, are significant and present a robust effect on crime perceptions, the effect of country of birth and citizenship and of their interaction terms is very context-dependent and not robust to different specifications. Further research should be conducted perhaps combining household data with the characteristics of the neighbourhood where the household lives.
    Keywords: country of birth, citizenship, household, crime, vandalism, crime perceptions
    JEL: J15 J68 R29
    Date: 2022–03–21
  9. By: Jonathan Gruber; Adrienne Sabety; Rishi Sood; Jin Yung Bae
    Abstract: In 2016, New York City designed and implemented an intervention reducing frictions in accessing safety-net care: randomly making initial primary care appointments for 2,428 undocumented immigrants. We leverage a novel survey-administrative data linkage to show that the program resulted in a more efficient allocation of care. The program increased self-reported access to primary care, leading to a 21% fall in emergency department (ED) use. This effect was driven by high-risk individuals whose ED visits fell by 42% on average. Among those visiting sponsored clinics, chronic condition diagnoses and preventive screens increased, positively affecting long-run health.
    JEL: I10 I14 I18 J15 J61
    Date: 2022–03
  10. By: Berger, Johannes; Strohner, Ludwig
    Abstract: Labour market developments in the Euro area diverged significantly since 2008. Economic literature frequently refers to labour mobility as pillar for the functioning of currency areas. Applying the CGE model PuMA, we quantitatively analyse to what extent labour mobility can contribute to reducing imbalances within the Euro area. Our results indicate that it can temporarily reduce unemployment and increase wages in periphery countries at the cost of somewhat higher unemployment in receiving countries. Overall, economic outcomes improve slightly. Although labour mobility has a positive effect on labour market imbalances, it cannot be seen as substitute for structural reforms.
    Keywords: international migration,wage level and structure,unemployment,general equilibrium models,Euro area
    JEL: F22 D58 J11 J31 J61 J64
    Date: 2022

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