nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒03‒21
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Parental age gaps among immigrants and their descendants: adaptation across time and generations? By Uggla, Caroline; Wilson, Ben
  2. Spousal Visa Policy and Mixed-Citizenship Couples: Evidence from the End of the Defense Of Marriage Act By Redpath, Connor
  3. Integrating Refugees by Addressing Labor Shortages? A Policy Evaluation By Mette Foged; Janis Kreuder; Giovanni Peri
  4. Occupational Regulation, Institutions, and Migrants' Labor Market Outcomes By Koumenta, Maria; Pagliero, Mario; Rostam-Afschar, Davud
  5. Social Networks and (Political) Assimilation in the Age of Mass Migration By Biavaschi, Costanza; Giulietti, Corrado; Zenou, Yves
  6. Refugee Migration and the Labor Market: Lessons from 40 Years of Post-arrival Policies in Denmark By Jacob Nielsen Arendt; Christian Dustmann; Hyejin Ku
  7. Investigation into the rationale of migration intention due to air pollution integrating the Homo Oeconomicus traits By Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Le, Tam-Tri; Quang-Loc, Nguyen; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang
  8. Brain drain out of the blue: pollution-induced migration in a developing country By Khuc, Quy Van; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Le, Tam-Tri; Nguyen, Truc-Le; Nguyen, Thuy; Vuong, Quan-Hoang

  1. By: Uggla, Caroline; Wilson, Ben
    Abstract: Age gaps between partners have undergone dramatic changes in high-income countries over the past century. Yet, there has been little focus on age gaps for immigrants and their descendants. This is an important omission because age gaps can be interpreted as a macro-level indicator of intergenerational adaptation. We examine the age gaps of biological parents (childbearing partners) among immigrants and their descendants in Sweden, a country with high gender equality and a stable mean age gap. Using longitudinal, whole-population data, we examine changes in age gaps for cohorts born 1950–86. Cohort trends in age gaps often follow very different patterns for male and female immigrants, with limited evidence of adaptation across cohorts. However, there is considerable evidence of adaptation towards the Swedish norm among the second generation, including from direct comparison between immigrants and their children. The largest differences between women and men are seen among the first generation with a Swedish-born partner.
    Keywords: adaptation; age difference; binational partnership; descendants of immigrants; immigrants; intermarriage; partnership; 948727 (REFU-GEN
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2021–12–23
  2. By: Redpath, Connor (University of California, San Diego)
    Abstract: I compare mixed-citizenship couple formation under an immigration policy granting spousal visas to one without spousal visas, by leveraging federal same-sex marriage recognition from ending the Defense of Marriage Act. I estimate changes in mixed-citizenship same-sex couple counts and marriage counts, accounting for changes in other same-sex and other mixed-citizenship couples, using a triple difference design. Spousal visa access increases mixed-citizenship coupling by 36%, and mixed-citizenship marriages by 78%. Transfer benefits, health insurance, roommates, moving, or state-level heterogeneity do not explain the results. Informal calculations suggest 1.5 million people are currently together thanks to spousal visas.
    Date: 2022–02–11
  3. By: Mette Foged; Janis Kreuder; Giovanni Peri
    Abstract: We evaluate the effect on newly arrived refugees' employment of a policy, introduced in Denmark in 2013, that matched refugees to occupations with local labor shortages after basic training for those jobs. Leveraging the staggered roll-out across municipalities, we find that the policy increased employment by 5-6 percentage points one year after arrival and 10 percentage points two years after. The policy was especially effective for male refugees and refugees with some secondary education. The findings suggest that this type of policy could alleviate long-term labor shortages and integrate low-skilled immigrants, while having minimal competition effects on natives.
    JEL: J24 J61
    Date: 2022–02
  4. By: Koumenta, Maria; Pagliero, Mario; Rostam-Afschar, Davud
    Abstract: We study how licensing, certification and unionisation affect the wages of natives and migrants and their representation among licensed, certified, and unionized workers. We provide evidence of a dual role of labor market institutions, which both screen workers based on unobservable characteristics and also provide them with wage setting power. Labor market institutions confer significant wage premia to native workers (3.9, 1.6, and 2.7 log points for licensing, certification, and unionization respectively), due to screening and wage setting power. Wage premia are significantly larger for licensed and certified migrants (10.2 and 6.6 log points), reflecting a more intense screening of migrant than native workers. The representation of migrants among licensed (but not certified or unionized) workers is 14% lower than that of natives. This implies a more intense screening of migrants by licensing institutions than by certification and unionization.
    Keywords: Occupational regulation,Licensing,Certification,Unionization,Migration,Wages
    JEL: J61 J31 J44 J71 J16
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Biavaschi, Costanza; Giulietti, Corrado; Zenou, Yves
    Abstract: This paper investigates the causal pathways through which ethnic social networks influence individual naturalization. Using the complete-count Census of 1930, we digitize information on the exact residence of newly arrived immigrants in New York City. This allows us to define networks with a granularity detail that was not used before for historical data - the Census block - and therefore to overcome issues of spatial sorting. By matching individual observations with the complete-count Census of 1940, we estimate the impact that the exogenous fraction of naturalized co-ethnics in the network observed in 1930 has on the probability of immigrants to acquire citizenship a decade later. Our results indicate that the concentration of naturalized co-ethnics in the network positively affects individual naturalization and that this relationship operates through one main channel: information dissemination. Indeed, immigrants who live among naturalized co-ethnics are more likely to naturalize because they have greater access to critical information about the benefits and procedures of naturalization.
    Keywords: Social networks,assimilation,naturalization,migration
    JEL: J61 J62 N32 Z1
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Jacob Nielsen Arendt (Jacob Nielsen Arendt); Christian Dustmann (Christian Dustmann); Hyejin Ku (Hyejin Ku)
    Abstract: Denmark has accepted refugees from a large variety of countries and for more than four decades. Denmark has also frequently changed policies and regulations concerning integration programs, transfer payments, and conditions for permanent residency. Such policy variation in conjunction with excellent administrative data provides an ideal laboratory to evaluate the effects of different immigration and integration policies on the outcomes of refugee immigrants. In this article, we first describe the Danish experience with refugee immigration over the past four decades. We then review different post-arrival refugee policies and summarize studies that evaluate their effects on the labor market performance of refugees. Lastly, we discuss and contrast these findings in the context of international studies of similar policies and draw conclusions for policy.
    Keywords: refugee integration, immigration policies, labor supply, employment, language
    JEL: J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2022–03
  7. By: Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Le, Tam-Tri; Quang-Loc, Nguyen; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang
    Abstract: Air pollution is a considerable environmental stressor for urban residents in developing countries. Perceived health risks of air pollution might induce migration intention among inhabitants. The current study employed the Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) to investigate the rationale behind the domestic and international migration intentions among 475 inhabitants in Hanoi, Vietnam – one of the most polluted capital cities worldwide. We found that people perceiving more impacts of air pollution in their daily life are more likely to have migration intention. The effect of perceived air pollution impact on international migration intention is stronger than that of domestic migration. Acknowledging a family member’s air pollution-induced sickness moderated the association between perceived air pollution impact and domestic migration intention, while the personal experience of air pollution-induced sickness did not. In contrast, the moderation effect of personal experience of sickness became significant in the international migration circumstance, but the effect of information about a family member’s sickness was trivial. The findings suggest that urban inhabitants’ consideration of air pollution averting strategies reflects some characteristics of Homo Oeconomicus. Additionally, the individual’s socio-economic decision is seemingly insignificant on a social scale. Still, through environmental stressors as catalysts, such decisions might result in considerable social outcomes (e.g., internal migration and emigration).
    Date: 2021–11–11
  8. By: Khuc, Quy Van; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Le, Tam-Tri; Nguyen, Truc-Le; Nguyen, Thuy; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
    Abstract: Due to perceived risks of air pollution in urban areas, inhabitants may develop intentions of migrating to another place with better air quality. The brain drain phenomenon occurs when talented workforces leave their current living places, causing serious loss of valuable human resources. The complex interactions among demographic factors that may influence migration intention require deeper investigation. Based on the theoretical foundation of the Mindsponge framework of information processing, we employ Bayesian analysis on a dataset of 475 citizens in Hanoi, Vietnam. We found the existence of the brain drain effect for both domestic and international migration intentions induced by air pollution concerns. Regarding intentions to migrate domestically, the probability is higher for young people and males than their counterparts. Our findings suggest environmental stressors can induce changes in citizen displacement on a large scale through the psychological mechanism of personal cost-benefit evaluation. Furthermore, policymakers need to consider the long-term negative effects of air pollution on human resources and strive to build an ‘eco-surplus culture’ for improving environmental sustainability and socio-economic resilience.
    Date: 2021–11–13

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