nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒03‒14
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Cumulative Climate Shocks and Migratory Flows: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Di Falco, Salvatore; Kis, Anna B.; Viarengo, Martina
  2. Environmental Factors and Internal Migration in India By Komeda, Kenji
  3. Air pollution and emigration behaviors – evidence of Hanoi By 子, 鬼谷
  4. The impacts of rural outmigration on women’s empowerment: Evidence from Nepal, Senegal, and Tajikistan By Slavchevska, Vanya; Doss, Cheryl R.; Hillesland, Marya; Mane, Erdgin
  5. Limbo or Leverage? Asylum Waiting and Refugee Integration By Aslund, Olof; Engdahl, Mattias; Rosenqvist, Olof
  6. Heterogeneous Peer Effects under Endogenous Selection: An Application to Local and Migrant Children in Elementary Schools in Shanghai By Chen, Yuanyuan; Feng, Shuaizhang; Yang, Chao
  7. Changes in perceptions of border security influence desired levels of immigration By Briggs, Ryan C; Solodoch, Omer
  8. Does Over-Education Raise Productivity And Wages Equally ? The Moderating Role Of Workers’ Origin And Immigrants’ Background By Valentine Jacobs; François Rycx; Mélanie Volral
  9. Effectiveness of WhatsApp for measuring migration in follow-up phone surveys - Lessons from a mode experiment in two low-income countries during COVID contact restrictions By Ndashimye, Felix; Hebie, Oumarou; Tjaden, Jasper

  1. By: Di Falco, Salvatore (University of Geneva); Kis, Anna B. (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva); Viarengo, Martina (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva)
    Abstract: We re-examine the effects of negative weather anomalies during the growing season on the decision to migrate in rural households in five sub-Saharan African countries. To this end we combine a multi-country household panel dataset with high-resolution gridded precipitation data. We find that while the effect of recent adverse weather shocks is on average modest, the cumulative effect of a persistent exposure to droughts over several years leads to a significant increase in the probability to migrate. The results show that more frequent adverse shocks can have more significant and long-lasting consequences in challenging economic environments.
    Keywords: climate shocks, rural-urban migration, economic development
    JEL: O15 O13 Q54
    Date: 2022–02
  2. By: Komeda, Kenji (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the effect of air pollution, water pollution and water scarcity on internal migration in India using gravity model with 2SLS estimation. It contributes to the literature by first incorporating nationwide migrants and those three environmental factors into the analysis. The migration data is drawn from the Indian Census 2001 and 2011 and provides us with state-district pair-wise migration flows for certain time periods. With a wide range of data sources including Indian government platforms and satellite data, this study compiles a rich and comprehensive dataset. We find that the increase in air pollutant (PM2.5) at origin pushes out migrants, with larger influence on male than female. This paper also discovers, with more robust evidence, that the increase in groundwater level, a proxy for water scarcity level, at origin leads to less out-migrants and increase in groundwater at destination pulls more in-migrants for both genders. However, consistent evidence on water pollutants was not found.
    Keywords: Internal Migration ; Pollution ; Water Scarcity ; Gender Inequality ; Gravity Model JEL Classification: J16 ; J61 ; O15 ; Q25 ; Q53
    Date: 2021
  3. By: 子, 鬼谷
    Abstract: Expeditious increase in population and industrialization has led to alarming rates of air pollution in all countries. However, developing economies have had to face a more adverse and severe impact. This had led to many changes in the day to day living of citizens. In this paper we have focused on the psychological process and predictors of migration intention of the people living in Hanoi, Vietnam. Two stratified random datasets of 475 people were used, and Bayesian analysis was performed on this dataset. We found out that the intent to move was negatively associated to the individual’s satisfaction with air quality. We also found that people who have family members that have fallen victim to a disease caused by air pollution are more likely to migrate. This paper discusses an important topic: immigration of the younger demographic, i.e. the Hanoi workforce, which may cause restrictions and hurdles in the city's urbanisation and development. The findings suggest that, if measures against air pollution are not taken, economic forces may be disrupted, posing a threat to urban growth. As a result, collaborative activities and steps need to be taken by the government to curb this unfortunate consequence.
    Date: 2021–12–22
  4. By: Slavchevska, Vanya; Doss, Cheryl R.; Hillesland, Marya; Mane, Erdgin
    Abstract: Using primary survey data collected in Tajikistan, Nepal and Senegal, three countries with high male outmigration rates, this study analyzes the impacts of migration on the empowerment of women who remain in rural areas. The study uses indicators from the Abbreviate Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (A-WEAI) to measure women’s empowerment in five domains (decision-making autonomy around agricultural production, resources, control over income, group membership and workload) and instrumental variable approaches to address the endogeneity between the migration of a family member and women’s empowerment. It finds that male outmigration leads to women’s empowerment in agriculture in some domains and disempowerment in others. In Tajikistan, where women start with low levels of empowerment, women in households with a migrant are more likely to be involved in decisions in productive activities on the household farm, control income, own assets and achieve workload balance than women in non-migrant households. In Nepal and Senegal, women start at higher levels of empowerment and we see fewer differences in their empowerment based on whether they live in a migrant-sending household. The impacts of migration on empowerment depend on the context, whether the household receives remittances or owns land, and women’s position within the household.
    Keywords: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; SENEGAL; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; TAJIKISTAN; CENTRAL ASIA; ASIA; rural urban migration; gender; women; women's empowerment; decision making; households; rural areas; urban areas; migration; rural outmigration; Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Aslund, Olof (Uppsala University); Engdahl, Mattias (IFAU); Rosenqvist, Olof (IFAU)
    Abstract: We study the impact of asylum waiting, exploiting a rapid increase in processing times for asylum seekers to Sweden. Longer waiting slows down integration. Accumulated earnings during the first four years after application are 2.3 percent lower per added month of waiting. The impact is due to delay rather than negative effects of waiting per se. There is no evidence of detrimental effects on psychiatric or other forms of health. From the date of asylum, those who have waited longer perform better in the labor market and are more likely to start advanced language training and labor market programs.
    Keywords: asylum waiting, labor market, health
    JEL: F22 J15 J68
    Date: 2022–02
  6. By: Chen, Yuanyuan (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics); Feng, Shuaizhang (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics); Yang, Chao (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics)
    Abstract: This paper develops a model that allows for heterogenous contemporaneous peer effects among different types of agents who are endogenously selected into different peer groups. Using our framework, we characterize the reduced-form coefficient in the peer effect literature and show that it is a priori ambiguous in sign. We apply our approach to migrant and local students in Shanghai, where local students all go to public schools, but migrant students are endogenously selected into either public schools or lower-quality private schools. The results suggest large contemporaneous peer effects among all student groups. We conduct policy experiments to examine the effect of transferring migrant students from private schools to public schools. We show that peer effect can be substantially more important than the school effect in accounting for the total treatment effect of moving to better schools.
    Keywords: peer effects, sample selection, education, migrant children
    JEL: C31 C34 I21
    Date: 2022–02
  7. By: Briggs, Ryan C (Virginia Tech); Solodoch, Omer
    Abstract: Security concerns about immigration are on the rise. Many countries respond by fortifying their borders. Yet little is known about the influence of border security measures on perceived threat from immigration. Borders might facilitate group identities and spread fear of outsiders. In contrast, they might enhance citizens' sense of security and control over immigration. We test these claims using survey experiments run on a nationally representative sample of over 1,000 Americans. The findings show that allocating more government resources to border security increases desired levels of immigration. This effect is likely driven by a sense of control over immigration, induced by border security measures even when the number or characteristics of immigrants remain unchanged. Our findings suggest that border controls, which are widely considered as symbols of closure and isolation, can promote openness to immigration.
    Date: 2021–12–06
  8. By: Valentine Jacobs (Université de Mons (Soci&ter) and Université libre de Bruxelles (CEBRIG and DULBEA)); François Rycx (Université libre de Bruxelles (CEBRIG and DULBEA), GLO, IRES, IZA, Soci&ter); Mélanie Volral (Université de Mons (Soci&ter) and DULBEA)
    Abstract: We provide first evidence of the impact of over-education, among natives and immigrants, on firmlevel productivity and wages. We use Belgian linked panel data and rely on the methodology from Hellerstein et al. (1999) to estimate ORU (over-, required, and under-education) equations aggregated at the firm level. Our results show that the over-education wage premium is higher for natives than for immigrants. However, since the differential in productivity gains associated with over-education between natives and immigrants outweighs the corresponding wage premium differential, we conclude – based on OLS and dynamic GMM-SYS estimates – that over-educated native workers are in fact underpaid to a greater extent than their over-educated immigrant counterparts. This conclusion is refined by sensitivity analyses, when testing the role of immigrants’ background (e.g. region of birth, immigrant generation, age at arrival in the host country, tenure).
    Keywords: Immigrants, over-education, productivity, wages, linked panel data, Belgium
    JEL: J24 J71
    Date: 2022–02–07
  9. By: Ndashimye, Felix; Hebie, Oumarou; Tjaden, Jasper
    Abstract: Phone surveys have increasingly become important data collection tools in developing countries, particularly in the context of sudden contact restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Phone surveys offer particular potential for migration scholars aiming to study cross-border migration behavior. Geographic change of location over time complicates the logistics of face-to-face surveys and heavily increases costs. There is, however, limited evidence of the effectiveness of the phone survey modes in different geographic settings more generally, and in migration research more specifically. In this field experiment, we compared the response rates between WhatsApp—a relatively new but increasingly important survey mode—and interactive voice response (IVR) modes, using a sample of 8446 contacts in Senegal and Guinea. At 12%, WhatsApp survey response rates were nearly eight percentage points lower than IVR survey response rates. However, WhatsApp offers higher survey completion rates, substantially lower costs and does not introduce more sample selection bias compared to IVR. We discuss the potential of WhatsApp surveys in low-income contexts and provide practical recommendations for field implementation.
    Date: 2021–12–06

This nep-mig issue is ©2022 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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