nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒02‒28
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Life Out of the Shadows: Impacts of Amnesties in the Lives of Migrants By Ibanez, Ana Maria; Moya, Andres; Ortega, María Adelaida; Rozo, Sandra V.; Urbina, Maria José
  2. Cash Transfers and Migration: Theory and Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial By Jules Gazeaud; Eric Mvukiyehe; Olivier Sterck
  3. Syrian Refugees and Human Capital Accumulation of Native Children in Turkey By Çakır, Selcen; Erbay, Elif; Kirdar, Murat G.
  4. Examining the Relations between Household Saving Rate of Rural Areas and Migration By Fuhao Lou
  5. Migration and gender dynamics of irrigation governance in Nepal By Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Pradhan, Prachanda; Zhang, Wei
  6. Does Parental Absence Harm Children's Education? Evidence from Vietnam By Nguyen, Cuong Viet; Vu, Linh Hoang
  7. Climate and Migration By Katrin Millock; Cees Withagen
  8. Migration on the Rise, a Paradigm in Decline: The Last Half-Century of Global Mobility By Clemens, Michael A.
  9. Efficacy of US Immigration Policies: What Do Available Evidence Suggest? By John, Raju
  10. The devil is in the detail: measuring intra-EU labour migration By Fenwick, Clare
  11. Labor Mobility and Innovation in Africa By Mbaye, Linguère Mously; Okara, Assi; Tani, Massimiliano

  1. By: Ibanez, Ana Maria (Inter-American Development Bank); Moya, Andres (Universidad de los Andes); Ortega, María Adelaida (University of California, Davis); Rozo, Sandra V. (World Bank); Urbina, Maria José (World Bank)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of a government regularization program offered to half a million Venezuelan refugees in Colombia. For this purpose, 2,232 surveys of refugee families were collected and used to compare refugees who arrived in Colombia around a specified eligibility date in 2018. We find that program beneficiaries experienced improvements in consumption (60 percent), income (31 percent), physical and mental health (1.8 sd), registration rates in the system that assesses vulnerability and awards public transfers (40 pp), and financial services (64.3 pp), relative to other refugees. The program also induced a change in labor formalization of 10 pp.
    Keywords: migration, refugees, amnesties, Latin America
    JEL: F22 O15 R23
    Date: 2022–01
  2. By: Jules Gazeaud (NOVA - Universidade Nova de Lisboa = NOVA University Lisbon); Eric Mvukiyehe; Olivier Sterck
    Abstract: Will the fast expansion of cash-based programming in poor countries increase international migration? Theoretically, cash transfers may deter migration by increasing its opportunity cost, or favor migration by relaxing liquidity, credit, and risk constraints. This paper evaluates the impact of a cash-for-work program on migration. Randomly selected households in Comoros were offered up to US$320 in cash in exchange for their participation in public works projects. We find that the program increased international migration by 38 percent, from 7.8% to 10.8%.
    Keywords: Migration,Cash Transfers,Financial Constraints,Risk-aversion,Comoros,Mayotte,Anjouan
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Çakır, Selcen (Bogazici University); Erbay, Elif (Istanbul University); Kirdar, Murat G. (Bogazici University)
    Abstract: Turkey hosts the highest number of refugees in the world. The arrival of Syrian refugees has significantly changed the relative abundance of different skill groups in Turkey and the labor market conditions. This paper examines how this massive refugee influx affects native working-age children's school enrollment and employment outcomes using a difference-indifferences IV methodology. We find that employment of both boys and girls falls substantially, but a large fraction of this fall stems from the transition of children who used to combine school and work into school only. School enrollment increases only for boys, and this is stronger for boys with more educated parents. The incidence of being neither in employment nor in education or training (NEET) increases among girls, particularly for those with less-educated parents, but not among boys. In fact, the NEET incidence drops for boys with more-educated parents.
    Keywords: syrian refugees, school enrollment, employment, child work, education, NEET, Turkey
    JEL: I25 J61
    Date: 2021–12
  4. By: Fuhao Lou
    Abstract: China has been developing very fast since the beginning of the 21st century. The net income of households has been increased a lot as well. Nonetheless, migration from rural areas to urban sectors tends to keep a high saving rate instead of consumption. This essay tries to use the conventional Ordinary Least Square regression, along with the method of Instrument Variable to test the problem of endogeneity, to discover the relationship between the saving rates of rural households and labor migration, controlling for other characteristic variables including having insurance, marital status, education, having children, health conditions. The assumption is that migration contributes positively to the dependent variable, meaning that migration could increase the household save rates. However, the conclusion is that it is negatively with the household save rates. All the other variables regarding education, health conditions, marital status, insurance, and number of children are negatively related with the household saving rates.
    Date: 2022–01
  5. By: Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Pradhan, Prachanda; Zhang, Wei
    Abstract: Nepal has a long history of irrigation, including government and farmer-managed irrigation systems that are labor- and skill-intensive. Widespread male migration has important effects on Nepalese society. How institutions such as Water Users’ Associations (WUAs) respond and adapt, is therefore critical to the understanding of rural transformation and the likely impact on gender equality, food production, and rural livelihoods. This paper examines the effects of male migration on institutional change in WUAs, women’s roles, technological change, and outcomes affecting effectiveness of irrigation systems based on a mixed methods study, combining a phone survey of 336 WUA leaders from all provinces in Nepal with qualitative data from case studies in 10 irrigation systems. Results indicate WUAs have adapted rules to increase women’s participation and monetize the contributions for maintenance. Women exercise agency in whether and how to interact with WUAs. Mechanization has reduced the need for some male labor, though the ability to mechanize is limited by hilly terrain and small plot sizes. Overall, systems are adapting to male migration, with relatively low idling of land or labor shortages causing deterioration of the systems, though there are concerns with the high levels of women’s labor burdens.
    Keywords: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; migration; gender; governance; irrigation; technology; feminization; agriculture; water; Water Users’ Associations
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Nguyen, Cuong Viet; Vu, Linh Hoang
    Abstract: This study uses a large-scale dataset from Vietnam to analyze the impacts of parental absence due to migration, death, or divorce on children's school enrollment, for children aged from 7 to 22. We find children from two-parent families have a better chance of enrolling at all levels of education than those from single-parent families. Within single-family types, the negative effect on children of parental divorce is higher than that of parental death, while the effect of parental migration is the lowest. Comparing the effect of single-father and single-mother households, we find that children living with a single mother tend to have higher school enrollment than those living with a single father, indicating the critical role of mothers in children's education.
    Keywords: Children,Young,Education,Vietnam
    JEL: I1 I2 O1
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Katrin Millock (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Cees Withagen (VU - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam [Amsterdam])
    Abstract: We review some of the recent estimates of the effect of weather and climate on migration, and articles examining the historical evidence of such links. We identify four issues that have received less attention in previous reviews on the topic. The first one is general equilibrium effects of climate change and migration. The second one concerns accounting for thresholds in the climate-migration relationship. Some of the articles that we review incorporate non-linear effects, but only in the relation between income and migration, and in the relation between weather, climate and migration. Other thresholds are not yet incorporated into the literature. A third issue where much work remains to be done relates to climate change and conflict, and their influence on migration. Finally, we conclude with some reflections on the implications of the results for economic development.
    Date: 2021–12–28
  8. By: Clemens, Michael A. (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: The past several decades have witnessed a rebirth of global labor mobility. Workers have begun to move between countries at rates not seen since before World War One. During the same period, economists' study of international migration has been framed by a particular textbook model of location choice. This paper reviews the evidence on the economic causes and effects of global migration during the past half century. That evidence falsifies most of the core predictions of the old model. The economics of migration will regain vitality and relevance by discarding and replacing its outworn paradigm.
    Keywords: labor, immigration, emigration, selection, impact, wages, employment, roy model, production, globalization, history
    JEL: F22 J61 O15
    Date: 2022–01
  9. By: John, Raju
    Abstract: This paper tries to gather available evidences pertaining to the potential effects of changes in immigration policies of United States of America (USA), the top global emigrant destination. USA government seems to go ahead with restrictions on emigration to USA. In this context, this paper attempts to examine the efficacy of such curbs using available historical and empirical evidence. It is important to gather evidence pertaining to potential impact of such curbs as they are likely to depress global emigrant flows considerably. This is likely to induce negative shocks on nations who send large number of emigrants (for ex: India). The paper is expected to provide some information regarding the historical/empirical evidence pertinent to actual association between immigration policies and immigration so that stakeholder community of emigration systems of these nations can be more realistic in their approach towards immigration curbs in USA and other major destinations.
    Keywords: Migration, Emigration, Immigration, Policies, USA, DEMIG data.
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Fenwick, Clare (Studio Europe Maastricht, RS: Studio Europa Maastricht, Research Centre for Educ and Labour Mark)
    Abstract: Freedom of movement is a fundamental principle of the European Union (EU) and yet this key pillar of European integration has become a topic of controversy as member states find their labour markets under pressure. This article examines key trends in intra-EU labour migration and explores what existing migration data has to offer researchers studying EU migration related research questions.
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2022–02–17
  11. By: Mbaye, Linguère Mously (African Development Bank); Okara, Assi (CNRS); Tani, Massimiliano (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: We develop a theoretical model to investigate whether short-term mobility differentially affects innovation in product or process and carry out an empirical analysis with a focus on Africa using firm-level data from the World Bank Enterprise Survey, as well as complementary country level information collected by the World Bank, the World Trade Organisation, and the United Nations. We find that labor mobility positively affects innovation: on average, a 10% increase in the flow of international visits per 10,000 inhabitants is associated with a 0.4 increase in the probability to innovate in products/services or process, supporting the use of labor mobility as an effective mechanism to diffuse productive knowledge and foster innovation. The probability of innovation as a result of short-term mobility is 0.4 higher in Africa overall – especially in East Africa – vis-à-vis the rest of the world, and strongest in the case of innovation in products and services rather than process, suggesting limited capability to produce entirely within the continent. The results are robust to a variety of approaches controlling for endogeneity, which include a control function approach and the use of an instrumental variable based on a gravity model. Focusing only on arrivals for business and professional purposes, our findings show stronger evidence that African firms are more likely to innovate as a result of short-term mobility compared to the rest of the world.
    Keywords: innovation, labor mobility, Africa
    JEL: F20 F22 J24 J61 O14 O55
    Date: 2022–01

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