nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2022‒02‒21
sixteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Left behind in Mexico but not immobile By Simone Bertoli; Elsa Gautrain; Elie Murard
  2. Heterogeneous Peer Effects under Endogenous Selection: An Application to Local and Migrant Children in Elementary Schools in Shanghai By Chen, Yuanyuan; Feng, Shuaizhang; Yang, Chao
  3. Mobility of novice teachers By Torberg Falch; Bjarne Strøm
  4. The legacies of armed conflict: insights from stayees and returning forced migrants By Isabel Ruiz; Carlos Vargas-Silva
  5. The 2015 refugee inflow and concerns over immigration By Gallegos Torres, Katia
  6. Does Over-education Raise Productivity and Wages Equally? The Moderating Role of Workers' Origin and Immigrants' Background By Jacobs, Valentine; Rycx, François; Volral, Mélanie
  7. How do firms adjust to a negative labor supply shock? Evidence form migration outflows By Emanuele Dicarlo
  8. The Great Migration and Educational Opportunity By Cavit Baran; Eric Chyn; Bryan Stuart
  9. The effects of male migration on irrigation systems in Nepal By Pradhan, Prachanda; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Zhang, Wei
  10. Relationship Between Migration Promotion Policies in Local Governments and Population Movement―Text Analysis of the Local Comprehensive Strategies for Rural Revitalization (Japanese) By ARAKAWA Kiyoaki; NOYORI Shuhei; NAKATA Toshiyuki
  11. Task specialization and the native-foreign wage gap: Evidence from worker-level data By Storm, Eduard
  12. Holistic refugee and newcomer education in Europe: Mapping, upscaling and institutionalising promising practices from Germany, Greece and the Netherlands By Claudia Koehler; Nektaria Palaiologou; Ottavia Brussino
  13. Climate and Migration By Katrin Millock; Cees Withagen
  14. Social and emotional learning (SEL) of newcomer and refugee students: Beliefs, practices and implications for policies across OECD countries By Jody McBrien
  15. Syrian refugees in Turkey By Simone Bertoli; Çağlar Özden; Michael Packard
  16. Secular Stagnation: Is Immigration part of the solution? By José Alves; Sandro Morgado

  1. By: Simone Bertoli (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Elsa Gautrain (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Elie Murard
    Abstract: Most Mexican children exposed to the international migration of their fathers experience further changes in their living arrangements. A large share of them is exposed to the separation of their parents, and/or to the co-residence with their maternal grandparents. These changes have important implications for the analysis of the effects of migration and remittances on the individuals left behind.
    Abstract: La plupart des enfants mexicains exposés à la migration internationale de leur père connaissent d'autres changements majeurs. Une grande partie d'entre eux sont exposés à la séparation de leurs parents et/ou cohabitent avec leurs grands-parents maternels. Ces changements entraînent des conséquences importantes pour l'analyse des effets de la migration et des transferts de fonds sur les individus qui restent dans les pays d'origine.
    Keywords: envois de fonds,enfants,migration,structure du ménage
    Date: 2021–10
  2. By: Chen, Yuanyuan; Feng, Shuaizhang; Yang, Chao
    Abstract: This paper develops a model that allows for heterogenous contemporaneous peer effects among different types of agents who are endogenously selected into different peer groups. Using our framework, we characterize the reduced-form coefficient in the peer effect literature and show that it is a priori ambiguous in sign. We apply our approach to migrant and local students in Shanghai, where local students all go to public schools, but migrant students are endogenously selected into either public schools or lower-quality private schools. The results suggest large contemporaneous peer effects among all student groups. We conduct policy experiments to examine the effect of transferring migrant students from private schools to public schools. We show that peer effect can be substantially more important than the school effect in accounting for the total treatment effect of moving to better schools.
    Keywords: Peer Effects,Sample Selection,Education,Migrant Children
    JEL: C31 C34 I21
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Torberg Falch (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology); Bjarne Strøm (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: This paper examines the propensity for graduates from teacher education to work as a teacher in the home region after graduation. We use Norwegian administrative register data and present descriptive statistics and results from regression models. On average, those returning to a teacher position in the home region tend to have lower measured academic ability from higher education than others. Females and parents without higher education are also associated with a higher probability to work as a teacher in the home region. This propensity is not significantly associated with the localization of teacher education in the home region, but strongly related to the population of the region. The results suggest that the types of teachers often believed to be underrepresented in schools have the lowest attachment to their home region and the teacher profession.
    Keywords: Teacher mobility; Novice teachers; Teacher education; Teacher attrition; Teacher characteristics
    Date: 2021–12–22
  4. By: Isabel Ruiz; Carlos Vargas-Silva
    Abstract: How does conflict, displacement, and return shape trust, reconciliation, and community engagement? And what is the relative impact of exposure to violence on these indicators? In this paper we explore these questions by focusing on the legacies of armed conflict and the differences between those who stayed in their communities of origin during the conflict (stayees) and those who were displaced internally and internationally and who returned home over time (returnees).
    Keywords: Trust, Conflict, Forced migration
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Gallegos Torres, Katia
    Abstract: How did the large asylum-seeker inflow to Germany in 2015 affect concerns about immigration? Using individual-level panel data for the years 2012-2018, I show that after 2015 concerns about immigration increased by about 21 pp. and support for extreme right-wing parties by about 1.7 pp. These trends show considerable heterogeneity for different demographic groups. Using a policy that allocates asylum- seekers to districts I identify the effect of exposure to asylum-seekers. In line with the contact hypothesis, living in a high refugee migration district reduced concerns about immigration by 3 pp. The effect appears larger for right- leaning respondents but is otherwise similar across demographic groups.
    Keywords: immigration,refugees,attitudes,concerns about immigration
    JEL: J15 D72 P16 R23
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Jacobs, Valentine; Rycx, François; Volral, Mélanie
    Abstract: We provide first evidence of the impact of over-education, among natives and immigrants, on firm-level productivity and wages. We use Belgian linked panel data and rely on the methodology from Hellerstein et al. (1999) to estimate ORU (over-, required, and under-education) equations aggregated at the firm level. Our results show that the over-education wage premium is higher for natives than for immigrants. However, since the differential in productivity gains associated with over-education between natives and immigrants outweighs the corresponding wage premium differential, we conclude - based on OLS and dynamic GMM-SYS estimates - that over-educated native workers are in fact underpaid to a greater extent than their over-educated immigrant counterparts. This conclusion is refined by sensitivity analyses, when testing the role of immigrants' background (e.g. region of birth, immigrant generation, age at arrival in the host country, tenure).
    Keywords: Immigrants,over-education,productivity,wages,linked panel data,Belgium
    JEL: J24 J71
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Emanuele Dicarlo (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper studies adjustments of Italian firms to negative labor supply shocks in the context of workers’ outflows from Italy to Switzerland. My diff-in-diff leverages a policy in which Switzerland granted free labor market mobility to EU citizens and different treatment intensity of Italian firms based on their distance to the Swiss border. Using detailed social security data on the universe of Italian firms and workers, I document large (12 percentage points higher) outflows of workers and fewer (2.5 percentage points) surviving firms in the treatment group relative to control. Despite replacing workers and becoming more capital intensive, treated firms are less productive and pay lower wages. In line with the brain drain literature, I show how adverse effects of large outflows of workers operate through firms that workers leave. I provide suggestive evidence that highskill intensive firms are the main driver of the negative results on wages and productivity. Low skill intensive firms instead suffer less from losing workers and provide new job opportunities for the workers who do not migrate.
    Keywords: migration, labor supply, skills, firms
    JEL: F22 J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2022–02
  8. By: Cavit Baran; Eric Chyn; Bryan Stuart
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of the First Great Migration on children. We use the complete count 1940 Census to estimate selection-corrected place effects on education for children of Black migrants. On average, Black children gained 0.8 years of schooling (12 percent) by moving from the South to the North. Many counties that had the strongest positive impacts on children during the 1940s offer relatively poor opportunities for Black youth today. Opportunities for Black children were greater in places with more schooling investment, stronger labor market opportunities for Black adults, more social capital, and less crime.
    Keywords: Great Migration; human capital; education; place effect.
    JEL: N32 J15 J24 H75
    Date: 2022–02–08
  9. By: Pradhan, Prachanda; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Zhang, Wei
    Abstract: Widespread male migration from rural areas is a major force shaping agrarian transformation in Nepal. One particularly important area affected is the governance and management of irrigation systems. The resilience of systems to the effects of male migration is likely to depend on whether (and how) the men’s contributions to the system are met. This highlights the importance of understanding how Water Users’ Associations' (WUAs) organizational functioning evolves, internal and external factors driving the evolution process, the extent of technical and institutional innovation, and the outcomes in terms of system functioning.
    Keywords: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; gender; men; women's participation; migration; irrigation; policies; technology; Water Users’ Associations (WUAs); male migration
    Date: 2021
  10. By: ARAKAWA Kiyoaki; NOYORI Shuhei; NAKATA Toshiyuki
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of policies in the local comprehensive strategies for rural revitalization and investigate how such policies are related to migration from large cities to local communities. We conducted text mining, factor analysis, and regression analysis using a modified gravity model. Our study demonstrated the following two points: First, the local comprehensive strategies for rural revitalization consist of ten latent factors: local community, human resource development, education, immigration and settlement, medical care and welfare, public transportation, cooperation, child rearing, public relations, and sports. Second, after adjusting for socioeconomic variables using a modified gravity model, the latent factor of "cooperation" is positively related to population movement from large cities, while the remaining nine factors are not. The specifics of the comprehensive strategies should be examined in detail and effective policies to promote migration from large cities to local communities should be investigated in further studies.
    Date: 2021–12
  11. By: Storm, Eduard
    Abstract: Running RIF regressions to decompose wage differences along the distribution, this is the first study documenting that worker-level variation in tasks has played a key role in the widening of the German Native-Foreign Wage Gap. Comparing variation in Individual- vs Occupation-level task measures suggests idiosyncratic differences account for up to 34% of the explained wage gap. Importantly, natives specialize in high-paying interactive activities not only between but also within occupations. In contrast, foreign workers specialize in low-paying manual activities. This enhanced degree of task specialization accounts for 11% of the gap near the top of the distribution and 25% near the bottom, thus offering new insight into sources for imperfect substitution of native and foreign workers in the production function and consequently small migration-induced wage effects.
    Keywords: Wage Gap,individual job task data,RIF decomposition,task specialization within occupations
    JEL: J15 J21 J24 J31 J61
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Claudia Koehler; Nektaria Palaiologou; Ottavia Brussino (OECD)
    Abstract: Education is one of the most important fields to promote the integration of refugee and newcomer children and youths in host countries. However, holistic education for refugee and newcomers has so far not been established into mainstream education systems in European countries. Projects and pilot programmes have developed across Europe to test holistic approaches. Some of them have started very recently as a response to the arrival of high numbers of refugees and newcomers, while others have been established for a longer period and have started to expand. This paper first provides an overview of key research gaps in refugee education. It then provides a mapping of promising holistic education practices in Europe, with a focus on Germany, Greece and the Netherlands. Based on this, the paper explores key conditions to upscale and institutionalise promising practices of holistic refugee and newcomer education.
    Date: 2022–01–28
  13. By: Katrin Millock (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Cees Withagen (VU - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam [Amsterdam])
    Abstract: We review some of the recent estimates of the effect of weather and climate on migration, and articles examining the historical evidence of such links. We identify four issues that have received less attention in previous reviews on the topic. The first one is general equilibrium effects of climate change and migration. The second one concerns accounting for thresholds in the climate-migration relationship. Some of the articles that we review incorporate non-linear effects, but only in the relation between income and migration, and in the relation between weather, climate and migration. Other thresholds are not yet incorporated into the literature. A third issue where much work remains to be done relates to climate change and conflict, and their influence on migration. Finally, we conclude with some reflections on the implications of the results for economic development.
    Date: 2021–12–28
  14. By: Jody McBrien (OECD)
    Abstract: Social and emotional learning (SEL) strengthens students’ abilities to regulate their emotions, thoughts, and behaviours and to interact successfully with others. There are an array of important social and emotional skills (SES): goal-setting, working to one’s potential, resilience, creativity, perseverance, problem solving, and caring about the welfare of others, among them. All students need SEL, but newcomer and refugee students may have particular challenges requiring SES. The beginning of this paper examines the current situation of refugee and newcomer students in OECD countries, SEL, its frameworks and skills and how they apply to newcomer and refugee students. The paper concludes with an examination of SEL policies and practices for newcomer and refugee students in OECD countries.
    Date: 2022–01–31
  15. By: Simone Bertoli (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Çağlar Özden; Michael Packard
    Abstract: Suitably anonymized mobile phone data can offer new insights on the internal mobility of Syrian refugees in Turkey. We use the data provided by Türk Telekom, one of the major mobile phone companies in Turkey, within the framework of the D4R (Data for Refugees) project to analyze how residential and job market segregation influence the location choices of refugees.
    Abstract: Des données anonymisées de téléphonie mobile peuvent offrir de nouvelles perspectives pour comprendre la mobilité des réfugiés syriens en Turquie. Nous utilisons les données fournies par Türk Telekom, l'une des principales sociétés de téléphonie mobile en Turquie, dans le cadre du projet D4R (Data for Refugees) pour analyser comment la ségrégation résidentielle et sur le marché du travail influence les choix de localisation des réfugiés.
    Keywords: réfugiés syriens,ségrégation,téléphone mobile,turquie,détail des appels
    Date: 2021–09
  16. By: José Alves; Sandro Morgado
    Abstract: In our article we review the secular stagnation hypothesis, firstly postulated by Hansen (1939), to describe the current macroeconomic dynamics faced by developed economies. Based in the existing literature, we elaborate on a workable definition of secular stagnation founded on four pillars: diminished long run growth potential, increasing aggregate demand shortages, lowering of nominal short term interest rates and increasingly immovable unemployment. This four-pillar definition reveals a fundamental problematic faced by these economies; while a diminished long run growth potential, increasing aggregate demand shortages and an increasingly immovable unemployment stress the need for full employment policy measures, the lowering of nominal short term interest rates makes the mostly resorted to full employment policy measure, in the form of expansionary monetary policy, ineffective. This problematic implies an imperative rethinking of the policy framework in times of secular stagnation. For that, we consider one of the most evoked factors causing secular stagnation, demographics in the form of an aging population and a declining working age population, hence highlighting the pertinence of immigration as a possible solution. We do so by empirically observing the pillars of secular stagnation and testing the impact of demographic factors on those features, resorting to panel data analysis. Focusing on the EU15 and US economies, with data ranging from 1965 to 2020, we conclude that the four pillars we based our definition of secular stagnation upon can be empirically observed and that demographic factors play a statistically significant role for those determining features thus highlighting the pertinence of immigration as a possible solution.
    Keywords: Economic stagnation; secular stagnation; financial crisis; immigration; monetary policy.
    JEL: E52 G01 J11 O47
    Date: 2022–01

This nep-mig issue is ©2022 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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