nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒12‒13
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. International Migration and Net Nutrition in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries: Evidence from Prison Records By Scott A. Carson
  2. Employment and Job Perspectives for Female Refugees in Germany: Analysis and Policy Implications from a Local Survey Study By Fabian J. Baier; Paul J.J. Welfens; Tobias Zander
  3. The Fiscal Effect of Immigration: Reducing Bias in Influential Estimates By Michael A. Clemens
  4. Labour Mobility with Vocational Skill: Australian Demand and Pacific Supply By Chand, Satish; Clemens, Michael A.
  5. The Impact of International Migration on Inclusive Growth: A Review By Mr. Dmitriy L Rozhkov; Zsoka Koczan; Magali Pinat
  6. Free Trade Agreements and the Movement of Business People By Thierry Mayer; Hillel Rapoport; Camilo Umana Dajud
  7. Association between Parents' Nativity Status and Influenza Vaccination Rates among Children By Yasenov, Vasil; Hotard, Michael; Lawrence, Duncan; Hainmueller, Jens

  1. By: Scott A. Carson
    Abstract: In migration studies, immigrant health is a concern before, during, and after migration. This study uses a large late 19th and early 20th century data set of over 20 US prisons to assess migrant net nutrition. Native-born individuals were taller and had the lowest BMIs. International immigrants had lower BMIs and shorter statures. After controlling for other characteristics, native-born females had lower BMIs than men; however, foreign-born women’s’ BMIs were higher than domestic-born women. Females and males with darker complexions had greater BMIs than their counterparts with fairer complexions.
    Keywords: nineteenth century US health, immigrant health, BMI, malnourishment
    JEL: I12 I31 J31 J70 N31
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Fabian J. Baier (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW)); Paul J.J. Welfens (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW)); Tobias Zander (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW))
    Abstract: Based on an analysis of a survey carried out by the EIIW/Jobcenter Wuppertal among female refugees, we identify significant drivers of the prospect of finding employment and of being in employment for individuals from this particular sub-group in society. The majority of survey respondents used German or Arabic as their preferred language to complete the survey questionnaire of the EIIW/Jobcenter Wuppertal. Probit/ordered probit and Logit/ordered logit regressions are used to identify the impact of a battery of potential influences relevant for the employment perspectives of female refugees. The probit variable meant looking at those currently in employment (coded 1) or, alternatively, those currently unemployed while the alternative approach was to consider an ordered variable indicating ascending hours worked as a measure of "more work" being undertaken. Personal skills, demographic characteristics, as well as family-related characteristics plus certain types of knowledge/skills and competencies as well as access to digital technologies and social networks, respectively, are identified as being key drivers of employment perspectives for female refugees. For female refugees, access to a computer increases the likelihood of having a job. Marriage also has a positive indirect impact on finding a job. Female refugees with university degrees do not have better chances of finding a job in Germany than those of the respective control group - i.e., those without a degree. It is found that the amount of years women already live in Germany is positively and significantly related to the probability of finding employment, a result which holds across a broad framework of control variables. Concerning the country of origin - using specific control groups - we find weak evidence that women from African countries find it more difficult to integrate into the job market than women from Europe who tend to find a job more easily regardless of their language, culture, family status and education. Refugees from Syria are also rather difficult to integrate into the job market.
    Keywords: International migration, labor market, supply of labor, immigrant workers
    JEL: F22 J20 J61 J82
    Date: 2021–12
  3. By: Michael A. Clemens (Michael A. Clemens)
    Abstract: Immigration policy can have important net fiscal effects that vary by immigrants’ skill level. But mainstream methods to estimate these effects are problematic. Methods based on cash-flow accounting offer precision at the cost of bias; methods based on general equilibrium modelling address bias with limited precision and transparency. A simple adjustment greatly reduces bias in the most influential and precise estimates: conservatively accounting for capital taxes paid by the employers of immigrant labor. The adjustment is required by firms’ profit-maximizing behavior, unconnected to general equilibrium effects. Adjusted estimates of the positive net fiscal impact of average recent U.S. immigrants rise by a factor of 3.2, with a much shallower education gradient. They are positive even for an average recent immigrant with less than high school education, whose presence causes a present-value subsidy of at least $128,000 to all other taxpayers collectively.
    JEL: F22 H68 J61
    Date: 2021–12
  4. By: Chand, Satish (University of New South Wales); Clemens, Michael A. (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: How many immigrants with less than university education, for a given immigration quota, maximise economic output? The answer is zero in the canonical model of the labour market, where the marginal product of a university-educated immigrant is always higher. We build an alternative model in which national production occurs through a set of Leontief producation functions that shift over time with technological change. This model is used to estimate that the Australian economy growing at historical rates through the year 2050 will demand approximately two million migrant TVET workers, many of which could be supplied from the Pacific Islands.
    Keywords: immigration, labor, low skill, TVET, training, human capital, growth
    JEL: F22 J11 J24
    Date: 2021–11
  5. By: Mr. Dmitriy L Rozhkov; Zsoka Koczan; Magali Pinat
    Abstract: International migration is an important channel of material improvement for individuals and their offspring. The movement of people across country borders, especially from less developed to richer countries, has a substantial impact in several dimensions. First, it affects the migrants themselves by allowing them to achieve higher income as a result of their higher productivity in the destination country. It also increases the expected income for their offspring. Second, it affects the destination country through the impact on labor markets, productivity, innovation, demographic structure, fiscal balance, and criminality. Third, it can have a significant impact on the countries of origin. It may lead to loss of human capital, but it also creates a flow of remittances and increases international connections in the form of trade, FDI, and technological transfers. This paper surveys our understanding of how migration affects growth and inequality through the impact on migrants themselves as well as on the destination and origin countries.
    Keywords: International Migration; Inequality; Economic growth; complementarity effect; consequences of migration; E. country case; origin country; wage effect; Migration; Remittances; Labor markets; Wages; Income; Global; Eastern Europe; costs of emigration; impact of migration; wage effect of migration
    Date: 2021–03–19
  6. By: Thierry Mayer; Hillel Rapoport; Camilo Umana Dajud
    Abstract: Many of the measures to contain Covid-19 severely reduced business travel. Using provisions to ease the movement of business visitors in trade agreements, we show that removing barriers to the movement of business people promotes trade. To do this, we first document the increasing complexity of Free Trade Agreements. We then develop an algorithm that combines machine learning and text analysis techniques to examine the content of FTAs. We use the algorithm to determine which FTAs include provisions to facilitate the movement of business people and whether those provisions are included in dispute settlement mechanisms. Using these data and accounting for the overall depth of FTAs, we show that provisions facilitating business travel indeed facilitate business travel (but not permanent migration) and, eventually, increase bilateral trade flows.
    Keywords: Covid-19;Business travel;Free Trade Agreements;Machine Learning;Text Analysis
    JEL: F10 F13 F14 F15 F20
    Date: 2021–12
  7. By: Yasenov, Vasil (Stanford University); Hotard, Michael (Stanford University); Lawrence, Duncan (Stanford University); Hainmueller, Jens (Stanford University)
    Abstract: Previous research has documented lower vaccination rates among ethnic and racial minorities as well as foreign-born people, thus raising concerns about health inequities during pandemics. We analyzed influenza vaccination rates among children with US-born parents and those with at least one immigrant parent. We found that children with immigrant parents have higher odds of receiving the influenza vaccination even after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics.
    Keywords: influenza vaccine, immigration, mixed-status families
    JEL: I12 I14 I18
    Date: 2021–09

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