nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒12‒06
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Does Being "Left–Behind" in Childhood Lead To Criminality in Adulthood? Evidence from Data on Rural-Urban Migrants and Prison Inmates in China By Cameron, Lisa A.; Meng, Xin; Zhang, Dandan
  2. The Long-Term Effects of Forced Migration: An Early-Life Approach with Evidence from Yugoslavian Refugees in Sweden By Serratos-Sotelo, Luis
  3. Skill Downgrading Among Refugees and Economic Immigrants in Germany: Evidence from the Syrian Refugee Crisis By Plamen Nikolov; Leila Salarpour; David Titus
  4. The Role of Out-group Network in the Choice of Migration Destination: Evidence from Turkey By Filiz Künüroğlu; Ali Sina Önder
  5. Migration, housing and regional disparities: A gravity model of inter-regional migration with an application to selected OECD countries By Maria Chiara Cavalleri; Nhung Luu; Orsetta Causa
  6. Foreign Labor Migration Control in Russian Regions using Multicultural Barometer (The Case of the Republic of Karelia, Russia) By Pitukhina, Maria; Pitukhin, Eugene; Radikov, Ivan; Tolstoguzov, Oleg; Kulakova, Lyubov
  7. How the COVID-19 Pandemic Changed Household Migration in New England By Nicholas Chiumenti
  8. A Pacific Skills Visa: Improving Opportunities for Skilled Migration throughout the Pacific Region By Chand, Satish; Clemens, Michael A.; Dempster, Helen

  1. By: Cameron, Lisa A. (University of Melbourne); Meng, Xin (Australian National University); Zhang, Dandan (Peking University)
    Abstract: Large scale rural-to-urban migration and China's household registration system have resulted in about 61 million children being left-behind in rural villages when their parents migrate to the cities. This paper uses survey and experimental data from male rural-urban migrants – prison inmates and comparable non-inmates – to examine whether parental absence in childhood as a result of migration is associated with increased criminality in adulthood. Control functions and sibling fixed effects are used to identify causal impacts. Parental absence due to migration is found to increase the propensity of adult males to commit crimes. Being left-behind decreases educational attainment and increases risk-loving behavior, both of which increase criminality.
    Keywords: migration, crime, China
    JEL: O12 O15 J12
    Date: 2021–10
  2. By: Serratos-Sotelo, Luis (Department of Economic History, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of being exposed to forced migration during childhood (ages 0-5) on educational achievement at age 15 (grade 9). Using register data from the Swedish Interdisciplinary Panel, I identify children who migrated to Sweden as a consequence of the rising conflict during the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia, and follow them until age 15, when they received their grades at the end of the 9 years of compulsory education in Sweden. The results show that those who experienced forced migration performed worse in school, as measured by Math and Swedish grades and Merit Rating scores, with forced migrants achieving grades that were on average 5 (Merit Rating), 7 (Swedish), and 22 (Math) percentage points of a standard deviation lower than those of native Swedes. Forced migrants outperformed Swedes only in English, obtaining grades that were on average 12 percentage points of a standard deviation higher than did their native-born counterparts.
    Keywords: forced migration; refugees; education; early-life; Sweden
    JEL: I24 J13 J15 N34
    Date: 2021–10–13
  3. By: Plamen Nikolov; Leila Salarpour; David Titus
    Abstract: Upon arrival to a new country, many immigrants face job downgrading, a phenomenon describing workers being in jobs below the ones they have based on the skills they possess. Moreover, in the presence of downgrading immigrants receiving lower wage returns to the same skills compared to natives. The level of downgrading could depend on the immigrant type and numerous other factors. This study examines the determinants of skill downgrading among two types of immigrants - refugees and economic immigrants - in the German labor markets between 1984 and 2018. We find that refugees downgrade more than economic immigrants, and this discrepancy between the two groups persists over time. We show that language skill improvements exert a strong influence on subsequent labor market outcomes of both groups.
    Date: 2021–10
  4. By: Filiz Künüroğlu (Izmir Katip Çelebi University); Ali Sina Önder (University of Portsmouth)
    Abstract: We analyse the association between cultural contact and international migration decision drawing on the inter-group contact hypothesis. Using data on Turkish migrant stock in 22 countries and immigration from these countries to Turkey between 2000 and 2015, we find strong association between the size of the Turkish community and migration flow of host country nationals to Turkey. Our results are robust to country-specific and year-specific effects as well as to exclusion of different channels of cultural contact. Our research brings a new perspective to the importance of networks in migration destination as most research focuses on the presence of in-group national community in the target country. Our findings contribute to the improvement of extant theories of international migration providing insight in the role of cultural contact with the out-group in the choice of migration destination.
    Keywords: International migration; network migration, contact hypothesis
    Date: 2021–11–25
  5. By: Maria Chiara Cavalleri; Nhung Luu; Orsetta Causa
    Abstract: Inter-regional migration – the movements of the population from one region to another within the same country – can be an important mechanism of spatial economic adjustment, affecting regional demographic and growth patterns. This paper examines the economic and housing-related factors that affect the decision of people to migrate to another region within the same country, drawing empirical evidence from country-specific gravity models of inter-regional migration for 14 OECD countries. The results suggest that inter-regional migrants move in search of higher income and better employment opportunities, but are discouraged by high housing costs. In particular, house prices are found to be an important barrier to migration, especially in countries having experienced strong increases in the level and cross-regional dispersion of house prices. There is however large heterogeneity across countries in terms of what factors matter the most and in terms of the magnitude of the migration response.
    Keywords: house prices, housing, inter-regional migration, internal migration, local labour markets, regional disparities, regional mobility
    JEL: R12 R23 R31 J61
    Date: 2021–12–01
  6. By: Pitukhina, Maria; Pitukhin, Eugene; Radikov, Ivan; Tolstoguzov, Oleg; Kulakova, Lyubov
    Abstract: The article deals with foreign labor migration flows control as well as migration monitoring which are important for the Russian Federation regions’ economy development. A new migration monitoring toolkit is proposed by the authors - Multicultural Barometer. It allows to quantify migration indicators in a region from 4 various angles: labor market; national identity; migrants’ adaptation; migrants’ integration. The research data is coming from open sources (Federal Migration Service of the Republic of Karelia, Ministry of Labor and Employment of the Republic of Karelia, data obtained from Centers for Interethnic Cooperation in Karelian municipalities); both migrants’ pilot survey and host community survey organized in 18 municipalities of the Republic of Karelia. The study conducted in Karelia seems to be important in a context of its geographical location (on a border with Finland) highlighting both successful practices and developing new tools for migration monitoring aimed at scientifically based solutions for migration control. Multicultural barometer as a tool was recommended by the Federal Agency on Ethnic Issues of Russia (FADN) and Strategic Initiatives Agency in 2017 as best regional practice for further implementation all over the Russian Federation.
    Keywords: foreign labour migration; migration flows control; Multicultural barometer; migrants’ integration; migrants’ adaptation
    JEL: J15 J61
    Date: 2020–01–07
  7. By: Nicholas Chiumenti
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and the policies implemented to limit the spread of the virus brought about changes to domestic migration patterns in New England. Overall, the region lost about 50,000 fewer households to permanent out-migration in 2020 compared with 2019, as measured by United States Postal Service change-of-address requests. Every New England state except Massachusetts either lost fewer households or gained households for the first time since at least 2017. However, counties that added households generally saw an increase of less than 1 percent. The characteristics of a community mattered as to whether it gained or lost households. Communities with more than 1,000 people per square mile lost an average of 3 percent of households in 2020, while those with fewer than 1,000 people gained an average of 2 percent. The size of the college-student population in an area did not have a large effect on net migration, despite the move to online schooling for much of 2020. However, the share of seasonal housing in a community did. The number of households in areas with 25 percent to 50 percent seasonal housing stock grew by almost 2 percent through permanent net migration. Temporary net migration also led to positive net migration overall in much of New England in 2020, indicating that many of the new residents may not remain in their communities for the long term.
    Keywords: COVID-19
    Date: 2021–11–30
  8. By: Chand, Satish (University of New South Wales); Clemens, Michael A. (Center for Global Development); Dempster, Helen (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: The demand for skills exceeds supply, both within the Pacific Islands and the high-income countries of the Pacific Rim. Enhancing skilled migration therefore has the potential to generate large economic gains. The Global Skill Partnership is a migration model that can support such mutually beneficial mobility by moving training into the country of origin. In this paper, we outline its regional application to the Pacific. To assess the potential economic gains from such a Pacific Skills Partnership, we present new data on earnings and the cost of training in the Pacific Islands for three qualifications— accountants, computer science graduates, and chefs—and explore how such training could be financed through loan schemes. Graduates could be provided with internationally accredited qualifications and a new Pacific Skills Visa, facilitating their access to work opportunities abroad, particularly in the regions' high-income countries. This Pacific Skills Partnership could bring large economic benefits to countries of origin, destination, and the migrants themselves.
    Keywords: immigration, labor, low-skill, visa, mobility, Pacific Islands, Papua New Guinea, seasonal, temporary
    JEL: F22 J11 J24
    Date: 2021–11

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