nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒11‒08
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Children and Families Seeking Asylum in the UK By Ilona Pinter
  2. The social consequences of the increase in refugees to Germany 2015-2016 By Giesselmann, Marco; Brady, David; Naujoks, Tabea
  3. Socioemotional Skills and Refugees’ Language Acquisition By Yuliya Kosyakova
  4. Growth, Wages and Unemployment - The Economic Impact of Refugee Migration on Europe: A Synthetic Control Analysis By Karaarslan, Can
  5. Borrowing Constraints and the Dynamics of Return and Repeat Migrations By Joseph-Simon Görlach
  6. Getting Off on the Wrong Foot: The Long-Term Effects of Missing a Large-Scale Amnesty for Immigrant Workers By Claudio Deiana; Ludovica Giua; Roberto Nisticò
  7. Who stays and who leaves? Immigration and the selection of natives across locations By Javier Ortega; Gregory Verdugo
  8. Empirical modelling of internal migration and commuting flows for economic regions in Norway By Tom Kornstad; Terje Skjerpen; Lasse S. Stambøl
  9. Motives for economic migration: a review By Kerstin Mitterbacher
  10. A Qualitative Study on How Perceptions of Environmental Changes are Linked to Migration in Morocco, Senegal, and DR Congo. By Lore Van Praag; Samuel Lietaer; Caroline Michellier
  11. Effects of residential push-pull on tenants' intention to relocate from larger megacities: Evidence from a Beijing, China survey By Wu, Yidong; Song, Zisheng

  1. By: Ilona Pinter
    Abstract: This CASEBrief provides a summary of new administrative data on children and families seeking asylum in the UK and those receiving support from the Home Office under the Asylum Support system. Much of the recent debate on asylum seekers in the UK focuses on adults, yet evidence suggests that a significant proportion of asylum seekers are children and their parents or carers. These early findings are part of Ilona Pinter's doctoral research looking at the needs, experiences and outcomes of children and families living on Asylum Support in the UK.
    Keywords: child, family, child poverty, asylum seeker, asylum support, no recourse to public funds, social security
    Date: 2021–10
  2. By: Giesselmann, Marco; Brady, David; Naujoks, Tabea
    Abstract: More than one million refugees migrated to Germany in 2015-2016. The increase in refugees was rapid, visible and controversial, and varied substantially across German districts. Therefore, the increase provides unique leverage for analyzing the consequences of immigration and ethnolinguistic heterogeneity. We innovatively focus on within-district/within-person change with individual-level panel data and precise measures of district-level refugee shares. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel 2009-2017, we analyze three-way (person, year and district) fixed effects models of five exclusionary beliefs and behaviors. At the national level, concerns about immigration and social cohesion and strong far right party support increased at the same time as refugee shares increased. However, district-level refugee shares are robustly negatively associated with concerns about immigration and (less robustly) with strong far right party support. They are also not associated with concerns about social cohesion, residential moves, or subjective fair tax rates. Interaction estimators reveal that where unemployment is high, there are positive relationships between refugee shares and concerns about immigration and residential moves. Aside from high unemployment districts however, the results mostly support contact theory, and contradict fractionalization and minority threat theories. Overall, rising district-level refugee shares reduced or at least did not heighten exclusionary beliefs and behaviors.
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Yuliya Kosyakova (Yuliya Kosyakova)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the existing literature by extending Chiswick and Miller’s (2001) model to include socioemotional skills. While the theoretical model predicts that exposure, efficiency, and incentives determine language proficiency, we additionally assume that socioemotional skills influence these three constructs and thereby language proficiency. Specifically, we seek to answer the following research questions: How do socioemotional skills affect the language attainment of recent refugees? What is the relative importance of socioemotional skills in refugees’ language learning process? Given the findings of the prior literature that personality traits may compensate for socioeconomic adversity (e.g. Damian et al. 2015), we further ask whether socioemotional skills may compensate for refugees’ resource disadvantages. Empirically, we rely on growth curve models and recent longitudinal data from the IAB-BAMF-SOEP Refugee Sample.
    Keywords: language acquisition, refugees, socioemotional skills, Big Five, risk aversion, locus of control, Germany
    JEL: J15 D91 I26 J24
    Date: 2021–10
  4. By: Karaarslan, Can
    Abstract: During the year 2015 almost 1.4 million refugees arrived in Europe (eurostat, 2020). Germany was with 1.1 million individuals the major destination (Statista, 2018). A huge political divide occurred over this influx. While welcoming scenes dominated the media in the advent of the so called 'refugee crisis', criticism over the 'We'll-make-it policy' by Angela Merkel increased also among Christian Democrats.1A sudden human influx of such size into a society might not only have political, cultural and social impacts, but may also lead to economic disruptions. Human beings embody consumers as well as labour force. A significant increase in population might thus cause an increase in demand for commodities and in labour supply, which ceteris paribus simultaneously lead to increasing GDP and decreasing wages. Previous literature utilized quasi-natural experiments which can be exploited in social sciences for the detection of causal relations and the usage of methods, not applicable otherwise. The present paper applies the synthetic control methodology to wages, unemployment and economic growth in Germany in order to measure the causal impact of the 2015- refugee influx on these economic key elements. No impact on either of the economic factors has been found. European Union labour market and welfare policies are concerned with the protection of European citizens from disruptive processes. Falling wages and increasing unemployment, as well as decreasing production and consumption embody highly disruptive political potential. Thus, the findings concerning the impact of refugee migration into the European Union might influence EU-policies in the prospect of increased migration to Europe in the upcoming century due climate change and new crises. The remainder of the article is organized as follows: The lessons from the key literature concerning quasi- natural experiments and the impact of migration on wages, unemployment and economic growth are provided in section 2. Section 3 comprises the theoretical framework concerning the differences between refugees and economic migrants. Section 4 introduces the estimation strategy, while section 5 presents data and descriptive statistics. Section 6 shows the simulation results, followed by the concluding discussion in section 7.
    Keywords: Economic Impact,Refugee Migration
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Joseph-Simon Görlach (Joseph-Simon Görlach)
    Abstract: As wages in migrant sending countries catch up with those in destinations, migrants adjust on several margins, including their duration of stay, the number of migrations they undertake, as well as the amount saved while abroad. This paper combines Mexican and U.S. data to estimate a dynamic model of consumption, emigration and re-migration, accounting for financial constraints. An increase in Mexican household earnings shortens migration duration, but raises the number of trips per migrant. For lower-income migrants, a rise in Mexican wages leads to a more than proportional effect on consumption expenditure in Mexico, arising from repatriated savings.
    Keywords: migration duration, repeat migration, borrowing constraints
    JEL: J61 D15 F22
    Date: 2021–10
  6. By: Claudio Deiana (Università di Cagliari and University of Essex); Ludovica Giua (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)); Roberto Nisticò (Università di Napoli Federico II, CSEF and IZA)
    Abstract: We estimate the long-run effects of ineligibility for legalization on immigrants' formal employment and assimilation at work. Our empirical approach exploits the exogenous change in probability of obtaining legal status induced by a 2002 Italian amnesty program targeting irregular foreign workers. We show that immigrants unexposed to the amnesty have a 15% lower probability of being regularly employed a decade later than their counterparts. They also experience a deterioration in their working conditions in the long run, with increases in job immobility and segregation, and a decline in linguistic assimilation.
    Keywords: Undocumented immigrants, Amnesty program, Formal employment, Discrimination, Segregation.
    JEL: J15 J61 K37
    Date: 2021–09–30
  7. By: Javier Ortega; Gregory Verdugo (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: We study the impact of local immigration inflows on natives' wages using a large French administrative panel from 1976-2007. We show that local immigration inflows are followed by reallocations of blue-collar natives across commuting zones. Because these reallocations vary with the initial occupation and blue-collar location movers have wages below the blue-collar average, controlling for changes in local composition is crucial to assess how wages adjust to immigration. Immigration temporarily lowers the wages of blue-collar workers, with unskilled workers experiencing larger losses. Location movers lose more than stayers in terms of daily wages but move to locations with cheaper housing.
    Keywords: immigration,wages,employment,France
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Tom Kornstad; Terje Skjerpen; Lasse S. Stambøl (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical results for internal migration and commuting flows using panel data for 89 economic regions in Norway for the years 2001-2014. The emphasis is on the potential effects of different incentive variables. We consider both in- and out-migration as well as in- and outcommuting with a common set of explanatory variables. We perform panel data analysis for four educational groups using seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) models, acknowledging that the effects of the incentive variables may vary across educational groups. Generally, we find weak responses to the incentive variables for the eight response variables, but they differ somewhat across the educational groups. The group comprised of those with a low education appears to be most responsive.
    Keywords: Internal migration; commuting; panel data; educational groups; sets of regressions
    JEL: C33 C51 J11 J61
    Date: 2021–10
  9. By: Kerstin Mitterbacher (Institute of Banking and Finance, University of Graz)
    Abstract: The present paper sheds light on the motives of economic migrants---an aspect that has not been discussed at a general level so far. Previous work has only focused on specific fields of interest and used different terminologies, hence impeding comparison and the synthesis of findings across studies. Derived from theoretical, empirical, and analytical research outcomes, the paper concludes that economic migrants’ movements are influenced by the socio-demographic factors of ‘age’ and ‘education’ and are motivated by both the economic motives of ‘expected income’ and ‘employment’ and the economic-related motives of ‘corruption’, ‘amenities’ and ‘happiness’. Furthermore, these motives reveal a typical profile of economic migrants: a typical economic migrant is characterized by being of working age, highly educated and male, and by wishing to migrate to developed countries to achieve a fulfilling life.
    Date: 2021–10–22
  10. By: Lore Van Praag; Samuel Lietaer; Caroline Michellier
    Abstract: Abstract Environmental migration is a growing concern of academics and policymakers, who foresee a rise in the number of such migrants. However, most prevailing academic and policy discourses ignore the variety of perceptions of environmental changes among people living in highly affected areas across the world. We examine the perceptions of environmental changes and how these are seen to be relevant to migration in Senegal, DR Congo, and Morocco. In total, we conducted 410 interviews with people living in two regions in each of these countries. Results indicate differences in the perception of environmental changes across regions, gender, education, and livelihoods. The economic activities of individuals determine exposure and sensitivity to environmental changes, while educational levels increase familiarity with prevailing environmental discourses and policies. Despite country-specific and regional differences across research sites, few people perceived environmental factors as directly related to their own or family members’ migration projects.
    Keywords: Environmental change · Migration · Perceptions · Democratic Republic of Congo · Senegal · Morocco
    Date: 2021–10–01
  11. By: Wu, Yidong (Anhui University of Technology, China); Song, Zisheng (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Tenants' residential relocation always presents diverse space-temporal tendencies and is highly influenced by institutional, socio-economic, and subjective factors in China. This paper aims to construct a relocation intention (RI) model and estimate the effects of its push-pull factors, including the household's registration system (hukou), homeownership status, and residential dissatisfaction. The empirical research relies on a questionnaire survey of 2,187 tenants conducted in 2019 in Beijing, China. Our findings confirm that non-local hukou status significantly pushes female and unmarried tenants to relocate, and non-local homeownership noticeably pulls male and married tenants' relocation. These two factors also significantly influence the RI of tenants without higher education experience. For tenants younger than 35, non-local hukou status shows a strong pushing force, but non-local homeownership does not present notable differences by age. Additionally, residential dissatisfaction significantly pushes tenants' RI and shows a moderating effect in non-local homeownership. Moreover, for tenants who have an explicit relocation intention, non-local hukou status plays a vital role in shortening their stay duration before relocation.
    Keywords: tenants relocation intention; push-pull determinants; hukou; non-local homeownership; China
    JEL: D91 J18 J61 J68 R23 R28
    Date: 2021–11–02

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