nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒10‒18
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Climate Shocks, Migration, and Labor Markets: A Gender Analysis from West Africa By Elmallakh, Nelly; Wodon, Quentin
  2. An Empirical Analysis of how Internet Access Influences Public Opinion towards Undocumented Immigrants and Unaccompanied Children By Muhammad Hassan Bin Afzal
  3. Marginal returns to citizenship and educational performance By Gathmann, Christina; Vonnahme, Christina; Busse, Anna; Kim, Jongoh
  4. Migration as a Vector of Economic Losses from Disaster-Affected Areas in the United States By Catalina Anampa Castro; Katherine Curtis; Jack DeWaard; Elizabeth Fussell; Kathryn McConnell; Kobie Price; Michael Soto; Stephan Whitaker
  5. Migration and spatial development By Postlep, Rolf-Dieter; Ritzinger, Anne; Spellerberg, Annette
  6. Understanding characteristics, causes, and consequences of migration: Contributions from the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets By CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions and Markets (PIM)
  7. Populists in Power By Luisa Doerr; Niklas Potrafke; Felix Roesel
  8. Population Sorting and Human Capital Accumulation By Leonid V. Azarnert
  9. Buying citizenship: A boon to district-level house prices in Istanbul By Gunduz, Lokman; Genc, Ismail H.; Aysan, Ahmet Faruk

  1. By: Elmallakh, Nelly; Wodon, Quentin
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of shocks, predominantly climate shocks, on labor market outcomes in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU). We focus on migration ows within the WAEMU countries to disentangle the differential effects of shocks on migrants and non-migrants. Our analysis combines survey data from Ivory Coast|as the main migrant receiving country|and from all the other 7 migrant sending countries of the WAEMU. Using an OLS fixed effects model, our results show that migration in the WAEMU is associated with a decline in female labor participation, as it is primarily motivated by marriage. However, we find an increase in female labor force participation and a narrowing of the gender gap in migrant households that are negatively affected by shocks. Our findings relate to the literature on the impact of shocks on the labor division between women and men and show that shocks may disrupt long-standing gender roles. The results are robust to accounting for the double selection into shocks and migration using a Propensity Score Matching technique that allows for a within comparison between treated and untreated units.
    Keywords: shocks,migration,climate,employment,labor market,women,West Africa
    JEL: F22 J21 J43 J61 Q54
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Muhammad Hassan Bin Afzal
    Abstract: This research adds to the expanding field of data-driven analysis, scientific modeling, and forecasting on the impact of having access to the Internet and IoT on the general US population regarding immigrants and immigration policies. More specifically, this research focuses on the public opinion of undocumented immigrants in the United States and having access to the Internet in their local settings. The term Undocumented Immigrants refers to those who live in the United States without legal papers, documents, or visas. Undocumented immigrants may have come into the country unlawfully or with valid documentation, but their legal status has expired. Using the 2020 American National Election Studies (ANES) time series dataset, I investigated the relationship between internet access (A2I) and public perception of undocumented immigrants. According to my research and analysis, increasing internet access among non-Hispanic whites with at least a bachelors degree with an annual household income of less than 99K is more likely to oppose the deportation of undocumented immigrants and separating unaccompanied children from their families in borderland areas. The individuals with substantial Republican political ideology exhibit significantly lower opposing effects in deporting undocumented immigrants or separating unaccompanied children from their families. The evidence from multiple statistical models is resilient to a variety of factors. The findings show that increased internet access may improve undocumented immigrants social integration and acceptability. During health emergencies, it may be especially beneficial to make them feel safe, included, and supported in their local settings.
    Date: 2021–09
  3. By: Gathmann, Christina; Vonnahme, Christina; Busse, Anna; Kim, Jongoh
    Abstract: Citizenship is the most important right a host country can bestow on its immigrant population. Yet, little is known which citizenship policies work and who actually benefits from them. To answer these questions, we estimate the marginal returns to citizenship on children's school performance and skill development. For identification, we use two national reforms, which facilitated naturalization for first-generation immigrants and introduced birthright citizenship. We find substantial unobserved heterogeneity in returns with reverse selection on gains, i.e., the returns are highest for those with the lowest propensity of take-up. Citizenship significantly improves the school performance of immigrant children but has only modest effects on test scores. Policy simulations indicate that raising citizenship take-up would generate sizable benefits overall. Based on marginal treatment response functions, we also show that expanding birthright citizenship carries higher returns than facilitating naturalization.
    Keywords: Citizenship,migration,policy evaluation,marginal treatment effects,marginal treatment response functions
    JEL: I21 J15
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Catalina Anampa Castro; Katherine Curtis; Jack DeWaard; Elizabeth Fussell; Kathryn McConnell; Kobie Price; Michael Soto; Stephan Whitaker
    Abstract: In this paper, we infuse consideration of migration into research on economic losses from extreme weather disasters. Taking a comparative case study approach and using data from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel, we document the size of economic losses via migration from 23 disaster-affected areas in the United States after the most damaging hurricanes, tornadoes, and wildfires on record. We then employ demographic standardization and decomposition to determine if these losses primarily reflect changes in out-migration or changes in the economic resources that migrants take with them (greater economic losses per migrant). Finally, we consider the implications of these losses for changing spatial inequality in the United States. While disaster-affected areas and those living in them differ in their experiences of and responses to extreme weather disasters, we generally find that, relative to the year before an extreme weather disaster, economic losses via migration from disaster-affected areas increase the year of and after the disaster, that these changes primarily reflect changes in out-migration (vs. the economic resources that migrants take with them), and that these losses briefly disrupt the status quo by temporarily reducing spatial inequality.
    Keywords: Natural Disaster; Migration; Consumer Credit; Decomposition; Spatial Inequality
    JEL: R23 Q54 D12 J60
    Date: 2021–10–13
  5. By: Postlep, Rolf-Dieter; Ritzinger, Anne; Spellerberg, Annette
    Abstract: The high influx of refugees confronts Germany with a variety of tasks and problems. In addition to short-term challenges such as geographically allocating and accommodating refugees, longer-term tasks involving housing, regional and integration policy also need to be addressed. Notwithstanding heavy financial burdens, claims that capacity limits will be exceeded, and growing problems with acceptance, refugees are people with a right to protection and to an individual review of their wish to stay. Many of the refugees already in Germany will not be able to return to their home countries in the foreseeable future due to the precarious situation there, so integration strategies with at least a medium-term focus need to be developed. The extent to which it is currently appropriate for migration policy to also support long-term settlement strategies is a matter for separate discussion.
    Date: 2021
  6. By: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions and Markets (PIM)
    Abstract: It is estimated that nearly one in seven people — more than 1 billion in total — are classified as migrants in national statistics. Of these, about 763 million are estimated to be internal migrants; the remaining 281 million are international migrants (International Organization for Migration 2021). Migration is an intrinsic part of the development process, representing one of the greatest opportunities to facilitate economic and social advancement in developing countries. Understanding how different types of individuals and households perceive these opportunities and overcome related constraints, and how these change over time, is of key interest. At the same time, migration presents one of the world’s biggest challenges, requiring adjustments by both sending and hosting communities, and understanding those adjustments is a priority. The CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) has undertaken more than 40 studies designed to explore the causes and consequences of internal and international migration. In aggregate, the studies help us understand what motivates people to migrate and what factors impinge on their ability to do so. These studies focused on the relationship of migration with rural transformation, gender, youth, climate change, and social protection and cut across the whole PIM research portfolio. This brief synthesizes findings from this research in an attempt to present a more complete picture. While there is a vast literature on migration external to PIM and CGIAR, the results of the PIM investiga­tions constitute valuable inputs into national pol­icies and programs designed to foster economic and social development while maximizing the benefits and reducing the risks of migration.
    Keywords: WORLD; migration; rural areas; urban areas; migrants; youth; gender; women; men; education; employment; youth employment; climate change; labour markets; welfare; diet; remittances
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Luisa Doerr; Niklas Potrafke; Felix Roesel
    Abstract: We examine how populist governments influence political culture and economic outcomes. Some Austrian communities are governed by far-right populist mayors, directly elected by a majority of voters. We exploit close elections and find that the electorate becomes more polarized under populist mayors. However, polarization is not limited to politics. A major innovation of our study is using data on team members of local football teams. Our results show that diversity in local football teams decreases when populists are in power, indicating that populists infiltrate the civic society. When it comes to economic outcomes, migration and budget transparency decrease under populist governments.
    Keywords: populism, far-right politics, partisan politics, polarization, immigration, economic policy, local government, budget transparency
    JEL: D72 P16 H72 Z18
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Leonid V. Azarnert
    Abstract: This article analyzes the effect of population sorting on economic growth. The analysis is performed in a two-region growth model with endogenous fertility, in which public knowledge spillovers from the more advanced core into children’s human capital accumulation function in the periphery are incorporated. I show how migration affects the inter-temporal evolution of human capital in each of the regions and the economy as a whole. I also discuss how public policy interventions can help increase the per-capita human capital levels, if free uncontrolled migration leads to a reduction in human capital accumulation.
    Keywords: migration, population sorting, knowledge spillovers, fertility, human capital, economic growth
    JEL: D30 J10 O15 O18
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Gunduz, Lokman; Genc, Ismail H.; Aysan, Ahmet Faruk
    Abstract: Citizenship by investment (CBI) programs have recently garnered significant academic and media attention. Turkey introduced such a program in 2017 that offers citizenship in exchange for investment in residential property. Eventually, thousands of foreigners, mainly from the Middle East and Asia have purchased houses, particularly in Istanbul. Foreigners’ share in total houses sold in Istanbul almost sextupled and exceeded 10 percent of total sales. This study estimates the short-run impact of relatively wealthy foreigners on the residential property prices in Istanbul to buy a Turkish passport. It finds that the Turkish CBI program positively impacts house prices by two percent in the districts, which are likely to be favored most by immigrant investors.
    Keywords: Citizenship by investment program; house prices; immigration; Istanbul
    JEL: A1 O1 O15
    Date: 2021–05–07

This nep-mig issue is ©2021 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.