nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒09‒20
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Longing for Which Home: Evidence from Global Aspirations to Stay, Return or Migrate Onwards By Bekaert, Els; Constant, Amelie F.; Foubert, Killian; Ruyssen, Ilse
  2. The Economic Attainment of Mexican Refugees during the Age of Mass Migration By Catron, Peter; Loria, Maria Vignau
  3. Gravitational Effects of Culture on Internal Migration in Brazil By Daisy Assmann Lima; Philipp Ehrl
  4. Leapfrogging the Melting Pot? European Immigrants’ Intergenerational Mobility Across the 20th Century By Kendal Lowrey; Jennifer Van Hook; James D. Bachmeier; Thomas B. Foster
  5. Spatial and social mobility in England and Wales: a sub-national analysis of differences and trends over time By Buscha, Franz; Gorman, Emma; Sturgis, Patrick
  6. The Early Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Labour Market Outcomes of Natives and Migrants in the UK By Morando, Greta
  7. Immigration and the Demand for Urban Housing By Miles M. Finney
  8. Entrepreneurial Migration By Bryan, Kevin; Guzman, Jorge
  9. Literature review labour migration By Cörvers, Frank; Reinold, Julia; Chakkar, Saena; Bolzonella, Francesco; Ronda, Vera
  10. Does economics make you selfish? By Daniele Girardi; Sai Madhurika Mamunuru; Simon D Halliday; Samuel Bowles

  1. By: Bekaert, Els; Constant, Amelie F.; Foubert, Killian; Ruyssen, Ilse
    Abstract: Aspirations provide the underlying dynamics of the behavior of individuals whether they are realized or not. Knowledge about the characteristics and motives of those who aspire to leave the host country is key for both host and home countries to formulate appropriate and effective policies in order to keep their valued immigrants or citizens and foster their (re-)integration. Based on unique individual-level Gallup World Polls data, a random utility model, and a multinomial logit we model the aspirations or stated preferences of immigrants across 138 countries worldwide. Our analysis reveals selection in characteristics, a strong role for soft factors like social ties and sociocultural integration, and a faint role for economic factors. Changes in circumstances in the home and host countries are also important determinants of aspirations. Results differ by the host countries' level of economic development.
    Keywords: Economics of Immigrants,Geographic Labor Mobility,Public Policy,Micro-economic Behavior,Underlying Principles,International Migration,Large Data Sets,Modeling and Analysis
    JEL: J15 J61 J68 D01 F22 C55
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Catron, Peter; Loria, Maria Vignau
    Abstract: Research on immigrant economic integration generally focuses on the influence of human capital on later occupational success. This research, however, often ignores other individual-level and contextual-level influences on later attainment and when in settlement they are likely to matter. We therefore create a unique panel dataset that follows a Mexican refugee population from arrival and through settlement in the early twentieth century. This novel data source allows us to examine both individual and contextual characteristics on occupational attainment at different points in time. Our analyses show that individual characteristics beyond human capital measures are likely to matter at first arrival, but their effects attenuate over time. This is especially true for perceived skin complexion, persons travelled with, and age which hold large effects on occupational outcomes at first arrival, but smaller effects after longer settlement. Furthermore, we are able to explore the role context of settlement plays on economic attainment. Consistent with previous research, we find that more favorable contexts are associated with better outcomes than less favorable contexts. This research has implications for the understanding of the adaptation and integration of refugee and immigrant populations by shedding light on what and when different variables influence later attainment.
    Date: 2021–09–07
  3. By: Daisy Assmann Lima (Universidade Católica de Brasília); Philipp Ehrl (Universidade Católica de Brasília)
    Abstract: This paper conducts empirical research about the role of culture on internal migration in Brazil. To do so, we deploy data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP) and the 2010 Brazilian Census. Against the background of the gravitational model, we adopt the method Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood with Fixed Effects (PPMLFE) to account for econometric issues. The results obtained provide new evidence on the influence of the migrant’s perceptions about the push-pull factors of Brazilian municipalities. Traditionally, gravitational models apply features such as Gross Domestic Product per capita, unemployment rate, and population density to measure the attractiveness of cities. All in all, these insights on the migrant’s traits and perceptions about culture pave the way to design appropriate migration policies at the municipal level once migration supports, among others, renewal of the socioeconomic tissue.
    Date: 2021–09–12
  4. By: Kendal Lowrey; Jennifer Van Hook; James D. Bachmeier; Thomas B. Foster
    Abstract: During the early twentieth century, industrial-era European immigrants entered the United States with lower levels of education than the U.S. average. However, empirical research has yielded unclear and inconsistent evidence about the extent and pace of their integration, leaving openings for arguments that contest the narrative that these groups experienced rapid integration and instead assert that educational deficits among lower-status groups persisted across multiple generations. Here, we advance another argument, that European immigrants may have “leapfrogged” or exceeded U.S.-born non-Hispanic white attainment by the third generation. To assess these ideas, we reconstituted three-generation families by linking individuals across the 1940 Census, years 1973, 1979, 1981-90 of the Current Population Survey, the 2000 Census, and years 2001-2017 of the American Community Survey. Results show that most European immigrant groups not only caught up with U.S.-born whites by the second generation, but surpassed them, and this advantage further increased in the third generation. This research provides a new understanding of the time to integration for 20th century European immigrant groups by showing that they integrated at a faster pace than previously thought, indicative of a process of accelerated upward mobility.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, European immigrants, education, integration
    Date: 2021–08
  5. By: Buscha, Franz; Gorman, Emma; Sturgis, Patrick
    Abstract: Recent studies of social mobility have documented that not only who your parents are, but also where you grow up, substantially influences subsequent life chances. We bring these two concepts together to study social mobility in England and Wales, in three post-war generations, using linked Decennial Census data. Our findings show considerable spatial variation in rates of absolute and relative mobility, as well as how these have changed over time. While upward mobility increased in every region between the mid-1950s and the early 1980s, this shift varied across different regions and tailed off for more recent cohorts. We also explore how domestic migration is related to social mobility, finding that those who moved out of their region of origin had higher rates of upward mobility compared to those who stayed, although this difference narrowed over time.
    Keywords: ES/R00627X/1; ES/V003488/1
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2021–08–30
  6. By: Morando, Greta (University of Westminster)
    Abstract: It has been found that migrants and natives are affected differently by fluctuations in the business cycle. This paper analyses whether this is the case when considering the most recent economic downturn triggered by the Covid-19 pandemic. By using UK data, it finds that unemployment has increased for both natives and migrants as has, consequently, the benefits which are aimed to support non-employed households. The rise in these outcomes is particularly important for EU migrants. EU migrants have also been more likely to experience a decrease in pay during the pandemic. Natives, EU workers, and non-EU workers have all suffered similar decreases in hours worked. Since migrants are likely to adjust to negative shocks by return or re-migration, these findings suggest that the recent increase in emigration from the UK can be partly explained by the negative effects of the pandemic on migrants labour market outcomes.
    Keywords: COVID-19, migration, UK labour market
    JEL: F22 J01 J20 J61
    Date: 2021–08
  7. By: Miles M. Finney
    Abstract: The immigrant population has grown dramatically in the US in the last fifty years. This study estimates housing demand among immigrants and discusses how immigration may be altering the structure of US urban areas. Immigrants are found to consume less housing per capita than native born US residents.
    Date: 2021–08
  8. By: Bryan, Kevin; Guzman, Jorge
    Abstract: We use cross-state business registrations to track the geographic movement of startups with high growth potential. In their first five years, 6.6% percent of these startups move across state borders. Though startup births are concentrated geographically, hubs like Silicon Valley and Boston on net lose startups to entrepreneurial migration. A revealed preference approach nonparametrically identifies the average utility of cities to migrant founders. University towns and startup hubs have low relative utility. This pattern is due neither to vertical sorting nor industrial specialization. The higher-quality startups move to lower-tax, business-friendly cities, while less growth-oriented startups move to low-tax, high-amenity cities.
    Date: 2021–09–08
  9. By: Cörvers, Frank (RS: GSBE Theme Learning and Work, RS: FdR Research Group ITEM, RS: SBE - MACIMIDE, ROA / Human capital in the region); Reinold, Julia (RS: GSBE MGSoG, Maastricht Graduate School of Governance, RS: FdR Research Group ITEM); Chakkar, Saena (RS: GSBE other - not theme-related research, ROA / Human capital in the region); Bolzonella, Francesco; Ronda, Vera
    Abstract: Attracting and retaining migrants can have many benefits for the host country and its economy, for example to mitigate skills shortages. Regulating immigration may prevent several negative consequences of a shrinking and ageing population. However, research and policy often focus on the highly skilled or so-called knowledge migrants (kennismigranten) as a source of human capital, which can increase innovation and a country’s competitiveness. A group of labour migrants that receives significantly less attention from research and policy, are the medium-skilled migrant workers. Although it makes up a significant share of the migrant population, this group is rarely supported by specific migration policies.
    Date: 2021–08–30
  10. By: Daniele Girardi (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst (USA)); Sai Madhurika Mamunuru (Department of Economics, Whitman College (USA)); Simon D Halliday (School of Economics, University of Bristol (UK)); Samuel Bowles (Santa Fe Institute (USA))
    Abstract: It is widely held that studying economics makes you more selfish and politically conservative. We use a difference-in-differences strategy to disentangle the causal impact of economics education from selection effects. We estimate the effect of four different intermediate microeconomics courses on students’ experimentally elicited social preferences and beliefs about others, and policy opinions. We find no discernible effect of studying economics (whatever the course content) on self-interest or beliefs about others’ self-interest. Results on policy preferences also point to little effect, except that economics may make students somewhat less opposed to highly restrictive immigration policies.
    Keywords: endogenous preferences, economics education, social preferences, self-interest, generosity, altruism, reciprocity, microeconomics, teaching
    Date: 2021

This nep-mig issue is ©2021 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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