nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒09‒06
six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Adverse Working Conditions and Immigrants' Physical Health and Depression Outcomes. A Longitudinal Study in Greece By Drydakis, Nick
  2. Rainfall shocks, per capita income and rural out-migration By Nathan Delacrétaz; Bruno Lanz; Amir Delju; Etienne Piguet
  3. The aggregate and redistributive effects of emigration By Małgorzata Walerych
  4. An Economic Analysis on The Social Cost of Illegal Immigration By Van, Germinal; Orellana, Jose
  5. Between a rock and a hard place: early experience of migration challenges under the Covid-19 pandemic By Nicol, Alan; Abdoubaetova, A.; Wolters, A.; Kharel, A.; Murzakolova, A.; Gebreyesus, A.; Lucasenco, E.; Chen, F.; Sugden, F; Sterly, H.; Kuznetsova, I.; Masotti, M.; Vittuari, M.; Dessalegn, Mengistu; Aderghal, M.; Phalkey, N.; Sakdapolrak, P.; Mollinga, P.; Mogilevskii, R.; Mogilevskii, R.; Naruchaikusol, S.
  6. Réintégration socio-économique des migrants de retour et hétérogénéité des trajectoires légales en Europe By Cris Beauchemin; Adrien Vandenbunder; Tanguy Mathon Cécillon; Zélia Goussé- Breton; Mourtada Dieng; Myriam Yahyaoui

  1. By: Drydakis, Nick
    Abstract: Τhe study examines whether adverse working conditions for immigrants in Greece bear an association with deteriorated physical health and increased levels of depression during 2018 and 2019. Findings indicate that workers with no written contract of employment, receiving hourly wages lower than the national hourly minimum wages, and experiencing insults and/or threats in their present job experience worse physical health and increased levels of depression. The study found that the inexistence of workplace contracts, underpayment, and verbal abuse in the workplace may coexist. An increased risk of underpayment and verbal abuse reveals itself when workers do not have a contract of employment and vice versa. Immigrant workers without a job contract might experience a high degree of workplace precariousness and exclusion from health benefits and insurance. Immigrant workers receiving a wage lower than the corresponding minimum potentially do not secure a living income, resulting in unmet needs and low investments in health. Workplace abuse might correspond with vulnerability related to humiliating treatment. These conditions can negatively impact workers' physical health and foster depression. Policies should promote written employment contracts and ensure a mechanism for workers to register violations of fair practices.
    Keywords: Adverse Working Conditions,Physical Health,Depression,Immigrants,Refugees, Minimum Wages,Written Contracts of Employment,Threats in job,Workplace precariousness
    JEL: J81 O15 E24 I14
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Nathan Delacrétaz; Bruno Lanz; Amir Delju; Etienne Piguet
    Abstract: Rural regions are more exposed to rainfall shocks, notably through agriculture, and understanding how local population adapt to changes in the climate is an important policy challenge. In this paper we exploit longitudinal data for Turkish provinces from 2008 to 2018 together with precipitation records over more than 30 years to study how shocks to 12-month standard precipitation index (SPI) affect out-migration across rural, transitional and urban regions, and we document how these impacts are channeled through local income, agricultural GDP, and conflicts. Based on fixed effect regressions controlling for unobserved heterogeneity across provinces and over time, we find evidence that negative SPI shocks are associated with higher out-migration in rural provinces. We also show that the relationship is fully mediated by per capita GDP, whereas agricultural GDP and conflicts do not play a role.
    Keywords: out-migration; climate change; rainfall; urbanization; per capita income; agriculture; conflicts
    JEL: F22 O15 R23 Q54
    Date: 2021–08
  3. By: Małgorzata Walerych
    Abstract: The 2004 EU enlargement has triggered large and rapid migration movements from the new to the old member states. The scale of this outflow was unprecedented in the CEE history and its structure was also different from previous emigration waves as it was more heavily biased towards young and educated people. I exploit this post-accession emigration wave to study the aggregate and redistributive effects of emigration. Using a two-country general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents and endogenous migration choice calibrated to Polish data, I show that emigration lowers output per capita and improves the international investment position of the source country. Changes in population structure resulting from population outflows affect the wage distribution between high-skilled and low-skilled workers, thereby increasing economic inequalities. Moreover, I find that lifting labour mobility barriers is beneficial not only for people who move abroad, but also for skilled never-migrants.
    Keywords: migration, sending country, heterogenous agents, EU accession
    JEL: F22 J61 D31 D58
    Date: 2021–05
  4. By: Van, Germinal; Orellana, Jose
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economic cost of illegal immigration in the United States since the 1990s and its consequences on American society. Indeed, illegal immigration has been a major topic of discussion among the main social issues during election cycles in the United States. Those who lean more conservative have argued that illegal immigration is an externality that increase social cost. They argue that illegal immigrants increase the cost of healthcare, public education, and welfare programs such as Medicaid and food stamps. And the cost falls on the American taxpayer. Those who lean more liberal argue that the government should create social programs to assist illegal immigrants in helping them adjusting and conforming their immigration status to the laws and customs of the United States. This paper has two objectives: (1) to determine if illegal immigration imposes a higher social cost on the American taxpayer based on a multivariate regression analysis, (2) to propose recommendations to help the illegal immigrants becoming legal while minimizing the future social cost of illegal immigration on the American taxpayer. Our findings show that there is a correlational relationship between illegal immigration and the cost of social welfare, and this correlational relationship is of strong magnitude.
    Keywords: Econometrics, Economic Analysis, Applied Economics, Econometric Modelling, Multivariate Regression Analysis, Statistical Modelling
    JEL: C01 C10 C31 C54 D60 H4
    Date: 2021–08–31
  5. By: Nicol, Alan (International Water Management Institute (IWMI)); Abdoubaetova, A.; Wolters, A.; Kharel, A.; Murzakolova, A.; Gebreyesus, A.; Lucasenco, E.; Chen, F.; Sugden, F; Sterly, H.; Kuznetsova, I.; Masotti, M.; Vittuari, M.; Dessalegn, Mengistu (International Water Management Institute (IWMI)); Aderghal, M.; Phalkey, N.; Sakdapolrak, P.; Mollinga, P.; Mogilevskii, R.; Mogilevskii, R.; Naruchaikusol, S.
    Abstract: This working paper was produced under the European Union Horizon 2020 funded AGRUMIG project and traces the impact of Covid-19 on migration trends in seven project countries – China, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Morocco, Nepal and Thailand. The context of global migration has changed dramatically due to the coronavirus pandemic. Both within and between countries there has been a substantial curtailment of movement. As a result of multiple lockdowns, economic activity has severely declined and labor markets have ground to a halt, with mass unemployment in industrialized economies looming on the horizon. For both migrant hosting and origin countries – some are substantially both – this poses a set of complex development challenges. Partners of the AGRUMIG project undertook a rapid review of impacts across project countries, exploring the impacts on rural households but also identifying the persistent desire to migrate in spite of restrictions.
    Keywords: Migration; COVID-19; Pandemics; Labour market; Migrant labour; Unemployment; Livelihoods; Health hazards; Income; Remittances; Economic activities; Poverty; Social inequalities; Food supply; Households; Rural areas; State intervention; Governance; Quarantine; Travel restrictions; Border closures; Policies; Assessment; Uncertainty
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Cris Beauchemin; Adrien Vandenbunder; Tanguy Mathon Cécillon; Zélia Goussé- Breton; Mourtada Dieng; Myriam Yahyaoui
    Abstract: Cet article veut tester l’hypothèse selon laquelle le statut légal des migrants n’influence pas seulement leurs conditions de vie pendant leur séjour dans le pays de destination, mais également leurs conditions de réintégration dans leur pays d’origine après leur retour. Plus spécifiquement, il étudie l’effet des trajectoires légales en Europe des migrants sénégalais sur leur réintégration socio-économique au Sénégal. En utilisant les données de l’enquête TEMPER, nous tenons compte de la dimension longitudinale du statut légal des individus pour mieux cerner l’association entre différentes formes d’irrégularité et différents indicateurs d’intégration au pays d’origine. Les résultats des régressions montrent que seuls les migrants qui connaissent les situations d’irrégularité les plus extrêmes (expulsion, irrégularité permanente) se trouvent en situation de désavantage par rapport aux autres migrants de retour et aux non migrants. L’effet négatif du statut légal s’explique en partie par les difficultés d’accumulation de capital social, humain ou économique pendant le séjour en Europe.
    Date: 2021

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