nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒08‒23
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Immigrants as future voters By Arye Hillman; Ngo Van Long
  2. The U.S. Latino Voters and the Immigration Overhaul: Case Study of Current Mexican Immigration to the U.S. By Adimora, Katia
  3. Attitudes Towards Globalization Barriers and Implications for Voting: Evidence from Sweden By Leyla D. Karakas; Nam Seok Kim; Devashish Mitra
  4. Leaving terrorism behind? Impact of terrorist attacks on migration intentions around the world By Killian Foubert; Ilse Ruyssen
  5. Migrant Selection and Sorting during the Great American Drought By Sichko, Christopher
  6. Between Hope and Despair: Egypt's Revolution and Migration Intentions By Yvonne Giesing; Reem Hassan
  7. Community Support for Foreign Senior Care Workers in Rural Japan and the Factors that Affect Perception of Receiving Care By R. Lamb, Austin
  8. The migrant wealth gap at the household level: Evidence from RIF regressions for Austria By Muckenhuber, Mattias; Rehm, Miriam; Schnetzer, Matthias
  9. Regional income inequalities and labour mobility in Hungary By Svraka, András
  10. Rohingya Refugee Crisis and the State of Insecurity in Bangladesh By Hossain Ahmed Taufiq
  11. Why North Korean Refugees are Reluctant to Compete: The Roles of Cognitive Ability By Syngjoo Choi; Byung-Yeon Kim; Jungmin Lee; Sokbae Lee

  1. By: Arye Hillman; Ngo Van Long
    Abstract: Immigration policies in western democracies have often been contrary to the policies predicted by the mainstream theory of international economics. In particular, political parties that, according to economic theory, should adopt policies beneficial for lower-income voter-constituencies, have not protected workers from labor-market competition or from a fiscal burden of financing welfare-dependent immigrants. We explain the contradiction by accounting for immigrants as future voters. We identify a political principal-agent problem based on ego-rents from political office. Our theory predicts voter defection from worker-supported political-establishment parties to new-entrant anti-immigration political candidates and parties. We give a hearing to alternative interpretations of the evidence. Les politiques d'immigration dans les démocraties occidentales ont souvent été contraires aux politiques prédites par la théorie dominante de l'économie internationale. En particulier, les partis politiques qui, selon la théorie économique, devraient adopter des politiques favorables aux électeurs à faible revenu, n'ont pas protégé les travailleurs de la concurrence sur le marché du travail ou du fardeau fiscal du financement des immigrés dépendants de l'aide sociale. Nous expliquons la contradiction en considérant les immigrés comme futurs électeurs. Nous identifions un problème politique principal-agent basé sur les rentes de l'ego des fonctions politiques. Notre théorie prédit la défection des électeurs des partis soutenus par les travailleurs vers les nouveaux candidats et partis politiques anti-immigration. Nous donnons une audience aux interprétations alternatives.
    Keywords: International migration,labor-market adjustment,immigrant welfare dependency,immigration amnesties,political entry barriers,multiculturalism,ethics of migration,exceptionalism, Migration internationale,ajustement du marché du travail,dépendance à l'aide sociale des immigrés,amnisties de l'immigration,barrières politiques à l'entrée,multiculturalisme,éthique de la migration,exceptionnalisme
    JEL: F22 F66 H53 P16
    Date: 2021–08–10
  2. By: Adimora, Katia
    Abstract: This article deploys descriptive case study to explore Mexican immigration to the US in the first 100 days of Joe Biden’s presidency. Firstly, the expanding voting size of Latino/Mexican community in the US is being recognised, and consequently, its influence on shaping immigration laws. Secondly, the immigration documents are being analysed to study their implications for Mexican immigration. In some cases, the contrast between Trump’s and Biden’s immigration circumstances are being highlighted. Even though immigration changes have been introduced formally, most of their practical applications are yet to be seen.
    Date: 2021–08–11
  3. By: Leyla D. Karakas; Nam Seok Kim; Devashish Mitra
    Abstract: Using six waves of the Swedish National Election Studies (SNES) survey data, we investigate the determinants of attitudes towards globalization barriers (trade and immigration) and how important these attitudes are in how people vote. In line with the existing results in the literature, we find that more educated and richer voters support freer trade and more immigration. We also find that conservative voters in Sweden are more likely to prefer freer trade but higher immigration barriers. Once various economic and demographic determinants of globalization barrier preferences along with voters’ ideologies on a liberal-conservative spectrum are controlled for in the analysis of voting behavior, trade barrier preferences lose their statistical significance while attitudes towards immigration barriers remain significant. This suggests that immigration attitudes affect voting behavior through channels involving identity-driven factors that are different from the channels through which more traditional electoral issues, such as trade barriers, work. Focusing on the anti-globalization Swedish Democrats, we confirm that voters with a greater preference for barriers to immigration were more likely to switch their votes to this party from the 2014 to the 2018 election.
    Keywords: globalization, trade, immigration, elections, voting, survey data, Sweden
    JEL: D72 F16 J61
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Killian Foubert; Ilse Ruyssen (-)
    Abstract: Terrorism is a global phenomenon with devastating consequences for the individuals involved and society in general. The adverse impacts of terrorist attacks may act as a driver for migration, both within and across borders. Yet, empirical evidence on the causal impact of terrorism on migration is scarce. The contribution of our paper is twofold. First, we construct various indicators of terrorist activity at a fine level of spatial and temporal granularity, which allow to fairly accurately identify individuals' exposure to terrorist threat. Second, we use these geo- localized indicators to empirically analyse the role played by terrorist attacks in shaping intentions to migrate either internally or internationally. Specifically, we use a multilevel approach combining these indicators with individual survey data on migration intentions in and from 133 countries, spanning the period 2007-2015. Our results indicate that terrorist attacks spur both internal and international migration intentions, though the effect is stronger for the latter. International migration intentions are, however, not necessarily responsive to the frequency of terrorist attacks, but rather to the intensity of these attacks, measured as the number of fatalities and wounded. In addition, the impact on migration intentions is heterogeneous, varying with both individual and country characteristics
    Keywords: Migration intentions, Terrorism, International migration
    JEL: F22 O15 D74 C23
    Date: 2021–08
  5. By: Sichko, Christopher
    Abstract: Migration is among the most basic adaptation methods to inhospitable environments and has large economic consequences for both migrants and the broader economy. To estimate the impact of the worst drought in U.S. history on migration, I match 1940 census data with county-level drought conditions. I find that drought substantially increased migration rates for individuals with a 12th grade education or higher but had little impact on migration rates for people with less education. This differential migration response to drought by education was most pronounced in counties with larger economic downturns during the Great Depression, consistent with the hypothesis that individual liquidity constraints limited migration for people with lower human capital. In terms of where migrants went, I show that the majority of migrants in the late 1930s relocated to rural destinations. In fact, migrants from drought counties were less likely to relocate to cities compared to similar migrants from non-drought counties. These findings detail the impact of widespread drought for Depression-era migration and document the central role of individual human capital in the uptake of migration from climate shocks.
    Date: 2021–08–09
  6. By: Yvonne Giesing; Reem Hassan
    Abstract: We study the effect of the 2011 Egyptian revolution and its aftermath on migration intentions of the Egyptian youth. We measure revolution intensity using the spacial variation in the number of deaths during the revolution from the Statistical Database of the Egyptian Revolution Wikithawra and combine it with data on migration intentions from the Harmonized Survey of Young People in Egypt (HSYPE). Difference-in-difference estimations show that the revolution significantly decreased the migration intentions of youth, especially young men. Single women did not change their migration intentions, mainly due to their financial dependence. Results also show that the youth living in informal slum areas experienced stronger effects. We describe two opposing channels: the insecurity channel, which positively affects migration intentions, and the optimism channel, which negatively affects migration intentions by inducing hope in a better Egyptian future. Youth in rural and slum areas were more sensitive to the optimism channel, due to their higher threshold of insecurity perception.
    Keywords: political instability, migration, Egypt, revolution
    JEL: D74 F22 O15 P16
    Date: 2021
  7. By: R. Lamb, Austin
    Abstract: Japanese senior care demands have seen significant growth over the last several decades from a dramatic increase in the senior demographic (+65 in age), a high senior concentration in the current Japanese society brought about by age longevity, and the improved quality standard of care and greater accessibility by the governments revision of the Long‐term Care Insurance (LTCI) program. The supply side is also suffering from both a decreasing population growth of youth category (14 and younger) and a static graduation rate of new nursing that is not growing commensurate with the demand. The government has begun to understand these detrimental factors and further revised national immigration policy to categorize senior care aid workers as skilled labor. The growth in demand for senior care services, the static domestic labor structure, and the new leniency of immigration policies has created various opportunities for foreign workers who are considering Japan as their new country of residence. The greater inflow of migrants into Japan could be a solution that can bring the country back to an acceptable level of prosperity and high quality‐of‐life for the senior population that the nation once had in the stable‐growth period.However, there is a significant difference between attracting foreign migrants to the Japanese senior care industry and retaining the migrants once they are working in their full capacity. This paper introduces survey research to identify if community survey participants agree with migration in senior care and which factors affect their perception of receiving care from foreign caregivers. The survey includes 563 citizens within 12 different cities chosen randomly within Page | 1 Hiroshima, Shimane, and Yamaguchi prefectures. Their feedback on the opinion has highlighted several weaknesses in society that can be mitigated through appropriate public policy revision, community development, and legal protections. It is important to react in the short term to reverse the negative trends; especially, since foreigners are becoming harder to attract due to the stagnation economic conditions of Japan and the continued growth of the senior citizen base in need of qualified care.
    Keywords: Japanese immigration policy, senior care, foreign workers, rural communities, factors, perception, J20, F22
    Date: 2021–07
  8. By: Muckenhuber, Mattias; Rehm, Miriam; Schnetzer, Matthias
    Abstract: We investigate how previous generations of migrants and their children integrated into Austrian society, as measured by their wealth ownership. Using data from the Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS), we document a positive average migrant wealth gap between migrant and native households. However, the raw gap is almost negligible for second generation migrant households, whereas it rises across the unconditional net wealth distribution for first generation migrant households and peaks at more than e140,000 around the 75th percentile. Decomposing the partial effects of a set of covariates using RIF regressions suggests that the lack of inheritances and the presence of children have the highest explanatory power for the migrant wealth gap of first generation migrant household. For second generation migrant households, inheritances have the highest impact, but they contribute negatively towards the explanation of the migrant wealth gap. In general, the covariates in our analysis can explain only a small part of the migrant wealth gap. Given the similarity of native and second generation migrant households, we cannot reject the hypothesis that migrants in the past integrated into Austrian society by acquiring comparable wealth levels.
    Keywords: Migration,Wealth Distribution,Wealth Gap,Unconditional Quantile Regression
    JEL: C31 D31 F22 G51 J15 J61
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Svraka, András (Tax Policy and Research Unit, Ministry of Finance)
    Abstract: We analyse regional wage inequalities in the 2010s using administrative data sources at highly disaggregated regional levels, including commuting zones. The decline in national wage inequalities during this period is reflected at regional levels and we find convergence between regions in income levels and in the decreasing weight of between region inequalities as well. There are still large differences, and high income employees are concentrated in prosperous regions. Interregional mobility was also a driving force behind changes in income inequalities even in a country with low overall mobility rates. High income employees are much more likely to move, typically from less central, less developed regions to more central, larger labour markets. We find some evidence for a transitory mobility premium, although we cannot establish the causality of this relationship.
    JEL: D31 J61 R12
    Date: 2021–08
  10. By: Hossain Ahmed Taufiq
    Abstract: The ongoing Rohingya refugee crisis is considered as one of the largest human-made humanitarian disasters of the 21st century. So far, Bangladesh is the largest recipient of these refugees. According to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA), approximately 650,000 new entrants have been recorded since the new violence erupted on 25 August 2017 in the Rakhine state of Myanmar.1 However, such crisis is nothing new in Bangladesh, nor are the security-related challenges new that such an exodus brings with it. Ever since the military came to power in Myanmar (in 1962), Rohingya exodus to neighboring countries became a recurring incident. The latest mass exodus of Rohingyas from Rakhine state of Myanmar to Bangladesh is the largest of such influxes. Unlike, the previous refugee crisis, the ongoing crisis has wide-ranging security implications on Bangladesh. They are also varied and multifaceted. Thus, responsibilities for ensuring effective protection have become operationally multilateral. The problem of security regarding the Rohingya refugee issue is complicated by the Islamist insurgency, illicit methamphetamine/yaba drug trafficking, and HIV/AIDS/STI prevalence factors. The chapter examines the different dimensions of security challenges that the recent spell of Rohingya exodus brings to Bangladesh and the refugees themselves. In order to understand the challenges, firstly the chapter attempts to conceptualize the prominent security frameworks. Secondly, it examines the context and political economy behind the persecution of Rohingyas in the Rakhine state. Thirdly, it explores the political and military aspects of security. Fourthly, it explores the social and economic dimensions. Finally, it examines the environmental impacts of Rohingya crisis in Bangladesh.
    Date: 2021–07
  11. By: Syngjoo Choi; Byung-Yeon Kim; Jungmin Lee; Sokbae Lee
    Abstract: This paper investigates the development of competitiveness by comparing three Korean groups in South Korea, born and raised in three countries with distinct institutional environments: South Korea, North Korea, and China. Results based on laboratory experiments show that North Korean refugees are significantly less competitive than South Koreans or Korean-Chinese immigrants. Furthermore, analyses through the lens of a choice model with probability weighting suggest that lower cognitive ability may be associated with lower levels of expected performance, more pessimistic subject beliefs and greater aversion to competition.
    Date: 2021–08

This nep-mig issue is ©2021 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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