nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒06‒28
six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. From Stocks to Flows – Evidence for the Climate-Migration-Nexus By Berlemann, Michael; Haustein, Erik; Steinhardt, Max F.
  2. Culture, Immigration and Tax Compliance By Antoine Malézieux; Benno Torgler
  3. Communication Barriers and Infant Health: Intergenerational Effects of Randomly Allocating Refugees Across Language Regions By Auer, Daniel; Kunz, Johannes S.
  4. The Violence of Uncertainty: empirical evidence on how asylum waiting time undermines refugees’ health By Phillimore, Jenny; Cheung, Sin Yi
  5. A Political Economy and Voicing Model of the Institutional Impact of Brain Drain, Human Capital, Inequality and Country Size By Docquier, Frédéric; Schiff, Maurice
  6. Illegal Immigration: The Trump Effect By Mark Hoekstra; Sandra Orozco-Aleman

  1. By: Berlemann, Michael (Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg); Haustein, Erik (Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg); Steinhardt, Max F. (Free University of Berlin)
    Abstract: Slow onset climate change has the potential to cause significant migration flows. Scientists have recently made considerable efforts to quantify these flows based on empirical methods. However, the literature on international migration has failed to come to a clear conclusion as many studies found no significant effects of climate, while others did. In this paper, we aim to uncover a factor which likely contributes to the mixed picture in the literature: how migration flow data is obtained from migrant stock data. Using the influential study of Cattaneo and Peri (2016) as a workhorse, we demonstrate that the derived empirical results depend heavily on the applied method to derive migration flows. Therefore, our study reveals the necessity for future research on international migration to test the sensitivity of estimated effects to changes in the construction of migration flows.
    Keywords: climate change, emigration, economic development, migration data
    JEL: F22 J61 O15 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2021–06
  2. By: Antoine Malézieux; Benno Torgler
    Abstract: Although understanding how multiculturalism shapes society is imperative in today's globalized world, insights on certain behavior domains remain limited, including those on tax compliance among domestic versus foreign taxpayers. Our meta-study of laboratory tax experiments analyzes over 50,000 tax declaration decisions by almost 5,000 subjects entailing 95 nationalities. Not only do immigrant participants exhibit signicantly less tax compliance than natives even with controls for numerous covariates, but tax compliance correlates positively with tax morale, which in turn also interacts signicantly with immigration status. Few variablesmainly linked to politicsinuenced the gap of compliance between natives and immigrants.
    Keywords: Tax evasion; Immigration; Meta-analysis
    JEL: C9 H0 H3
    Date: 2021–06
  3. By: Auer, Daniel; Kunz, Johannes S.
    Abstract: This paper investigates the intergenerational effect of communication barriers on child health at birth using a natural experiment in Switzerland. We leverage the fact that refugees arriving in Switzerland originate from places that have large shares of French (or Italian) speakers for historical reasons and upon arrival are by law randomly allocated across states that are dominated by different languages but subject to the same jurisdiction. Our findings based on administrative records of all refugee arrivals and birth events between 2010 and 2017 show that children born to mothers who were exogenously allocated to an environment that matched their linguistic heritage are on average 72 gram heavier (or 2.2%) than those that were allocated to an unfamiliar language environment. The differences are driven by growth rather than gestation and manifest in a 2.9 percentage point difference in low birth weight incidence. We find substantial dose-response relationships in terms of language exposure in both, the origin country and the destination region. Moreover, French (Italian) exposed refugees only benefit from French-(Italian-) speaking destinations, but not vice versa. Contrasting the language match with co-ethnic networks, we find that high quality networks are acting as a substitute rather than a complement.
    Keywords: Infant health,Language Proffciency,Refugee allocation,Networks
    JEL: F22 I12 J13 J24 J61 J62
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Phillimore, Jenny; Cheung, Sin Yi (Cardiff University)
    Abstract: Grace and colleagues (2018) introduced the idea of violent uncertainty making claims about the deleterious impacts of insecure immigration status on the health of migrants. Policies of uncertainty are said to directly and indirectly create harm by impacting on individual’s health via detention and public degradation and undermining healthcare services. We offer original empirical evidence indicating an association with uncertainty, in the form of asylum waiting times, on refugees’ self-reported health. We devise four hypotheses that: long waiting time for asylum decisions increases likelihood of self-reported health problems and the effect persists overtime, that female refugees report higher levels of health problems and religion moderates the association between health and uncertainty. We use data from the UK longitudinal Survey of New Refugees wherein all new refugees were sent a baseline survey immediately after receiving refugee status and then follow-up surveys 21 months later. The findings show longer asylum waiting time is associated with poor health. Female refugees were more likely to report poor emotional and physical health. The negative effect of asylum waiting time on emotional health persists 21 months post settlement with hypotheses about the ameliorating effect of religion only partially supported. Our findings supports existing theory and findings from qualitative studies about the deleterious effects of using policies of waiting-related uncertainty for managing migration. Given the wide use of such policies in the Global North, our work is suggestive of likely generalisability. Thus, countries with large refugee populations might want to consider our findings when developing asylum policy which minimises impact on refugee health.
    Date: 2021–06–17
  5. By: Docquier, Frédéric; Schiff, Maurice
    Abstract: Brain drain BD, human capital h, and inequality's institutional impact is examined in a model where a rent-seeking elite taxes residents and voicing affects the likelihood of regime change. We find that BD and h's impact on institutional quality (Q) are as follows: i) Q is a U-shaped function of BD, with maximum (minimum) at BD = 0 (0 ) BD1, and is maximized at BD = 0; vi) Q increases in a high (low) BD country under a host country's immigration promotion (restriction); vii) a high BD country's institutions improve (worsen) under a large (small) reduction in BD; viii) the latter is particularly relevant for small and micro states where BD and Q are likely to be greater than in large but otherwise similar countries.
    Keywords: political economy,voicing,institutional impact,brain drain,human capital,inequality
    JEL: F22 F63 H21 O15
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Mark Hoekstra; Sandra Orozco-Aleman
    Abstract: Recent years have witnessed the emergence of increasingly provocative anti-immigrant politicians in both Europe and the United States. We examine whether the 2016 election of Donald Trump, who made illegal immigration and border enforcement a centerpiece of his campaign, reduced illegal immigration into the U.S. We exploit the fact the election result was widely unexpected and thus generated a large, overnight change in expected immigration policy and rhetoric. We compare migration flows before and after the election and find that while it reduced immigration among deported Mexicans and at least temporarily among Central Americans, it had no effect on the overall inflow of unauthorized Mexican workers.
    JEL: J15 J6 J61
    Date: 2021–06

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