nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒06‒14
six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The Role of the Diaspora in the Internationalization of the Colombian Economy By Ana Grisanti; Daniela Muhaj; Eric S. M. Protzer; Jessie Lu; Julian Hinz; Ljubica Nedelkoska; Matte Hartog; Ricardo Hausmann; Andre Assumpcao; Annalee Saxenian
  2. Wage Theft, Economic Conditions, and Market Power: The Case of H-1B Workers By DeVaro, Jed; Norlander, Peter
  3. Potential Mobility from Africa, Middle East and EU Neighbouring Countries to Europe By Richard Grieveson; Michael Landesmann; Isilda Mara
  4. The labor market integration of immigrant women in Europe: context, theory and evidence By Schieckoff, Bentley; Sprengholz, Maximilian
  5. Children in left-behind migrant households: education and gender equality By Saleemi, Sundus
  6. Immigration and the UK economy after Brexit By Portes, Jonathan

  1. By: Ana Grisanti (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Daniela Muhaj; Eric S. M. Protzer (Center for Global Development); Jessie Lu; Julian Hinz; Ljubica Nedelkoska (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Matte Hartog (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Ricardo Hausmann (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Andre Assumpcao (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Annalee Saxenian
    Abstract: We studied the geography as well as the demographic and soco-economic characteristics of 1.7 million members of the global Colombian diaspora (34% of the total estimated Colombian diaspora) using census and survey data from major host countries, and 3.5 million Twitter users located around the world presumed to be of Colombian origin. We also studied the locations and industries of Colombian senior managers and directors outside Colombia, using a global database of over 400 million companies. Moreover, we studied the migration journeys, the diaspora’s attachment to Colombia, the level of diaspora engagement and interest in engaging, the intentions to return back home, the interest in diaspora government policy, and the overall sentiment of the diaspora towards Colombia, through a survey which received 11,500 responses from the diaspora in well over 100 countries in less than two months. We additionally interviewed 12 Colombian transnational entrepreneurs and professionals, to understand what attracts them professionally to Colombia, and what may stand in the way of more diaspora engagement and professional growth.
    Keywords: Diaspora, Colombia
    Date: 2021–05
  2. By: DeVaro, Jed; Norlander, Peter
    Abstract: This study explores what determines employers' violations of the wage contracts of workers on H-1B temporary work visas, which occur when firms pay those workers below the promised prevailing or "market" wage. A theoretical framework is proposed that predicts more violations during economic downturns, fewer violations when firms have more labor-market power, and more violations by subcontractor firms. Empirical analysis is based on a firm-level matched dataset of wage and hour violations and the firms that sponsor H-1Bs. Higher labor market power, measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, is associated with fewer violations. Higher unemployment rates and subcontractor firms are associated with more violations. The effects of the unemployment rate and labor market power are amplified in subcontractor firms.
    Keywords: wage theft,guest workers,H-1B workers,labor market competition,wage and hour laws,monopsony labor market
    JEL: J31 J38 J42 J44
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Richard Grieveson (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Michael Landesmann (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Isilda Mara (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Migration from Africa and the Middle East to the EU has intensified over the last two decades. Relative differences between developed EU and less developed African and Middle East countries have not declined that much and continue to drive mobility. Also, demographic trends show a strong contrast between the population of the EU (ageing and shrinking rapidly) and that of Africa and the Middle East (young and continuously increasing). Apart from demographic pressures and development gaps, other forces related to conflicts and wars, as well as climate risks, have become important drivers of mobility and are not expected to fade away soon. Anticipating migration flows in order to ensure better management and regulated mobility has become essential, although this is an exercise subject to high uncertainty. With these caveats in mind, this study seeks to calculate long-term potential mobility from Africa, the Middle East and Eastern EU neighbouring countries to EU28 and EFTA by applying a migration gravity model following a scenario-based approach. Projections for 2020-2029 suggest that migration flows to the EU from Africa, in particular, will dominate the South-North mobility corridor. Migration policies will also play a role in shaping future migration trends, as migration flows are subject to EU destination countries’ applying restrictive migration policies.
    Keywords: International Migration, forecasting, scenario, gravity model, EU, Africa
    JEL: F22 J11 J61 O15
    Date: 2021–05
  4. By: Schieckoff, Bentley; Sprengholz, Maximilian
    Abstract: Women represent an important component of the immigration population in Europe and have increasingly been a group of interest in academic studies, especially with regard to their integration outcomes. In this overview, we seek to provide a comprehensive resource for scholars of female immigrant labor market integration in Europe, to act both as a reference and a roadmap for future studies in this domain. We begin by presenting a contextual history of immigration to and within Europe since the Second World War, before outlining the major theoretical assumptions about immigrant women’s labor market disadvantage from economics and sociology. We then synthesize the empirical findings published between 2000 and 2020 and analyze how they line up with the theoretical predictions. We also present descriptive analyses with data from 2019, which expose any discrepancies between the current situation in European countries and the situation during the time periods considered in the reviewed studies. As a group, immigrant women are often reported to experience significant disadvantages in their labor market integration, both compared to immigrant men and to native women. However, this type of approach glosses over the substantial heterogeneity in immigrant women’s experiences. Instead, our overview points to a selective disadvantage for immigrant women that is highly dependent on their country of origin and the reception context they encounter after immigration.
    Keywords: Labor market disadvantage,gender gap,nativity gap
    JEL: J0 J61
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Saleemi, Sundus
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of migration of men from rural areas in Pakistan on children in households “left behind” by the migrants. Left-behind households’ expenditure on children’s education and the gendered distribution of these expenditures are two outcomes of main interest. First, it is tested if left-behind households have higher overall expenditures on children’s education. Second, it is tested if migration of men from households reduces gender inequality in households’ expenditures on children’s education. This gendered distribution is analyzed by estimating the effect of migration on the share of households’ education expenditures spent on girls. Migration can affect these expenditures and its gendered distribution through various channels. Men’s migration may lead to women taking over household decisions regarding education expenditures. Migration may also transfer norms and alter peoples’ preferences such as those regarding children’s schooling. To differentiate between the channels two types of migration, permanent migration of men for employment creating “left-behind” households and temporary migration whereby male members migrate for employment for short periods during the year, have been considered. Transfer of norms is expected to operate through temporary migration episodes as well as via permanent migration, while the changes in women’s decision making is expected to operate via permanent migration when the men are absent. The effect of remittances has been further separated from the effect of migration. The paper uses longitudinal data from rural households in Pakistan with additional data collected from a sub-sample of the panel by the author. Fixed effects fixed effects model (FEM) is used to estimate these relationships, reducing endogeneity of migration. The results suggest that migrant and non-migrant households in the sample do not have significantly different expenditures on children’s schooling and education. This is true for both types of migration. Households that receive remittances have higher expenditures on children’s education. A noteworthy result is that left-behind households have girls’ shares that are higher as much as 18 percent than the average. This is not the case for households with temporary migrants, suggesting that women’s decision participation decreases gender inequality in households’ education expenditures. Heckman Selection Model has additionally been estimated to estimate the effect of the migration on households’ expenditure on girls’ education, considering the selection of households into sending girls to school. Heckman Selection model also suggests that left-behind households have higher per girl expenditures. The results of the selection model suggest that being a left-behind household is significantly positively associated with households’ expenditures on girls’ education.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2021–05–31
  6. By: Portes, Jonathan
    Abstract: I review trends in migration to the UK since the Brexit referendum, examining first the sharp fall in net migration from the EU that resulted, and then the recent more dramatic exodus of foreign-born residents during the covid-19 pandemic. I describe the new post-Brexit system, and review studies which attempt to estimate both the impact on future migration flows and on GDP and GDP per capita. Finally, I discuss the wider economic impact of the new system and some of the policy implications.
    Keywords: Immigration,Great Britain,productivity
    JEL: E24 J24 J61 M53
    Date: 2021

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