nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒05‒24
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Immigrant Distribution in the United States during the Age of Mass Migration By Ariell Zimran
  2. The Political Effects of Immigration: Culture or Economics? By Alesina, Alberto F; Tabellini, Marco
  3. Happiness and Migration By Hendriks, Martijn; Burger, Martijn J.
  4. How to Improve Worker-Firm Matching: Evidence from a Temporary Foreign Worker Market By Cho, Yoon Y.; Lee, Soohyung
  5. Mentoring as a Pathway to Labour Market Integration: Evidence from a Belgian Programme By Lisa Bagnoli; Antonio Estache; Maleke Fourati
  6. Trade Unions and the Welfare of Rural-Urban Migrant Workers in China By Booth, Alison L; Freeman, Richard B; Meng, Xin; Zhang, James
  7. Academic performance and territorial patterns of students with an immigrant background in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area By Silvia de Almeida; Joao Firmino; Jose Mesquita; Maria Joao Hortas; Luis Catela Nunes
  8. The Economics of Diversity: Innovation, Productivity, and the Labour Market By Ozgen, Ceren
  9. Combining Restricted-Access Census and Department of Homeland Security Data to Generate Novel Immigration Estimates By Parag Mahajan; Dean Yang

  1. By: Ariell Zimran
    Abstract: Immigrant distribution--the geographic dispersion of immigrants in the destination country--was a major issue in the United States in the late Age of Mass Migration. Policy debates were influenced by the widely held view that the new immigrants were generally less geographically mobile within the United States and specifically less likely to leave urban areas than were natives and earlier immigrants. I build new linked census datasets to investigate these claims by studying the rates of, selection into, and sorting of internal migration by US immigrants. I find that contemporary claims regarding immigrant distribution were either false, oversimplified, or the product of broader national trends that applied also to natives. Nonetheless, geographic assimilation--convergence in immigrants' and natives' county-of-residence distributions over time in the United States--was almost nonexistent.
    JEL: F22 J11 J15 J61 N31 N32 R23
    Date: 2021–05
  2. By: Alesina, Alberto F; Tabellini, Marco
    Abstract: We review the growing literature on the political effects of immigration. After a brief summary of the economics of immigration, we turn to the main focus of the paper: how immigrants influence electoral outcomes in receiving countries, and why. We start from the "standard" view that immigration triggers political backlash and raises support for nativist, anti-immigrant political parties. We present evidence from a variety of studies that the causes of natives' political discontent are unlikely to have (solely) economic roots, but are instead more tightly linked to cultural and social concerns. Next, we discuss works that paint a more nuanced picture of the effects of immigration, which, in some cases, can move natives' preferences in a more liberal direction. We also consider the factors that can explain a seemingly puzzling empirical regularity: the anti-immigration rhetoric has become a banner of right wing parties. We conclude by outlining what, to us, are promising avenues for future research.
    JEL: D72 J11 J15 J61 Z1
    Date: 2020–11
  3. By: Hendriks, Martijn; Burger, Martijn J.
    Abstract: A subjective well-being angle has emerged as an important new frontier to advance the understanding of the causes and consequences of migration. The purpose of this chapter is to organize and take stock of this emerging literature on the bi-directional relationship between migration and happiness by reviewing the available literature from a global perspective. The literature review covers both international migration and internal migration and considers the outcomes of various stakeholders (migrants, hosting communities, and family members left behind). The literature documents ample evidence that happiness plays an important role in migration decisions, with relatively unhappy people moving to happier places, even after accounting for standard predictors of migration. In some contexts, internal migrants experience a pre-migration happiness dip. Most international migrants gain happiness from migration, hosting populations tend to experience a mixed but small impact, and family members staying behind generally experience a positive impact on evaluative well-being but not emotional well-being. However, the outcomes are strongly context-dependent and important differences exist between individuals. The impact of migration is much smaller for internal migrants. Overall, the current evidence suggests that migration contributes to a happier world because of the generally positive effects on migrants and the marginal effects on hosting communities.
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Cho, Yoon Y. (World Bank); Lee, Soohyung (Seoul National University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of worker-firm matching algorithms in accounting for early job separation rates. For this purpose, we examine Korea’s temporary foreign worker program in which the government classifies firms by priority levels and matches them with foreign workers based on their stated preferences. Using administrative data, we examine predictors for the job separation rates and propose alternative matching methods using the serial dictatorship. Our simulation results show that alternative matching methods can substantially reduce job separation rates, suggesting a possible improvement of the Korean program.
    Keywords: market design, migration, temporary immigrants, job matching, employment permit system
    JEL: J4 J6 O15
    Date: 2021–04
  5. By: Lisa Bagnoli; Antonio Estache; Maleke Fourati
    Abstract: In this paper, we provide evidence on mentoring as a way to ease the labour market integration of youth with a migration background. To do so, we designed a survey and collected information from mentees of a Belgian mentoring programme (DUO for a JOB). Our results show that the mentoring programme covers different topics. Some topics, such as gaining self-confidence, serve nearly all mentees, while the preference for other topics depends on specific mentee characteristics. Overall, every youth with a migration background can benefit from the mentoring programme, irrespective of their education or migration background.
    Keywords: Mentoring, labour market, migration, integration, youth.
    Date: 2021–05
  6. By: Booth, Alison L; Freeman, Richard B; Meng, Xin; Zhang, James
    Abstract: Using a panel survey, we investigate how the welfare of rural-urban migrant workers in China is affected by trade union presence at the workplace. Controlling for individual fixed- effects, we find the following. Relative to workers from workplaces without union presence or with inactive unions, both union-covered non-members and union members in workplaces with active unions earn higher monthly income, are more likely to have a written contract, be covered by social insurances, receive fringe benefits, express work-related grievances through official channels, feel more satisfied with their lives, and are less likely to have mental health problems.
    Keywords: China; Rural-Urban Migration; Trade union
    JEL: J5 O53 P21 P30
    Date: 2020–10
  7. By: Silvia de Almeida; Joao Firmino; Jose Mesquita; Maria Joao Hortas; Luis Catela Nunes
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the territorial distribution of students with an immigrant background enrolled in the 3rd cycle of basic education in Portugal and on the differences in the academic performance of students enrolled in the last year of this cycle based on their birthplace and immigrant background when compared to their native peers in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. These differences are examined by estimating several linear regression models using as dependent variable three performance indicators – student’s results in the 9th grade national exams in the Maths and Portuguese Language subjects, as well as a binary indicator of a successful academic record during the 3rd cycle. The observed results confirm the hypothesis that there are significant differences in the students’ academic performance depending on their immigrant background and birthplace: (i) 2nd-generation and 1st-generation students perform worse than Native students; (ii) students from Brazil and PALOP countries have the most significant differences compared to students from Portugal. We also identify that a substantial part of these differences is already present in the end of the 2nd cycle of basic education. Furthermore, our results indicate that a considerable part of the differences is explained by factors inherent to the school and the class of the student, and not so much to the municipality, which might indicate the existence of some type of segregation experienced by these students, either at intra-municipality level (by the different schools) or intra-school level (by the different classes).
    Keywords: Students with an immigrant background, academic results, Lisbon Metropolitan Area
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Ozgen, Ceren (University of Birmingham)
    Abstract: The empirical evidence on the economic impacts of diversity is mixed. Many studies in the literature present context dependent and data driven results which are challenging to reconcile with each other. This paper offers a systematic synthesis of the empirical findings on the economic impacts of diversity on innovation, productivity, and the labour market. It presents a structured framework which takes the spatial scale of the analysis in the papers as a reference to understand the inconsistency of some previous predictions and the varying magnitudes of the diversity impact. The empirical findings reconcile more meaningfully when diversity effects are documented discretely at the regional, firm and individual levels. The paper further sets out an agenda for future research and links the findings for policy relevance.
    Keywords: innovation, cultural diversity, migration, knowledge production function
    JEL: J24 J15 F22 O15
    Date: 2021–04
  9. By: Parag Mahajan; Dean Yang
    Abstract: This memo combines restricted-access demographic data from the Census Bureau with administrative data from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to generate novel estimates of new arrivals of lawful, permanent residents to the U.S. by country of birth from 1983 through 2005. We detail our model selection process, which uses cross-validation methods to search for the best prediction model among several unpenalized and penalized linear options. We demonstrate how our estimates may be useful in an application derived from Mahajan and Yang (2020).
    Date: 2021–05

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