nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒03‒08
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Offspring Migration and Nutritional Status of Left-behind Older Adults in Rural China By Chang Liu; Tor Eriksson; Fujin Yi
  2. Faith and Assimilation: Italian Immigrants in the US By Stefano Gagliarducci; Marco Tabellini
  3. Ban on female migrant workers: Skills-differentiated evidence from Sri Lanka By Bilesha Weeraratne
  4. The Political Economy of Open Borders: Theory and Evidence on the role of Electoral Rules By Matteo Gamalerio; Massimo Morelli; Margherita Negri
  5. The Role of Labor Market Institutions in the Impact of Immigration on Wages and Employment By Mette Foged; Linea Hasager; Vasil Yasenov
  6. A synthesis of key aspects of health systems and policy design affecting the refugee populations in Uganda By Fred Matovu; Mayora Chrispus
  7. Around the world in 80 waves: Addressing the nation’s immigration crisis By Barker, John; Freijy, Brodie; Gonzales, Aaron; Herdrich, Matthew; Lambertis, Amira; Moulton, Claire; Patterson, Julia; Samuel, Christella; Amaral, Ernesto F. L.
  8. Trends of International Migration since Post-World War II By David, Blight
  9. COVID-19, Public Charge Rules, and Immigrant Employment in the United States By Dias, Felipe A; Chance, Joseph

  1. By: Chang Liu (Nanjing Forestry University); Tor Eriksson (Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University); Fujin Yi (Nanjing Agricultural University)
    Abstract: Improvements in nutritional status is a principal pathway to good health. This study examines the effect of migration of adult children on the nutrient intake of left-behind older adults in rural China. We use data from four waves (2004–2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and utilize individual fixed effects methods to panel data. Results show that the migration of offspring is associated with significantly higher nutritional status of their left-behind parents, especially higher intake of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins B1–B3, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, selenium, and copper. The intake of some of these nutrients is below recommended levels. The magnitude of the estimated effects vary between 4% and 24%. Older adults who live with their grandchildren in rural households or have a low income benefit more from having adult child migrants in the household. The improvement of nutrition outcomes of left-behind older adults is mainly due to increased consumption of cereals, meat, eggs, and fish.
    Keywords: Offspring migration, Nutrient intake, Food composition, Left-behind older adults
    JEL: J61 I15 O12
    Date: 2021–03–01
  2. By: Stefano Gagliarducci (University of Rome Tor Vergata, EIEF and IZA); Marco Tabellini (Harvard Business School and CEPR)
    Abstract: We study the effects of religious organizations on immigrants' assimilation. We focus on the arrival of Italian Catholic churches in the US between 1900 and 1920, when four million Italians had moved to America, and anti-Catholic sentiments were widespread. We combine newly collected Catholic directories on the presence of Italian churches across years and counties with the full count US Census of Population. We find that Italian churches reduced the social assimilation of Italian immigrants, lowering intermarriage rates and increasing ethnic residential segregation. We find no evidence that this was the result of either lower effort exerted by immigrants to “fit in” the American society or increased desire to vertically transmit national culture. Instead, we provide evidence for other two, non-mutually exclusive, mechanisms. First, Italian churches raised the frequency of interactions among fellow Italians, likely generating peer effects and reducing contact with other groups. Second, they increased the salience of the immigrant community among natives, thereby triggering backlash and discrimination.
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Bilesha Weeraratne
    Abstract: This study examines the skills-differentiated impact of a restrictive female labour migration policy in Sri Lanka using monthly departure data from 2012 to 2018 in a difference-in-difference model. The policy has resulted in decreasing departures among lower-skilled groups?female domestic, unskilled, semi-skilled, and skilled workers?and increasing departures among middle-level and professional workers.
    Keywords: Labour migration, Employment, Women, Difference-in-differences, Skills
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Matteo Gamalerio; Massimo Morelli; Margherita Negri
    Abstract: Institutions matter for the political choice of policies, and hence the consideration of the median voter's preferences should not be considered sufficient. We study theoretically and empirically how different electoral systems affect the level of openness of a country or city, zooming on the labor market as the main source of heterogeneous economic preferences towards immigration. The general result is that a polity is more open to immigration the less likely it is that policy making can be supported by a plurality of voters who do not constitute the absolute majority. There is evidence for this result at all levels in terms of correlations, and we establish causality via regression discontinuity design for the Italian case.
    Keywords: Electoral Rules, Immigration, Occupational Choice
    JEL: D72 J24 J61 R23
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Mette Foged (University of Copenhagen, CReAM and IZA); Linea Hasager (University of Copenhagen); Vasil Yasenov (Immigration Policy Lab, Stanford University, and IZA)
    Abstract: We study the role of institutions in affecting the labor market impacts of immigration using a cross-country meta-analysis approach. To accomplish this, we gather information on 1,030 previously estimated wage effects and 432 employment effects of immigration from 61 academic studies covering 18 developed countries. The mean and median impact on the relative wage of directly exposed native workers are negative and significantly different from the small positive mean and median impact on the average wage level. This pattern is reversed for employment effects where the magnitudes are smaller. We combine this database with country-level data on labor market institutions from the OECD. The results suggest that institutions may shield native workers from distributional (relative) wage consequences of immigration but exacerbate the impacts on average wages in the economy. We do not detect a significant and robust association for the employment effects of foreign workers.
    Keywords: immigration, wages, employment, labor market institutions, meta-analysis
    JEL: D02 J08 J15 J31 J61
    Date: 2021–03
  6. By: Fred Matovu (School of Economics, Makerere University); Mayora Chrispus (School of Public Health, Makerere University)
    Abstract: Uganda has been host to many refugees and asylum seekers from within Africa, and beyond, since colonial times, most of these fleeing political instability and conflict in their countries of origin or residence. This is attributed to Uganda’s long-standing open-door refugee policy and relatively stable political situation. Within Africa, the majority of refugees in Uganda initially came from Rwanda and Burundi, and more recently from South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Other countries that contribute to the refuge population in Uganda include Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia, among others.
    Date: 2021–02
  7. By: Barker, John; Freijy, Brodie; Gonzales, Aaron; Herdrich, Matthew; Lambertis, Amira; Moulton, Claire; Patterson, Julia; Samuel, Christella; Amaral, Ernesto F. L. (Texas A&M University)
    Abstract: Immigration has a paramount effect on the size, distribution, composition, and cultural aspects of the United States. Policymakers implemented several programs, such as the Bracero program, the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), and have increased border security to address migration issues. While these programs were merely short term solutions, we focused on possibilities that can address this issue in a long-term and comprehensive setting. The MIGRANT (Migrant Integration Generating Reform And New Trends) policy focuses on the objective to integrate undocumented immigrants into American society.
    Date: 2021–02–13
  8. By: David, Blight
    Abstract: This paper synthesizes insights from new global data on the effectiveness of migration policies. It investigates the complex links between migration policies and migration trends to disentangle policy effects from structural migration determinants. The analysis challenges two central assumptions underpinning the popular idea that migration restrictions have failed to curb migration. First, post‐World War II global migration levels have not accelerated, but remained relatively stable while most shifts in migration patterns have been directional. Second, post‐World War II migration policies have generally liberalized despite political rhetoric suggesting the contrary. While migration policies are generally effective, substitution effects can limit their effectiveness, or even make them counterproductive, by geographically diverting migration, interrupting circulation, encouraging unauthorized migration, or prompting “now or never” migration surges. These effects expose fundamental policy dilemmas and highlight the importance of understanding the economic, social, and political trends that shape migration in sometimes counterintuitive, but powerful, ways that largely lie beyond the reach of migration policies.
    Keywords: migration, trends, determinants, policy, visa, refugee
    JEL: J1 J11 J15 J18
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Dias, Felipe A; Chance, Joseph
    Abstract: This article examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on immigrant employment in the United States using data from the Current Population Survey. It also provides the first evidence about the impact of the new public charge rules on the employment behavior of immigrants during the post-outbreak recovery. The authors find that among immigrants with household earnings at levels that make them susceptible to inadmissibility under the new rules, noncitizen status is associated with a 3.7% increase in employment among immigrant men. This effect is robust to inclusion of controls for socioeconomic characteristics and various fixed effects, and it is concentrated for men in states with below average unemployment benefit take-up. Findings also show that the differential employment effect is stronger in state-months with higher COVID-19 rates, suggesting that impacted workers may be increasing their workplace exposure to COVID-19.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Labor supply, COVID-19, covid, Public Charge Rule, Immigration, Employment
    Date: 2021–02–02

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