nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒02‒15
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Female Employment and Intimate Partner Violence: Evidence from Syrian Refugee Inflows to Turkey By Erten, Bilge; Keskin, Pinar
  2. A behavioural perspective on the drivers of migration: Studying economic and social preferences using the Gallup World Poll By Klöble, Katrin
  3. Exploring how VET, skills and qualifications were used in the context of the EU Relocation Program, the case of France. By Assaf Dahdah; Delphine Mercier
  4. Immigration, local crowd-out and undercoverage bias By Michael Amior
  5. Monopsony and the wage effects of migration By Michael Amior; Alan Manning
  6. Reexamining the Influence of Conditional Cash Transfers on Migration from a Gendered Lens: Comment By Stark, Oded
  7. Mobility under the COVID-19 Pandemic: Asymmetric Effects across Gender and Age By Francesca G Caselli; Francesco Grigoli; Damiano Sandri; Antonio Spilimbergo

  1. By: Erten, Bilge (Northeastern University); Keskin, Pinar (Wellesley College)
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of female employment on intimate partner violence by exploiting the differential arrivals of Syrian refugees across Turkish provinces as an exogenous labor market shock. By employing a distance-based instrument, we find that refugee inflows caused a decline in female employment with no significant impact on male employment. This decline led to a reduction in intimate partner violence, without changes in partner characteristics, gender attitudes, co-residence patterns, or division of labor. Our results are consistent with instrumental theories of violence: a decline in female earning opportunities reduces the incentives of men to use violence for rent extraction.
    Keywords: refugees, forced migration, employment, intimate partner violence
    JEL: F22 J12 O15
    Date: 2021–01
  2. By: Klöble, Katrin
    Abstract: This paper addresses the self-selection of potential migrants. In particular, the study examines whether risk and time preferences explain a significant proportion in the movement heterogeneity of individuals. It is further intended to shed light on the role of social preferences (trust, altruism, reciprocity) as potential migratory determinants. By making use of a unique cross-sectional data set on migration intentions (Gallup World Poll) and experimentally-validated preferences (the Global Preference Survey) covering 70 countries worldwide, a probit model is estimated. The empirical results provide evidence that potential migrants exhibit higher levels of risk-taking and patience than their counterparts who stay at home (the stayers). This holds true across differing countries with various cultural backgrounds and income levels. Trust and negative reciprocity are found to be significantly related to migration aspirations as well. Yet conclusive clarifications still remain necessary, providing impetuses for future research.
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Assaf Dahdah (UMR ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Delphine Mercier (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Since the beginning of the 2000's French governments have elaborated seven laws on migrations and asylum, the last one voted in 2018 is known as "Loi immigration et asile" or "Loi Colomb" the name of the former Minister of interior Gérard Colomb. All these laws have strengthened the control on migration, threatened the rights of asylum seekers, generate a harsh environment without creating better conditions for the integration of the newcomers. The hard conditions of access to the labour market, to housing, and to basic needs and rights illustrate this situation. However, France was involved in the European programme for the relocation of asylum seekers between September 2015 and September 2017. In the French case, national authorities decided in 2015 to relocate from Italy and Greece around 30,000 individuals during the relocation process. However, at the end of the dispositive in 2017 less than 5,100 refugees had been relocated to France, mainly from Greece. At the same time, French authorities focused on Calais and Grande-Synthe (North of France) where almost 5,000 persons were waiting in camps and slums to reach Great Britain. The relocation dispositive of the migrants from Calais and Grande-Synthe to the other regions temporary halted the French implication in the European relocation programme. According to the French-Italian Summit in September 2017 and despite the tensions that appeared between both States during the relocation dispositive, both governments agreed to continue the relocation programme including 200 relocations per month. This agreement ended with the new elected Italian government.
    Keywords: migration,asylum,labour market,relocation,European programme
    Date: 2020–01–13
  4. By: Michael Amior
    Abstract: Using decadal census data since 1960, I cannot reject the hypothesis that new immigrants crowd out existing residents from US commuting zones and states one-for-one. My estimate is precise and robust to numerous specifications, as well as accounting for local dynamics; and I show how it can be reconciled with apparently conflicting results in the literature. Exploiting my model's structure, I attribute 30% of the observed effect to mismeasurement, specifically undercoverage of immigrants. Though labor demand does respond, population mobility accounts for 90% of local adjustment. These results have important implications for both structural and reduced form estimation of immigration effects.
    Keywords: immigration, geographical mobility, local labor markets, employment
    JEL: J61 J64 R23
    Date: 2020–01
  5. By: Michael Amior; Alan Manning
    Abstract: In a competitive labor market, immigration affects native wages only through its impact on marginal products. Under the sole assumption of constant returns, we show that a larger supply of migrants (keeping their skill mix constant) must increase the marginal products of native-owned factors on average (an extension of the familiar "immigration surplus" result); and in the long run (if capital is supplied elastically), this surplus passes entirely to native labor. However, in a monopsonistic labor market, wages will also depend on any mark-downs applied by firms; and immigration may affect native wages through these mark-downs. We present a model of monopsony which generates testable restrictions on the null hypothesis of perfect competition, which we reject using US census data commonly studied in the literature. Our estimates suggest that the (negative) mark-down effect dominates the (by construction, positive) effect on marginal products for the average native. These findings shed new light on the interpretation of previous empirical estimates and the so-called "structural approach" to predicting wage effects.
    Keywords: migration, wages, monopsony
    JEL: J31 J42 J61
    Date: 2020–05
  6. By: Stark, Oded (University of Bonn)
    Abstract: In a recent article, "Reexamining the influence of conditional cash transfers on migration from a gendered lens," Hughes (2019) claimed that conditional cash transfers, CCT, limit the likelihood of migration by women, compensating them for giving up an attractive migration option. I question the analysis that lies behind this claim. I argue that in seeking to understand the likelihood of women migrating if they participate in a CCT program, issues of selectivity, endogeneity, and optimization cannot be set aside. In particular, it is not that receiving CCT curtails a migration option; it is that not contemplating migration encourages women to accept CCT. And if a household perspective is brought to bear, then a household's free choices weaken the appeal of migration to women. This reduction in appeal does not arise from an exogenously imposed curb but rather from endogenously determined preferences.
    Keywords: women's migration, conditional cash transfers, selectivity and endogeneity, revision of the comparative advantage of household members, household's optimization
    JEL: B54 D13 G51 J16 J61 O15 R23
    Date: 2021–01
  7. By: Francesca G Caselli; Francesco Grigoli; Damiano Sandri; Antonio Spilimbergo
    Abstract: Lockdowns and voluntary social distancing led to significant reduction in people’s mobility. Yet, there is scant evidence on the heterogeneous effects across segments of the population. Using unique mobility indicators based on anonymized and aggregate data provided by Vodafone for Italy, Portugal, and Spain, we find that lockdowns had a larger impact on the mobility of women and younger cohorts. Younger people also experienced a sharper drop in mobility in response to rising COVID-19 infections. Our findings, which are consistent across estimation methods and robust to a variety of tests, warn about a possible widening of gender and inter-generational inequality and provide important inputs for the formulation of targeted policies.
    Keywords: Women;Aging;Gender;COVID-19 ;Education;lockdown,mobility,age.,WP,lockdown measure,lockdown stringency,impact of lockdown,lockdown impulse,government lockdown,lockdowns center
    Date: 2020–12–11

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