nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒01‒25
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Endogamous Marriage among Immigrant Groups: The Impact of Deportations under Secure Communities By Bansak, Cynthia; Pearlman, Sarah
  2. Europe's migration experience and its effects on economic inequality By Guzi, Martin; Kahanec, Martin; Ulceluse, Magdalena M.
  3. Immigration and Employment: Substitute Versus Complementary Labor in Selected African Countries By Arina Viseth
  4. Immigration and Entrepreneurship in the United States By Pierre Azoulay; Benjamin F. Jones; J. Daniel Kim; Javier Miranda
  5. Who Cleans My House If the Government Pays? Disadvantaged Labor Market Groups in the Tax-Subsidized Domestic Service Sector By Rickne, Johanna
  6. Migration and associationism: the particular case of Venezuelan retirees and pensioners in Spain By Elízabeth Manjarrés Ramos
  7. Norm Compliance and Lying Patterns: an Experimental Study Among Refugees and Non-refugees in Syria, Jordan, and Germany By El-Bialy, Nora; Fraile Aranda, Elisa; Nicklisch, Andreas; Saleh, Lamis; Voigt, Stefan
  8. Welfare Impact of Hosting Refugees in Ethiopia By Ayenew, Ashenafi Belayneh

  1. By: Bansak, Cynthia; Pearlman, Sarah
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of removals under the Secure Communities (SC) program on the marriage patterns of immigrant women living in the U.S. where endogamous marriage is the dominant form of partnership. We focus on enforcement by MSA and country of origin and find evidence that deportations increase overall marriage rates, increase the likelihood of endogamous marriage, decrease rates of exogamous marriage to immigrants from other countries and have indeterminate effects on marriage to natives. When examining channels for behavioral responses, we find evidence pointing towards the desire to mitigate the risk of deportation through the increased importance of networks.
    Keywords: Immigration Enforcement,Marriage,Endogamy,Secure Communities
    JEL: J13 J15 K37
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Guzi, Martin; Kahanec, Martin; Ulceluse, Magdalena M.
    Abstract: This chapter provides the historical context for the past half-century in Europe focusing specifically on the link between migration and economic development and inequality. The literature review suggests that there are several channels through which migration affects economic inequality between countries in one or the other direction. The net effects are an open empirical question and are likely to depend on the economic, demographic and institutional and policy contexts; sources, types and selectivity of migration, as well as responses of the receiving societies as well as migrants themselves. We undertake an empirical analysis and find that immigration has contributed to reducing inequality within the 25 EU countries over the 2003-2017 period. As the EU attracted relatively highly qualified immigrants throughout this period, our results are consistent with the ameliorating effect of skilled migration on within-country inequality, as predicted by theory.
    Keywords: immigration,inequality,labour mobility,income distribution,EU enlargement
    JEL: D31 D60 O15
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Arina Viseth
    Abstract: This paper uses census and household survey data on Cameroon, Ghana, and South Africa to examine immigration’s impact in the context of a segmented labor market in Sub-Saharan Africa. We find that immigration affects (i) employment (ii) employment allocation between informal and formal sectors, and (iii) the type of employment within each sector. The direction of the impact depends on the degree of complementarity between immigrants and native workers’ skills. Immigration is found to be productivity-enhancing in the short to near term in countries where, the degree of complementarity between immigrants and native workers’ skill sets is the highest.
    Keywords: Migration;Employment;Labor markets;Informal employment;Self-employment;WP,immigration share,wage employment,native worker,immigration's impact,impact immigration
    Date: 2020–07–31
  4. By: Pierre Azoulay; Benjamin F. Jones; J. Daniel Kim; Javier Miranda
    Abstract: Immigrants can expand labor supply and compete for jobs with native-born workers. But immigrants may also start new firms, expanding labor demand. This paper uses U.S. administrative data and other data sources to study the role of immigrants in entrepreneurship. We ask how often immigrants start companies, how many jobs these firms create, and how firms founded by native-born individuals compare. A simple model provides a measurement framework for addressing the dual roles of immigrants as founders and workers. The findings suggest that immigrants act more as “job creators” than “job takers” and play outsized roles in U.S. high-growth entrepreneurship.
    Date: 2020–12
  5. By: Rickne, Johanna (Swedish Institute for Social Research)
    Abstract: Many European countries have implemented policies to revive their domestic service sectors. A common goal of these reforms has been to create employment for disadvantaged groups on the labor market. I study Sweden, where a 50% tax deduction on labor costs for domestic services was introduced in 2007. I use detailed administrative data to report the shares of three disadvantaged groups among small business owners and employees in tax-subsidized firms. I then compare these shares to all private firms and to firms in two industrial subsectors with a predominance of elementary occupations. I find that the shares of refugees and long-term unemployed are of similar sizes in the subsidized firms as in the private sector as a whole. For the third group—people with a low level of education—I find a larger share in the subsidized firms compared to the average private firm, but a smaller share compared to the other industries with elementary occupations. An extended analysis suggests that labor immigration to the subsidized sector from other EU countries may have crowded out the disadvantaged groups. EU immigrants operate half of all subsidized firms in Sweden's largest cities and employ mainly other EU immigrants in their businesses.
    Keywords: domestic services, tax deduction, employment, refugee immigrants
    JEL: J21 J23 J61 H2
    Date: 2021–01
  6. By: Elízabeth Manjarrés Ramos (Universidad de Salamanca)
    Abstract: Despite the fact that seniors' community is one of the most averse group to migratory processes, migration to Spain of Venezuelan citizens and residents over 65 years old has increased since 2014. Keeping this in mind, the purpose of the following study is to understand and characterize the diaspora of Venezuelan seniors moving to Spain, identify the specific problems this community face, and connect this migratory flow with the origin and development of immigrant associations among seniors coming from Venezuela.
    Abstract: Aunque el colectivo de la tercera edad es uno de los menos propensos a los procesos migratorios, la migración a España de adultos mayores de 65 años provenientes de Venezuela se ha incrementado notoriamente a partir del año 2014. Teniendo ello en consideración, el objetivo de este estudio ha sido conocer y caracterizar la diáspora de adultos mayores de 65 años que migran de Venezuela a España, conocer los problemas económicos que en materia de pensiones y jubilaciones enfrenta este colectivo, y vincular este flujo migratorio con el proceso de génesis y desarrollo del asociacionismo entre adultos mayores.
    Keywords: Associations,Immigrants,Returnees,Seniors,Social Security Agreements,Asociaciones,Inmigrantes,Retornados,Adultos Mayores,Convenios de Seguridad Social.
    Date: 2020–09–30
  7. By: El-Bialy, Nora; Fraile Aranda, Elisa; Nicklisch, Andreas; Saleh, Lamis; Voigt, Stefan
    Abstract: We report the results of an experiment on norm violation, specifically lying, in a repeatedly played mind game with Syrian refugees in Jordan and in Germany. We compare their behavior with Jordanians, Germans, and Syrians who still live in Syria. The average number of lies is amazingly similar - and low - across all five samples. However, the lying patterns of Syrian refugees are very different from non-refugee participants in Germany, Jordan, and Syria itself. After having lied once, refugee participants resort to a "never return"- pattern significantly more often than the nonrefugee participants. A closer look at the socio-demographic characteristics of our Syrian refugee participants reveals that lying is associated with higher age and gender, while a longer stay in the host country is positively correlated with a lower likelihood of reporting extreme numbers of matches.
    Keywords: Civil war,experimental economics,honesty,lying,psychological distress
    JEL: C93 D01
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Ayenew, Ashenafi Belayneh
    Abstract: This paper examines the welfare impact of hosting refugees in Ethiopia, one of the largest refugee-hosting countries worldwide. The findings reveal different implications depending on the type of household welfare metric. While reducing consumption expenditure per capita and increasing the probability of falling into consumption poverty, it has no effect on wealth and the status of wealth poverty. Decomposing consumption expenditure per capita into food, education, and other non-food components, the results further reveal that it alters the composition of consumption, as it solely affects food consumption expenditure. The consumption effects prevail in rural areas with no effects in urban centers while no heterogeneity is found concerning wealth and wealth poverty results. Key mechanisms explaining the adverse consumption effects include displacement of hosts from salaried employment and a spike in prices of agricultural inputs but not changes in the extent of societal cooperation.
    Keywords: Refugees,Consumption,Wealth,Poverty,Employment,Price,Cooperation
    JEL: O12 O15 E24 Z13
    Date: 2021

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