nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2021‒01‒11
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Pandemic Impact on Migrants, Immigrants and Reverse Migrants in India. Implications for Immediate Policy Interventions By Pazhanisamy, R.
  2. Are Syrians Refugees Earn Less than Natives and Other Migrants in Jordan: Evidence from Distributional Analysis of Wage Differentials By Hatem Jemmali
  3. The Impact of Syrian Conflict and The Refugee Crisis on Labour Market Outcomes of Host Countries By Eleftherios Giovanis; Oznur Ozdamar
  4. The Impact of the Large-Scale Migration on the Unmet Healthcare Needs of the Nativeborn Population in A Host Country: Evidence from Turkey By Hüseyin Ikizler; Emre Yüksel; Hüsniye Burçin Ikizler
  5. Immigration Policy and the Rise of Self-Employment among Mexican Immigrants By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Lofstrom, Magnus; Wang, Chunbei
  6. Violence-Induced Migration and Peer Effects in Academic Performance By María Padilla-Romo; Cecilia Peluffo
  7. The economic effect of the 2015 Refugee Crisis in Sweden: Jobs, Crimes, Prices and Voter turnout By Uddfeldt, Arvid
  8. Women’s empowerment, extended families and male migration in Nepal: Insights from mixed methods analysis By Doss, Cheryl R.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Pereira, Audrey; Pradhan, Rajendra
  9. How do migrations affect under-five mortality in rural areas? Evidence from Niakhar, Senegal By Ulrich Nguemdjo; Bruno Ventelou

  1. By: Pazhanisamy, R.
    Abstract: The present Covid -19 pandemic has taken away many millions of lives across the countries and negatively affect the lifestyles of crores of households and the migrant populations are the immediate victims of such disaster. This policy brief trace and reveals the extent of migrants population in India and discover the lock down caused socio economic impact of covid-19 and highlight the gap where the state intervention is immediately warranted.
    Keywords: Migration,Immigration,Impact of Pandemic,Covid-19 and Migration,Reverse Migration,labor issues
    JEL: J21 J58 J68 J61 J82 O15
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Hatem Jemmali (University of Manouba)
    Abstract: This paper examines the wage differentials between Syrian refugees and native-born and nonrefugee migrant workers using a nationally representative data set extracted from the most recent Jordanian Labor Market Panel Survey (JLMPS 2016). On average, Syrian refugees earn 37.2% and 74% less hourly wages than natives and non-refugee workers, respectively. The observed wage differentials are not uniform through the wage distribution, and wage gaps are found to be much higher at the top end than at the bottom and the middle of the wage distribution. By applying newly developed decomposition methods, we decompose the distributional wage differentials between different groups into a composition effect, explained by differences in productivity characteristics, and a discrimination effect attributable to unequal returns to those covariates. We find, on average, that discrimination effect contributes more to the wage gaps than composition effect, while through the first part of wage distribution, endowment effect is found to dominate the wage differentials between native-born and Syrian refugee workers. The compositional differences in education between refugees and nonrefugees are found to explain significantly the wage gaps and endowment effects at bottom and middle parts of wage distribution, but when moving up reverse of that is happened by being responsible for a substantial part of discrimination effect.
    Date: 2020–12–20
  3. By: Eleftherios Giovanis (Manchester Metropolitan University); Oznur Ozdamar (Izmir University Bakircay)
    Abstract: The civil war in Syria, which started in March of 2011, has led to a massive influx of forced migration, especially from the Northern Syria to the neighbouring countries. The unexpected movement of refugees has created large exogenous labour supply shocks with potential significant effects on the labour and living standard outcomes of natives in the host countries. While earlier studies have explored the impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on the natives’ labour outcomes little is known about its impact in Egypt. Furthermore, the literature does not provide evidence about the impact of the Syrian refugee inflows on the labour outcomes of migrants who have been relocated in the host countries before the refugee crisis. Using a difference-in-differences (DID) framework this study explores the impact of Syrian refugees on labour outcomes in Egypt, Jordan and Turkey. Furthermore, we implement an instrumental variables (IV) approach within the DID framework, where we instrument the Syrian population at the area-governorate level of the host country with variables that incorporate physical travel distances. The results are mixed and vary, not only across the labour outcomes explored, but also across demographic and socio-economic groups, as females and low educated are mostly affected by the refugee crisis negatively. However, the effects, positive or negative, are rather negligible.
    Date: 2020–12–20
  4. By: Hüseyin Ikizler (Presidency of Strategy and Budget); Emre Yüksel (Presidency of Strategy and Budget); Hüsniye Burçin Ikizler (Ministry of Health)
    Abstract: As of December 2018, Turkey is home to 3.6 million Syrian refugees under temporary protection status. The negative externalities of Syrian refugees may affect the native-born population's needs, precisely healthcare needs. The possible increase in healthcare demand due to population increase may escalate unmet healthcare needs (UHCN). The study contributes to the literature by analyzing refugees' effect on the native-born population's unmet healthcare needs. Our central hypothesis is that mass refugee influx increases the ratio of the UHCN arising mainly from systemic reasons, especially at the beginning of the migration crisis. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we find that the UHCN of the native-born population has increased due to the mass refugee influx. We estimate the magnitude of this increase by nearly 6.3% at the beginning of the refugee crisis. The impact diminishes as the imbalance of demand and supply of healthcare services diminishes.
    Date: 2020–12–20
  5. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (University of California, Merced); Lofstrom, Magnus (Public Policy Institute of California); Wang, Chunbei (University of Oklahoma)
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, the U.S. has seen a drastic growth in self-employment among Mexican immigrants, the largest immigrant population in the country. This is an interesting yet puzzling trend, in stark contrast to the stagnated growth of self-employment among other disadvantaged minority groups such as blacks and even a significant decline among whites. Little is known of what drives that growth. We propose that the expansion of interior immigration enforcement, a characteristic of the U.S. immigration policy during that time span, might have contributed to this unique trend by pushing Mexican immigrants into self-employment as an alternative livelihood. Exploiting temporal and geographic variation in immigration enforcement measures from 2005 to 2017, we show that tougher enforcement has been responsible for 10 to 20 percent of the rise in Mexican self-employment. The impact mainly concentrates among likely undocumented immigrants. It is mainly driven by police-based enforcement measures responsible for most deportations, as opposed to employment-based enforcement. Our results suggest that apprehension fear, instead of lack of employment opportunities, is the main push factor.
    Keywords: state and local immigration enforcement, undocumented immigrants, Mexican immigrants, self-employment, United States
    JEL: J15 J23 K37
    Date: 2020–12
  6. By: María Padilla-Romo (Department of Economics, University of Tennessee); Cecilia Peluffo (Department of Economics, University of Florida)
    Abstract: We document that local violence generates spillover e ects beyond areas where violence takes place, via out-migration from violence-a ected areas and peer exposure to violence. We study out-migration due to drug-tracking-related violence in Mexico between 2006 and 2013. We use violence-induced student migration as an exogenous source of variation in peer exposure to violence to estimate its e ects on student academic performance in relatively safe areas. Our results show that municipalities that face more violence experience higher rates of student out-migration. In receiving schools in areas not directly a ected by violence, adding a new peer who was exposed to local violence to a class of 20 students decreases incumbents' academic performance by 1.2 percent of a standard deviation. Negative e ects are more pronounced among girls and high-achieving students.
    Keywords: Local violence; out-migration; in-migration; peer effects
    JEL: I24 I25 O15
    Date: 2020–12
  7. By: Uddfeldt, Arvid
    Abstract: The civil war in Syria has culminated in a massive refugee crisis in neighboring and European countries. Millions of refugees made their way to Europe between 2014 and 2015, with more than 160 000 arriving in Sweden alone. Little is known about the impact of this influx on voting behavior, criminality rates, labor markets, and local price levels. By using data on the Swedish municipalities, the analysis estimates the short-run consequences of the refugee inflow. The results are found through a dynamic difference-in-difference estimator, which compare municipalities in Sweden who received relatively many refugees (treated) compared to those hosting relatively few refugees (control). The quasi-randomized allocation process of refugees in combination with a very high variation among the different municipalities refugee-intake creates stable conditions for reliable estimations through the difference-indifference approach. Regarding the labor market, the findings suggest that the treated groups hosting many refugees face higher unemployment rates and simultaneously lower wage levels. Additionally, the result indicates that the municipalities hosting more refugees face higher crimes committed per capita, particularly regarding assault- and fraud-related crimes. Furthermore, the results stress that the treated group meet higher vote shares in the subsequent national election in favor of the right-wing parties and decreasing support for the center-right, center-left, and left-wing parties. Surprisingly, the vote share of the antiimmigration party SD does not correlate with refugee-influx.
    Date: 2021–01–04
  8. By: Doss, Cheryl R.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Pereira, Audrey; Pradhan, Rajendra
    Abstract: Women’s empowerment is dynamic across the life course, affected not only by age but also by women’s social position within the household. In Nepal, high rates of male outmigration have further compounded household dynamics, although the impact on women’s empowerment is not clear. We use qualitative and quantitative data from Nepal to explore the relationship between women’s social location in the household, caste/ethnicity, husband’s migration status, and women’s empowerment. The study first examines the factors affecting overall empowerment as measured by the Abbreviated Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (A-WEAI), followed by more detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of how each factor affects individual domains including asset ownership, access to and decisions on credit, control over use of income, group membership, input in productive decisions, and work load. We find that women’s empowerment is strongly associated with caste/ethnic identity and position in the household, but this dynamic interacts with husband’s migration status. Despite patriarchal norms of high caste groups, high caste women are more empowered than others, reflecting the disempowering effects of poverty and social exclusion for low caste and ethnic groups. Daughters-in-law in joint households are more likely to be empowered when their husbands are residents in the household and disempowered when their husbands are migrants, while wives in nuclear households are more likely to be empowered when their husbands are migrants. While qualitative findings indicate daughters-in-law are disempowered compared to their mothers-in-law, especially in time use, the quantitative results do not show significant differences, suggesting that we need to move toward an understanding of agency over time and intensity of work, rather than simply hours worked. Identifying the factors that contribute to disempowerment of women of different social positions has important implications for the design of interventions and programs that seek to improve women’s empowerment.
    Keywords: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; empowerment; gender; women; women's empowerment; migration; caste systems; ethnic groups; mixed model method; Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Ulrich Nguemdjo (Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, AMSE and Aix-Marseille Univ, LPED, Marseille, France.); Bruno Ventelou (Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, AMSE, Marseille, France.)
    Abstract: This study analyses the relationship between a household member’s migration and child mortality within the family left behind in rural areas. Exploring the richness of the Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System panel, we use high-frequency migration data to investigate the effects of migration on child mortality at the household level over 16 years. Migrations, particularly short-term migrations, are positively associated with the survival probability of under-five children in the household. Also, we find that working age women's short-term migrations impact child mortality more than working age men's short-term migrations. This observation supports hypotheses in the economic literature on the predominant role of women in rural households in obtaining welfare improvements. Moreover, we detect crossover effects between households of the same compound –in line with the idea that African rural families share part of their migration-generated gains with an extended community of neighbors. Lastly, we investigate the effect of a mother's short-term migration on the survival of her under-5 children. The aggregate effect of a mother’s migration on child survival is still positive, but much weaker. Specifically, mother migration during pregnancy seems to enhance the wellbeing of the child, considered immediately after birth. However, when the child is older (more than one year), the absence of the mother tends to decrease the probability of survival.
    Keywords: Niakhar, Senegal, short- and long-term migrations, child mortality
    JEL: I15
    Date: 2020–12

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