nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2020‒12‒07
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Social assimilation and labour market outcomes of migrants in China By Cai, Shu; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  2. Talking Business: New Evidence on How Language Shapes Economic Behaviour By Campo, Francesco; Nunziata, Luca; Rocco, Lorenzo
  3. Immigration and Gender Differences in the Labor Market By Joan Llull
  4. Do Non-Natives Catch-Up with The Natives in Terms of Earnings in Jordan? New Evidence from A Distributional Analysis By Hatem Jemmali; Rabeh Morrar
  5. Job Status, International Migration and Educational Choice By Abdulloev, Ilhom; Epstein, Gil S.; Gang, Ira N.
  6. Christian Nationalism and Views of Immigrants in the United States: Is the Relationship Stronger for the Religiously Inactive? By Stroope, Samuel; Rackin, Heather; Froese, Paul
  7. GCC Migration - A Longitudinal Migrant Network Approach By Lahcen Achy; Basil Awad

  1. By: Cai, Shu (Jinan University and Global Labor Organization.); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, CEPR and Global Labor Organization)
    Abstract: Previous research has found identity to be relevant for international migration, but has neglected internal mobility as in the case of the Great Chinese Migration. However, the context of the identities of migrants and their adaption in the migration process is likely to be quite different. The gap is closed by examining social assimilation and the effect on the labourmarket outcomes of migrants in China, the country with the largest record of internal mobility. Using instrumental variable estimation, the study finds that identifying as local residents significantly increase migrants’ hourly wages and reduce hours worked, although their monthly earnings remained barely changed. Further findings suggest that migrants with strong local identity are more likely to use local networks in job search, and to obtain jobs with higher average wages and lower average hours worked per day.
    Keywords: Social assimilation, identity, labour market, migration
    JEL: J22 J31 J61 O15 Z13
    Date: 2020–11–18
  2. By: Campo, Francesco (University of Milan Bicocca); Nunziata, Luca (University of Padova); Rocco, Lorenzo (University of Padova)
    Abstract: We provide a large scale within-country analysis of the effect of language future time reference (FTR) on the choice of being an entrepreneur using individual-level data from Switzerland, a country characterized by a unique long-standing multilingualism and a large share of immigrant population. We test the hypothesis that speakers of weak FTR languages may have a closer perception of future rewards and be more willing to become entrepreneurs, a choice that reflects future orientation. Our analysis consistently indicates that immigrants who speak weak FTR languages are around 2 percent more likely to be entrepreneurs compared to speakers of strong FTR languages, net of unobservable ancestral cultural traits, districts of destination's characteristics, linguistic features other than FTR, and whether individuals maintain their native language or switch to one of the four Swiss languages.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, language, future time reference, culture, migration, Switzerland
    JEL: D15 J24 J6 L26 Z1
    Date: 2020–11
  3. By: Joan Llull
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of immigration on gender gaps in the labor market. Using an equilibrium structural model for the U.S. economy, I simulate the importance of two mechanisms: the differential labor market competition induced by immigration on male and female workers, and the availability of cheaper child care services. On top of wage gaps, the structural model allows me to evaluate gender differences in human capital and labor supply adjustments, which are also influenced by these mechanisms. The main findings suggest that while the labor market competition effects increase gender wage and participation gaps substantially, the availability of cheaper child care compensates this negative effect on average, making overall average effects negligible. However, there is an important degree of heterogeneity of these effects, and while gender gaps are reduced at some points of the skill distribution, they are substantially increased in others.
    Keywords: gender gaps, Immigration, human capital, childcare cost, competition, equilibrium
    JEL: J16 J2 J31 J61
    Date: 2020–11
  4. By: Hatem Jemmali (University of Manouba); Rabeh Morrar (An-Najah National University)
    Abstract: Using a nationally representative data set extracted from the Jordanian Labor Market Panel Survey (JLMPS) for the two years 2010 and 2016, we examine the wage differentials between natives-born workers and migrants in Jordan's labor market. By applying Oaxaca– Blinder and quantile decomposition methods we decompose the distributional wage differentials into endowment effects, explained by differences in productivity characteristics, and discrimination effects attributable to unequal returns to covariates. We find an increasing average wage gap in favor of residents workers over time. The wage differentials are found to be larger at the bottom and middle parts of the wage distributions in both 2010 and 2016. The compositional differences in education between natives and non-natives explain significantly the wage gap only in 2010 but not in 2016, while main drivers of the unexplained component (discrimination effect) of the average wage gap appears to stem from the education covariate in both 2010 and 2016. We also find that discrimination against migrant workers increases with the quantiles of wage distribution in both 2010 and 2016 except for the 90th quantile.
    Date: 2020–11–20
  5. By: Abdulloev, Ilhom; Epstein, Gil S.; Gang, Ira N.
    Abstract: We consider how the possibility of international migration affects an individual’s educational choices in their home country. Without the opportunity to emigrate abroad people choose their educational investment (and hence their skill level) as we might expect, taking into account the utility they derive from the status their attainment bestows. A result of this paper is that if there are low chances of obtaining professional (requires tertiary schooling) jobs in the host country, individuals may well choose an educational track leading to a less-skilled lower status occupational profession in order to increase their chances of obtaining a job in the host country after migration. Thus, all home country students may choose the non-professional education track. Those who might have otherwise pursued higher, professional education may forgo that schooling. The theory developed here explains the forsaken schooling phenomenon, which shows that low-skilled and skilled home country workers are willing to accept low-skilled positions in host countries. This leads to the forgoing of professional schooling in the home country since it is not optimal for the worker in the home country to choose a high skilled education since, they will be overqualified in the host country. This will have a long run affect. As time goes on, therefore, people who consider migrating abroad will have either lower years of schooling, or generally have not completed professional schools (technical-vocational or tertiary).
    Keywords: traps,migration,poverty,inequality,education,skill,brain gain,brain drain
    JEL: O15 P46 F22 I24
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Stroope, Samuel (Louisiana State University); Rackin, Heather; Froese, Paul
    Abstract: Previous research finds that Christian nationalism is linked to nativism and immigrant animus while religious service attendance is associated with pro-immigrant views. This finding highlights the importance of distinguishing between religious ideologies and practices when considering how religion affects politics. Using a national sample of US adults, we analyze immigrant views by measuring levels of agreement or disagreement that undocumented immigrants from Mexico are “mostly dangerous criminals.” We find that Christian nationalism is inversely related to pro-immigrant views for both the religiously active and inactive. However, strongly pro-immigrant views are less likely and anti-immigrant views are more likely among strong Christian nationalists who are religiously inactive compared to strong Christian nationalists who are religiously active. These results reveal how religious nationalism can weaken tolerance and heighten intolerance most noticeably when untethered from religious communities.
    Date: 2020–11–17
  7. By: Lahcen Achy (International Monetary Fund); Basil Awad (International Monetary Fund)
    Abstract: Although GCC migration is the third most important migration corridor in terms of total migrant stock, the topic has been underrepresented in the academic literature, which focuses mostly on migration to North America and Europe. The paper fills this knowledge gap in two directions. First, it uses an innovative dataset that estimates international migrant flow data instead of stock data. Migrant flow is more relevant as the changes in migrant stock can be the outcome of demographic factors such as migrant births, deaths and naturalization. Second, the paper applies network analysis, which has recently been applied to other migration corridors such as the US and Europe. Two key preliminary findings emerge from the paper. First, it shows that the GCC corridor stands out as the most important migration corridor over the period 2005 to 2010 in terms of flow, and a close second over the period 2010 to 2015. Second, when applying network analysis, the paper reveals that the GCC is even more central to the global migration network compared to its position with more standard econometric measures. Our ranking measure is less destination biased than most migration measures used in the literature. The GCC has emerged not only as a migration hub, but as a node strongly connected to other key international migration players. Future research using random graph methods, strategic game theoretic techniques, and hybrid, statistical models can provide a network perspective to the more common analysis of push and pull factors between individual countries.
    Date: 2020–11–20

This nep-mig issue is ©2020 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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