nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2020‒11‒02
fifteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Migrant Integration Policies and Bilateral Migration By Cosimo Beverelli
  2. Migration and Remittances: Evidence from Cambodia, Myanmar and Lao Migrant Workers By Thitiwan Sricharoen
  3. Return Migration and Earnings Mobility in Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia By Vladimir Hlasny; Shireen AlAzzawi
  4. Wage Distributions in Origin Societies and Occupational Choices of Immigrant Generations in the US By Zhan, Crystal
  5. Literature Review on Best Practices in Government-Funded Services Supporting the Resettlement and Integration of Government-Assisted Refugees By Ghada Abid
  6. At what costs? A proposal for estimating migration costs in the Bangladesh-Malaysia corridor By Khan, Shamim Ahmed; Mahi, Masnun; Zainuddin, Mohammad; Islam, Emadul
  7. Age, Desires and the Implicit Role of Out-Selection Factors of International Migration By Michel Beine
  8. From participants to citizens? Democratic voting rights and naturalization behavior By Slotwinski, Michaela; Stutzer, Alois; Bevelander, Pieter
  9. Data Sources on Migrants' Labour Market and Education Integration in Austria By Peter Huber; Marian Fink; Thomas Horvath
  10. The Effects of Asylum Seekers on Political Outcomes By Zurlinden, Noémie; Valladares-Esteban, Arnau; Gottlieb, Charles
  11. The Impact of Welfare Chauvinism on the Results of Right-Wing Populist Voting in Germany after the Refugee Crisis By Florian W. Bartholomae; Chang Woon Nam; Pierre Rafih
  12. Skilled migration: Bridging the conceptual gap between friendship, social capital, and employability By Potts, Danielle; Martensen, Malte
  13. The Role of Information in Explaining the Lack of Welfare-Induced Migration By Jeremy McCauley
  14. Should I stay or should I go? Housing and residential mobility across OECD countries? By Orsetta Causa; Jacob Pichelmann
  15. Free Movement of Workers and Native Demand for Tertiary Education By Bächli, Mirjam; Teodora Tsankova

  1. By: Cosimo Beverelli
    Abstract: Using a novel gravity methodology based on international and intra-national (i.e. internal) migration flows, I investigate the impact of non-discriminatory migrant integration policies set by destination countries on bilateral migration. In a sample of 27 destination countries and 189 origin countries for the years 2010-2014, I show that these policies, on average, positively affect migration. Moving from the 25th percentile to the median of the variable that summarizes all migrant integration policies leads to a predicted 27 percent increase in international, relative to internal migration flows. Not all migrant integration policies, however, have such positive effect. Only policies favoring migrants' access to nationality and policies affording migrants legal protection from discrimination are robust determinants of migration flows.
    Keywords: International Migration, Migrant Integration, Gravity Equation
    JEL: F22 J15 J61
    Date: 2020–02
  2. By: Thitiwan Sricharoen (Faculty of Economics at Sriracha, Kasetsart University, Sriracha Campus, Tambon Tungsukha, Sriracha District, Chonburi, Thailand Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - The purpose of research is to address and seek to answer leading questions concerning migration, with a focus on migration remittances, and management relating to remittance. Methodology/Technique - The survey was conducted in 2018. In this study, a total of 511 migrant workers from Cambodia, Myanmar and Lao were interviewed. The methodology of this research applies a probit regression analysis. Results - The findings show that repeated migrants who are not first-time migrants are a highly specific group with 54.74%. First-time migrants are most likely to send remittances home while working in Thailand, accounting for approximately 2,826 Baht per month. However, this number decreases among second-time migrants who typically send remittances of approximately 2,331 Baht per month. The saving behavior is not different between first-time migrants and second-time migrants, who save a portion of their earnings. Nonetheless, this number rises to 50% for third and subsequent migrants. An estimation of all migrant's nationalities indicates that the variables that have the most influence on remittances in a positive way are: being of Cambodian nationality, experiencing a burden among their family, being in need of social assistance, being Myanmar migrants and household size, respectively. On the other hand, the variables that effect remittances in a negative way include: attaining below primary school education, education level (in year), real estate owned, and number of migrating household members in Thailand, respectively. Novelty - The findings of this research show that those who graduate with less than primary level education are more likely to send money home compared to those who complete their primary school education. The policy recommendations made by this study include a recommendation that banks decrease money transferring costs, employers to pay salary through banking accounts and migrants to remit money through formal channels. Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: International Migration; Remittances; Labor Mobility.
    JEL: F22 F24 J61
  3. By: Vladimir Hlasny (UN ESCWA); Shireen AlAzzawi (Santa Clara University)
    Abstract: We examine the role of cross-border return migration in the intertemporal and intergenerational transmission of status across seven surveys from Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia. We use transition matrices and instrumental variable regressions to link prime-age men’s present outcomes to those in prior years and to their fathers’ outcomes. Earnings in prior years are inferred using job-type and occupation-group cell means. We find that return migrants land higher-earning jobs and are more inter-generationally mobile. However, they outperform non-migrants not only currently but even in past years. Controlling for mitigating factors, the role of migration disappears, suggesting that individual-level effects and demographics are responsible.
    Keywords: Return migration, intergenerational socioeconomic mobility, MENA
    JEL: F22 O15 R23 J61 J62
    Date: 2020–10
  4. By: Zhan, Crystal
    Abstract: This paper studies the occupational selection among generations of immigrants in the United States and links their choices to the occupational wage distribution in their country of origin. The empirical results suggest that individuals are more likely to take up an occupation in the US that was more lucrative in the origin country, conditional on individual demographics, parental human capital, and ethnic networks. However, the importance of the origin wage declines with the length of time that immigrants spend in the US and over generations. Information friction may be an explanation.
    Keywords: immigrants,occupational choices,origin wage,intergenerational transmission,assimilation,human capital,information
    JEL: J15 J24 J31
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Ghada Abid
    Abstract: This literature review of government-funded refugee services identifies the issues related to refugee resettlement programs; settlement location; housing; mental health services and employment services in different Canadian provinces and cities. It then summarizes the best practices related to refugees’ integration in Canada or in other refugee resettlement countries. Wherever possible, the report mentions relevant policy recommendations addressed to Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) in the different journal articles, papers or reports.
    Keywords: refugees, canada, resettlement, IRCC, refugee housing, refugee mental health, refugee employment
    JEL: D63 I38 I31 J18 J24 J15 J6 K37
    Date: 2020–10
  6. By: Khan, Shamim Ahmed; Mahi, Masnun; Zainuddin, Mohammad; Islam, Emadul
    Abstract: This article provides a comprehensive proposal to figure out the full spectrum of costs borne by Bangladeshi workers on their journey to Malaysia. The article proposes to consider the differences based on skill level, employment sector, immigration status, gender, traveling routes as well as channels and funding sources in order to determine the true economic cost of migration. The article also proposes to take social cost of migration into account. It sheds light on the effects of migration on migrant households with a view to fully comprehend the overall migration cost scenario. Finally, the paper suggests to take into consideration the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on broader migration and repatriation context.
    Date: 2020–10–10
  7. By: Michel Beine (Department of Economics and Management, Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: In this note, I attempt to isolate the role of age as a self-selection factor of international migration. I estimate the role of age on intended emigration rather than on observed outcome of migration. I use individual measures of intended emigration drawn from a large-scale survey conducted by Gallup. I find evidence of a monotonic negative effect on desired emigration for the working-age population. The estimations point to a very robust effect suggesting that an additional year of age decreases the probability of intended emigration by about 0.5%. This effect is robust over different periods of time and for most types of countries of origin. The results contrast with previous evidence obtained on observed outcomes of migration, suggesting that out-selection factors interact with age and shape the demographic profile of migrants.
    Keywords: Age, International Migration, Intended Emigration, Logit, Large-scale Survey
    JEL: F22 C25 J61
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Slotwinski, Michaela; Stutzer, Alois; Bevelander, Pieter
    Abstract: We study the causal effect of the possibility to vote on foreigners propensity to naturalize, a key indicator of successful integration. Based on Swedish administrative data and an institutional setting producing a quasi-random assignment of the eligibility to vote, we find that the overall effect depends on the composition of the migrant population. For immigrants from places with poor living conditions, we observe that the experience of non-citizen voting rights substantially increases their propensity to naturalize. In contrast, for those coming from places with a high standard of living, the same experience reduces it. Both reactions clearly reveal that individuals assign a positive value to formal democratic participation rights. While the behavior of the former group is likely dominated by the motivational force inherent in the possibility to participate, the behavior of the latter group reflects the devaluation of formal citizienship if it is decoupled from democratic rights.
    Keywords: citizenship,migration,naturalization,value of voting,voting rights
    JEL: D02 J15 K37
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Peter Huber; Marian Fink; Thomas Horvath
    Abstract: As part of a larger research project, we survey existing data sets and research results on immigrants' integration success in Austria focusing on educational and labour market outcomes. We consider different registers as well as survey data available to researchers on a regular basis and compare to what extent these data contain relevant information on immigrants and their educational and employment careers and survey the research that has been conducted based on the different datasets. We also aim to identify research gaps and potential data gaps resulting from the fragmentation of relevant information over different data sets. While different data sources contain different aspects relevant for integration research, a "complete" picture of integration processes as well as the identification of supporting and hindering factors for successful integration typically requires a combination of different data sets that may also enrich longitudinal (register-based) individual data by more detailed characteristics from survey data.
    Keywords: dynamic microsimulation, migration, labour market integration, immigrant integration, social security, education
    Date: 2020–10–20
  10. By: Zurlinden, Noémie; Valladares-Esteban, Arnau; Gottlieb, Charles
    Abstract: We exploit the quasi-random allocation of asylum seekers across Swiss cantons and the high frequency of national referenda to identify the causal effect of immigration on political outcomes in receiving countries. We find that the arrival of asylum seekers causes voters to increase their support for right-wing and conservative policies. However, this effect is driven by episodes of unusually high inflows of asylum seekers. Moreover, we find that for votes on immigration and refugee policy, the arrival of more asylum seekers shifts voters towards policies endorsed by conservative and centre-right parties but not towards positions backed by the rightmost anti-immigration party. In contrast, the shift towards the rightmost stances is sizeable in votes related to the welfare state, international integration, and the rights of minorities.
    Keywords: Immigration, political preferences, re-distribution, quasi-random allocation
    JEL: D72 F22 H80
    Date: 2020–10
  11. By: Florian W. Bartholomae; Chang Woon Nam; Pierre Rafih
    Abstract: Based on an extended welfare chauvinism concept that more systematically integrates the labor market and public finance aspects, this paper examines the impact of the refugee crisis − which culminated in the EU in 2015/16 − on changes in voting behavior in Germany (revealed in the two German federal elections in 2013 and 2017), explaining the attitudinal preference for ethnic boundaries around national welfare systems and the emergence of the right-wing populist party AfD. For this dynamic approach, an OLS analysis is conducted based on county-level data. The variables are selected taking into account existing theoretical and empirical findings in the international context, combined with Germany-specific facts and experiences, local demographic and economic differences, and party-specific voter characteristics. Among the key empirical findings are sufficiently reliable indications of the occurrence of welfare-chauvinistic effects that led to the success of the AfD in the 2017 election.
    Keywords: welfare chauvinism, immigration, right-wing populist party, refugee crisis, German federal elections
    JEL: D72 F22 J15 P16
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Potts, Danielle; Martensen, Malte
    Abstract: Germany's population is currently undergoing a major shift as well as a general decline. These changes are expected to impact not only the workforce but also the social systems dependent on having a steady supply of individuals contributing to them. While no single solution alone is likely to be enough to resolve the upcoming challenges, the post-graduation employment of international students may help. However, even though there are jobs available, many international students in Germany struggle to find work after completing their studies. How, and with who, international students form their networks in the host country may play a crucial role in successful employment. While research has been conducted on international student friendship formation, social capital, and employability, little to no research has been conducted on how these elements interact when employment in the host country is the goal of an international student post-graduation. A better understanding of the role friendship plays in developing host country social capital could be key in guaranteeing international students to find employment in their host country post-graduation. Additionally, for Germany in particular, this will mean more filled positions and potentially reduced strain on workforce dependent social systems in the future.
    Keywords: International Students,Friendship Formation,Social Capital,Employability,Germany
    JEL: M54
    Date: 2020
  13. By: Jeremy McCauley
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of information as a driver of domestic welfare-induced migration decisions. I exploit a policy reform in England where the government began publicly releasing quality star ratings for each area’s social services (social care). I study the effects of this “information shock†on the main service users, the elderly, and find a one star increase in publicly-released rating is associated with a 1.3% increase in the elderly population of that area. Based on empirical evidence, I estimate a search model with learning, where the elderly search for areas with better social services and gradually learn their true quality. Mimicking the information shock, the model reveals that individuals are more influenced by the rating of their own area than by ratings for other areas. Those induced to move by the information shock experience welfare increases valued at £600 per year.
    Date: 2020–10–22
  14. By: Orsetta Causa; Jacob Pichelmann
    Abstract: This paper delivers new evidence on the individual and policy drivers of residential mobility, covering a wide range of housing-related policies and conditions but also other relevant policy areas. The analysis uses household-level micro datasets allowing for an investigation of the drivers of the decision to move for a large number of OECD countries; as well for identifying differential policy effects across socio-economic groups, underscoring the distributional effect of policies. The evidence strongly supports the view that housing conditions and structural policies influence people’s decisions and possibilities to move. A more responsive housing supply is associated with higher residential mobility, suggesting that reforming land-use and planning policies may facilitate moving by reducing house price differences across locations. Social cash and in-kind spending on housing are positively correlated with residential mobility. Higher housing transaction costs, including from transfer taxes, are associated with lower residential mobility, especially among younger households, which are more likely to be first time-buyers. Stricter rental regulations are associated with lower residential mobility, particularly for renters, low-educated and low-income households. Beyond housing policies, more generous cash income support to low-wage jobseekers and minimum income schemes embedded in social transfers are positively associated with residential mobility; while excessive job protection on regular contracts is negatively associated with mobility, particularly for youth, low-income and low-educated individuals.
    Keywords: housing allowances, housing markets, housing taxation, inequality, job protection, rental market regulations, residential mobility, social housing, social protection, transaction costs
    JEL: R21 R31 R23 R38 H20
    Date: 2020–10–21
  15. By: Bächli, Mirjam; Teodora Tsankova
    Abstract: We investigate how the introduction of free movement of workers affects enrolment of natives in tertiary education. In a difference-in-differences framework, we exploit a policy change that led to a significant increase in the share of cross-border commuters in local employment in border regions of Switzerland. Our results show a rise in enrolment at Universities of Applied Sciences in affected relative to non-affected regions in the post-reform period but no change in enrolment at traditional universities. Furthermore, we find that enrolment increases in non-STEM fields that build skills less transferable across national borders. This allows for complementarities with foreign workers who are more likely to hold occupations requiring STEM training. Individuals with a labor market oriented education such as vocationally trained respond to the increase in labor market competition because they have employment opportunities and access to tertiary education through Universities of Applied Sciences.
    Keywords: Cross-border commuting, demand for tertiary education, study field choice, labor market conditions
    JEL: F22 I26 J24 J61 R23
    Date: 2020–10

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