nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2020‒08‒17
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Shoring Up Economic Refugees : Venezuelan Migrants in the Ecuadoran Labor Market By Olivieri,Sergio Daniel; Ortega,Francesc; Rivadeneira Alava,Ana Mercedes; Carranza,Eliana
  2. The Labor Market Effects of Venezuelan Migration in Ecuador By Olivieri,Sergio Daniel; Ortega,Francesc; Carranza,Eliana; Rivadeneira Alava,Ana Mercedes
  3. You Say Hello and I Say Goodbye? Natives’ Reactions to Openings of Asylum Centers By Myohl, Nadia; Stadelmann, Sabrina
  4. International Migration Responses to Natural Disasters: Evidence from Modern Europe's Deadliest Earthquake By Yannay Spitzer; Gaspare Tortorici; Ariell Zimran
  5. Redistribution Preferences, Attitudes towards Immigrants, and Ethnic Diversity By Coban, Mustafa
  6. The effect of emigration and remittances on labour supply of the left-behind: Evidence from Nepal By Sharma, Hari
  7. A model of dynamic migration networks: Explaining Turkey's inter-provincial migration flows By Aksoy, Ozan; Yıldırım, Sinan
  8. International and Interprefectural Migration in Japan : Implications for the Spatial Assimilation Theory By Koji Murayama; Jun Nagayasu
  9. Preventing migration with vocational education? Understanding the migration - vocational education nexus By Langthaler, Margarita; Gündüz, Dilara
  10. Cultural Identity and Social Capital in Italy By Sgroi, Daniel; Redoano, Michela; Liberini. Federica; Lockwood, Ben; Emanuele Bracco, Emanuele; Porcelli, Francesco

  1. By: Olivieri,Sergio Daniel; Ortega,Francesc; Rivadeneira Alava,Ana Mercedes; Carranza,Eliana
    Abstract: Ecuador became the third largest receiver of the 4.3 million Venezuelans who left their country in the last five years, hosting around 10 percent of them. Little is known about the characteristics of these migrants and their labor market outcomes. This paper fills this gap by analyzing a new large survey (EPEC). On average, Venezuelan workers are highly skilled and have high rates of employment, compared with Ecuadorans. However, their employment is of much lower quality, characterized by low wages and high rates of informality and temporality. Venezuelans have experienced significant occupational downgrading, relative to their employment prior to emigration. As a result, despite their high educational attainment, Venezuelans primarily compete for jobs with the least skilled and more economically vulnerable Ecuadoran workers. Our simulations suggest that measures that allow Venezuelans to obtain employment that matches their skills, such as facilitating the conversion of education credentials, would increase Ecuador's GDP between 1.6 and 1.9 percent and alleviate the pressure on disadvantaged native workers. We also show that providing work permits to Venezuelan workers would substantially reduce their rates of informality and increase their average earnings.
    Date: 2020–07–23
  2. By: Olivieri,Sergio Daniel; Ortega,Francesc; Carranza,Eliana; Rivadeneira Alava,Ana Mercedes
    Abstract: As of 2019, more than 1.2 million Venezuelans passed through Ecuador and more than 400,000 settled (almost 3 percent of Ecuador's population). This paper analyzes the location choices of Venezuelan migrants in Ecuador and the labor market consequences of these choices, using data from Ecuador's labor force survey and mobile phone records on the geographic distribution of Venezuelan migrants. Around half of the migrants live in four cantons (of 221). Their location is primarily driven by local economic conditions, rather than point of entry. Overall, the regions with the largest inflows of Venezuelans have not seen any effects on labor market participation or employment, compared with regions with fewer inflows. However, our difference-in-difference estimates clearly indicate that young, low-educated Ecuadoran workers in high-inflow regions have been adversely affected. Specifically, the estimates that these workers have experienced reductions in employment quality, a 5 percentage-point increase in the rate of informality, and a 13 percentage-point reduction in earnings, relative to workers with similar characteristics living in areas with very low or non-existent inflows of Venezuelans.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Rural Labor Markets,Telecommunications Infrastructure,Labor&Employment Law,Educational Sciences,Inequality
    Date: 2020–07–27
  3. By: Myohl, Nadia; Stadelmann, Sabrina
    Abstract: We study the sentiments of local residents towards asylum seekers by analyzing location choices in the proximity of asylum centers. We address the key endogeneity issue of immigrant sorting by exploiting the random distribution key that assigns asylum seekers to municipalities in Switzerland. Using individual-level data from the universe of the Swiss population, we find that relative to the overall probability of moving at least once per year, those living within a 500m radius to an open asylum center are 7.96% more likely to move away than those living further away. The effect is driven by renters and highly educated individuals and is larger in right-wing voting municipalities for moves within the same canton. Our results are robust to alternative treatment definitions, sample variation and placebo tests.
    Keywords: Asylum seekers, sentiments, regional migration
    JEL: D91 J15 R23
    Date: 2020–08
  4. By: Yannay Spitzer; Gaspare Tortorici; Ariell Zimran
    Abstract: The Messina-Reggio Calabria Earthquake (1908) was the deadliest earthquake and arguably the most devastating natural disaster in modern European history. It occurred when overseas mass emigration from southern Italy was at its peak and international borders were open, making emigration a widespread phenomenon and a readily available option for disaster relief. We use this singular event and its unique and important context to study the effects of natural disasters on international migration. Using commune-level data on damage and annual emigration, we find that, despite massive destruction, there is no evidence that the earthquake had, on average, a large impact on emigration or its composition. There were, however, heterogeneous and offsetting responses to the shock, with a more positive effect on emigration in districts where agricultural day laborers comprised a larger share of the labor force, suggesting that attachment to the land was an impediment to reacting to the disaster through migration. Nonetheless, relative to the effects of ordinary shocks, such as a recession in the destination, this momentous event had a small impact on emigration rates. These findings contribute to literatures on climate- and disaster-driven migration and on the Age of Mass Migration.
    JEL: F22 J61 N33 N53 O13 O15 Q54
    Date: 2020–07
  5. By: Coban, Mustafa (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "Ethnic diversity plays a crucial role in shaping national economic and social policy. A change in the ethnic composition of a country affects citizens' everyday life and social environment and may challenge present societal values, such as solidarity with and trust in fellowcitizens. Based on the European Social Survey, I showthat more contact with members of other ethnic groups in daily life is positively related to more open attitudes of natives towards immigrants. More interethnic contact of natives reduces their social distance to immigrants, their perception of immigrants as a threat to society, and their opposition to future immigration. In turn, an open-minded and tolerant attitude promotes mutual trust and solidarity within society. Since attachment to fellow residents and a feeling of fellowship are essential drivers for supporting governmental redistribution measures, I argue that there is no direct, but an indirect relationship between ethnic diversity and natives' support for redistribution, with attitudes towards immigrants and immigration acting as mediators. By applying bivariate recursive probit estimations, I can decompose the predictors' marginal effects on natives' support for redistribution into a direct effect and an indirect effect that works through natives' attitudes towards immigrants. A decompositionmethod that has so far been relatively unnoticed in the empirical literature. Our results reveal that perception of immigrants as a threat to societal values or country's economy decrease natives' support for redistribution substantially by 15 to 22 percent. The same applies to natives who reject future inflows of immigrants. Natives' desire for social distance to immigrants in private and working life, however, does not affect their demand for redistribution. Thus, the diffuse fear of losing intangible goods triggered by immigration is substantial in the formation of natives' socio-political attitudes. Living in ethnically more diverse neighborhoods, though, increases natives' support for redistribution by 0.4 to 1.5 percent through the promotion of pro-immigrant attitudes and stronger solidarity with fellow residents. These results are robust to IV estimation strategies, which control for reverse causality and the possibility of natives' selective out-migration." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    JEL: C30 D31 D63 D72 F22 H20
  6. By: Sharma, Hari
    Abstract: Rapid increases in work-related emigration and subsequent inflows of remittances have raised policy concerns about impacts on labour supply in emigration-source countries. The growing literature in this area ignores spillover effects from emigration and remittances in one locality affecting outcomes in nearby localities. A two-wave panel of 500 localities in Nepal is used here, along with destination driven exogenous changes in predicted emigration rates, to identify impacts of emigration and remittances on labour supply. There is a positive impact on labour supply, but just for females. Also, emigration and remittances are associated with labour shifting out of agriculture as farm work is less preferred in remittance receiving households. While the spillover effect of emigration is as large as the direct effect, spillovers are limited to rural localities. Given the typical nature of rural labour markets, emigration-driven remittances help to overcome borrowing constraints and boost local activity that increases local wage rates and creates additional employment opportunities for the non-emigrants.
    Keywords: labour supply; emigration; spillovers; remittances; Nepal
    JEL: D1 J22 O13 O15
    Date: 2020–07–28
  7. By: Aksoy, Ozan; Yıldırım, Sinan
    Abstract: In this study we propose a Dirichlet-multinomial regression model and a Bayesian estimation method to analyse dynamic migration networks whereby the nodes are the origins and destinations, and the edges are the number of people migrating between the two over time. We apply this model to analyse 25,632,876 migration instances that take place between Turkey's 81 provinces from 2009 to 2018. We quantify the associations of economic, physical, social, political, and network factors with migration. We find that economic prosperity and population in and the spatial distance between the origin and destination, as well as network characteristics such as reciprocity, province popularity and centrality are important predictors of migration. We also find that electoral distance between provinces and the strength of the AKP (Justice and Development Party) in a province are associated with migration. The proportion of Kurds in a province has no sizeable association with in- and out-migration.
    Date: 2020–06–21
  8. By: Koji Murayama; Jun Nagayasu
    Abstract: We study the spatial assimilation of foreign residents in Japan by analyzing the con- centration tendency among foreigners who arrive from overseas and relocate within Japan. Using spatial models, we nd that immigrants from overseas tend to move to ethnically concentrated prefectures in Japan; this nding aligns with the spa- tial assimilation theory. In contrast, this trend weakens substantially with their subsequent domestic relocation in Japan, and it di ers by national group. Slow assimilation is found among nationals from countries characterized as being low- income or culturally dissimilar from Japan.
    Date: 2020–07
  9. By: Langthaler, Margarita; Gündüz, Dilara
    Abstract: In many parts of the world, migration has become a controversially debated issue and a policy priority. Indeed, also development policies are increasingly including efforts to prevent migration with foreign aid. Education and TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training) are a part of the toolkit. Yet, while political attention is high, research on the potential role of education and TVET in mitigating migration pressure is scarce. Existing findings suggest that higher levels of education might be among the major drivers for emigration rather than the opposite.
    Keywords: international migration,TVET,education,development
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Sgroi, Daniel (University of Warwick, IZA & ESRC CAGE Centre); Redoano, Michela (University of Warwick); Liberini. Federica (University of Bath); Lockwood, Ben (University of Warwick); Emanuele Bracco, Emanuele (Universit`a di Verona); Porcelli, Francesco (Universit`a di Bari)
    Abstract: Italy became one nation only relatively recently and as such there remains significant regional variation in trust in government and society (so-called “social capital”) as well as in language and diet. In an experiment conducted across three Italian cities we exploit variation in family background generated through internal migration and make use of novel measures of social capital, language and diet to develop a new index of cultural heritage. Our new index predicts social capital, while self-reported identity does not. The missing link between the past and current identity seems to come through grandparents (especially maternal grandmothers) who have a strong role in developing the cultural identity of their grandchildren.

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