nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2020‒07‒20
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Effect of migration on the food security of households left behind: Evidence from Ethiopia By Hamed Sambo
  2. Urbanization as a driver of changing food demand in Africa: Evidence from rural-urban migration in Tanzania By Lara Cockx; Liesbeth Colen; Joachim De Weerdt; Sergio Gomez Y Paloma
  3. There's More to Marriage than Love: The Effect of Legal Status and Cultural Distance on Intermarriages and Separations By Adda, Jérôme; Pinotti, Paolo; Tura, Giulia
  4. Racial Diversity, Electoral Preferences, and the Supply of Policy: the Great Migration and Civil Rights By Calderon, Alvaro; Fouka, Vasiliki; Tabellini, Marco
  5. Minimum wage and immigrants' participation in the welfare system: evidence from France By Eva Moreno-Galbis
  6. The size, socio-economic composition and fiscal implications of the irregular immigration in Spain By Gálvez Iniesta, Ismael
  7. El mercado laboral de los inmigrantes y no inmigrantes. Evidencia de la crisis venezolana de refugiados By Leonardo Bonilla-Mejía; Leonardo Fabio Morales; Didier Hermida-Giraldo; Luz A. Flórez

  1. By: Hamed Sambo (Université Sorbonne Paris Nord (USPN))
    Abstract: In most countries, migration is a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative effects on the living conditions of households in the locality of origin. This paper offers new evidence concerning the effect of migration on the food security of households left behind. The evidence is provided for Ethiopia, a country where internal migration is more predominant, and where food insecurity is still acute. The analysis is based on the 2013/2014 and 2015/2016 Ethiopian Socioeconomic Surveys (ESS), which are both nationally representative. In order to address the self-selection bias of migration, the estimation strategy used relies on the Heckman two-stage estimate and several robustness tests. The result indicates that migration negatively affects household per capita calorie intake while it leads to an improvement of their dietary diversity. However, the overall result is more inclined towards a negative effect of migration on the food security of migrant households in Ethiopia. Policies aimed at improving food security in Ethiopia should therefore consider those households among the priority targets.
    Keywords: Migration; Food security; Households; Ethiopia
    JEL: I31 O15 O55 Q18 R23
    Date: 2020–06
  2. By: Lara Cockx (KU Leuven); Liesbeth Colen (European Commission - JRC); Joachim De Weerdt (University of Antwerp); Sergio Gomez Y Paloma (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: There is rising concern that the ongoing wave of urbanization will have profound effects on eating patterns and increase the risk of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. Yet, our understanding of urbanization as a driver of food consumption remains limited and primarily based upon research designs that fail to disentangle the effect of living in an urban environment from other socioeconomic disparities. Data from the Tanzania National Panel Survey, which tracked out-migrating respondents, allow us to compare individuals’ dietary patterns before and after they relocated from rural to urban areas and assess whether those changes differ from household members who stayed behind or moved to a different rural area. We find that individuals who relocated to urban areas experience a much more pronounced shift away from the consumption of traditional staples, and towards more high-sugar, conveniently consumed and prepared foods. Contrary to what is often claimed in the literature, living in an urban environment is not found to contribute positively to the intake of protein-rich foods, nor to diet diversity. Though we do not find a strong association with weight gain, these changes in eating patterns represent a clear nutritional concern regarding the potential longer-term impacts of urbanization. Our results however also indicate that the growth of unhealthy food consumption with urbanization is largely linked to rising incomes. As such, health concerns over diets can be expected to spread rapidly to less-urbanized areas as well, as soon as income growth takes off there. Our findings clearly call for more in-depth research that may help to improve health and food and nutrition security as well as correctly predict food demand and adapt trade, agricultural and development policies.
    Keywords: urbanization, diets, nutrition, Tanzania
    Date: 2019–02
  3. By: Adda, Jérôme; Pinotti, Paolo; Tura, Giulia
    Abstract: This paper analyses the marriage decisions of natives and migrants focusing on the role of legal status and cultural distance. We exploit the successive enlargements of the European Union as a natural experiment that granted legal status only to some groups of foreign immigrants. Using Italian administrative data on the universe of marriages and separations, we show that access to legal status reduces by 60 percent the probability of immigrants intermarrying with natives, and it increases by 20 percent the hazard rate of separation for mixed couples formed before legal status acquisition. Building on this evidence, we develop and structurally estimate a multidimensional equilibrium model of marriage and separation, where individuals match on observed and unobserved characteristics. Allowing for trade-offs between cultural distance, legal status, and other socio-economic spousal characteristics, we quantify the role of legal status and the strength of cultural affinity. Through the evaluation of counterfactual policies, we show that granting legal status to migrants to foster their inclusion in the legal labor market paradoxically slows down the integration of minorities along cultural lines. We also show how recent migration waves will foster a gender marital imbalance within those communities.
    Keywords: Cultural distance; Intermarriages; legal status; Marital Matching; Separations
    JEL: J11 J12 J15
    Date: 2020–02
  4. By: Calderon, Alvaro; Fouka, Vasiliki; Tabellini, Marco
    Abstract: How does the racial composition of local constituencies affect voters' preferences and politicians' behavior? We study the effects of one of the largest episodes of internal migration in US history, the 1940-1970 Great Migration of African Americans, on both demand for racial equality and supply of civil rights legislation. We predict black inflows by interacting historical settlements of southern born blacks across northern counties with differential emigration rates from different southern states after 1940. We find that black in-migration increased support for the Democratic Party and encouraged grassroots activism. Data on pro-civil rights demonstrations and historical surveys reveal that segments of the white electorate, such as Democrats and union members, supported blacks' struggle for racial equality. At the same time, backlash against civil rights erupted among Republicans and whites more exposed to racial mixing of their neighborhoods. Mirroring the responses of the electorate, Congress members representing areas more exposed to black in-migration became more supportive of civil rights legislation. Such average effects, however, mask substantial heterogeneity, as Democratic and Republican legislators became, respectively, more liberal and more conservative on racial issues. Taken together, our findings suggest that, under certain conditions, cross-race coalitions can emerge, but also that changes in the composition of the electorate can polarize both voters and politicians.
    Keywords: civil rights; diversity; Great Migration; race
    JEL: D72 J15 N92
    Date: 2020–01
  5. By: Eva Moreno-Galbis (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This study examines how minimum wage laws affect the share of immigrants receiving welfare benefits. Minimum wage increases might have larger effects among low-skilled immigrants than among low-skilled natives because, on average, immigrants are less productive. We develop an analytical framework in which a government legislated minimum wage increase promotes a decrease in labor demand and an increase in the earned wage. The net impact on the expected wage is then ambiguous and so is the impact on search effort of unemployed. However, we expect the reduction in labor demand to be more important for immigrants due to their lower productivity. Immigrants remain unemployed and eventually become welfare recipients. Using the French Labor Force Surveys 2003-2016 we exploit the 2006 and 2012 government legislated minimum wage increases and find consistent evidence that a discretionary increase in the minimum wage induces a rise in the share of immigrants receiving welfare benefits which is more important than the rise estimated for natives. This result is driven by low-skilled immigrants and no significant effect arises for high-skilled. Endogeneity issues are addressed through an IV approach.
    Keywords: minimum wage,welfare benefits,immigrants
    Date: 2020–06
  6. By: Gálvez Iniesta, Ismael
    Abstract: This paper estimates the total number of irregular immigrants residing in Spain from 2002 to2019 and studies their nationality, sex, gender and sectoral composition. Using the residualmethod and combining microdata sources from the Spanish Labour Force Survey and SocialSecurity registers I find that by the end of 2019 there was around 390,000-470,000 irregularimmigrants in Spain, which account for 11-13% of the total non-EU immigrants. Irregularimmigrants are younger than the regular ones, they are predominantly from South and CentralAmerica and they are concentrated in the accommodation and food activities and the activitieshousehold sector. Using the most updated wave of the EU-SILC data for Spain, I find a positivedirect fiscal impact of the non-EU immigration. This impact is 75% higher than for the natives'households, mainly explained by their younger age structure. Once education and health publicsystems are taken into account, the fiscal impact gap between the two type of householdsvanishes. I also find large fiscal costs associated to maintaining the irregularity status. Last,my estimates suggest that the potential positive gains from legalising the current status of theirregular immigrants are around 3,300 euros yearly by regularized worker.
    Keywords: Fiscal; Irregular Immigrants; Immigration
    JEL: E62 J61 J32
    Date: 2020–07–24
  7. By: Leonardo Bonilla-Mejía (Banco de la República de Colombia); Leonardo Fabio Morales (Banco de la República de Colombia); Didier Hermida-Giraldo (Banco de la República de Colombia); Luz A. Flórez (Banco de la República de Colombia)
    Abstract: Following Venezuela’s economic collapse, millions have fled the country. This paper assesses the impact of this phenomenon on the labor market outcomes of immigrants and non-immigrants in Colombia, the major recipient of refugees. We address potential endogeneity problems using an instrumental variable approach that exploits the regional variation of migrant networks and the timing and intensity of the Venezuelan economic crisis. Migration flows increase unemployment among immigrants, but have no significant effect on nonimmigrants, partly because immigration significantly reduces labor participation, offsetting the negative impact on employment. Employment losses among non-immigrants are mostly driven by self-employed workers and are consistently larger for female, young, and low-skill individuals. The effect on immigrants is mostly driven by foreign immigrants, as the impact on returnees is smaller in magnitude and significance. We also find sizeable negative effects on internal migrants’ labor outcomes and changes in internal migration flows. **** RESUMEN: Debido al colapso económico de Venezuela millones de personas han abandonado el país. Este artículo evalúa el impacto de este fenómeno sobre los indicadores del mercado laboral de los inmigrantes y no inmigrantes en Colombia, el mayor receptor de refugiados desde Venezuela. Abordamos los potenciales problemas de endogeneidad utilizando un enfoque que variables instrumentales, que aprovecha la variación regional de inmigrantes y el periodo e intensidad de la crisis económica de Venezuela. Los resultados sugieren que el flujo migratorio incrementa el desempleo entre los inmigrantes, pero no tiene efectos significativos sobre los no inmigrantes, en parte porque la inmigración reduce significativamente la participación laboral, compensando el efecto negativo sobre el empleo. Las pérdidas de empleo entre los no inmigrantes se deben, principalmente, a los trabajadores por cuenta propia y, en general, son más pronunciadas para las mujeres, los jóvenes y los individuos con baja calificación laboral. El efecto sobre los inmigrantes es impulsado, en gran medida, por los inmigrantes no retornados, el impacto en los retornados, por el contrario, es pequeño en magnitud y significancia. También encontramos un efecto negativo sobre los inmigrantes internos y cambios en los flujos migratorios internos de Colombia.
    Keywords: Migración internacional, mercados laborales, capital humano, Colombia, International migration, labor markets, human capital, Colombia
    JEL: F22 R23 J0
    Date: 2020–07

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