nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2020‒04‒06
four papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Out there on your own: Absence of the spouse and migrants' integration outcomes By Poeschel, Friedrich
  2. Educational and Skills Mismatches among Immigrants: The Impact of Host Language Proficiency By Budría, Santiago; Martínez de Ibarreta, Carlos
  3. Descriptive labor market outcomes of immigrant women across Europe By Adserà, Alícia; Ferrer, Ana M.; Herranz, Virginia
  4. How to Attract Highly Skilled Migrants into The Russian Regions By Vera Barinova; Sylvie Rochhia; Stepan Zemtsov

  1. By: Poeschel, Friedrich
    Abstract: In many countries, policies on family reunification of migrants are under review. Rules have become more restrictive in a number of cases, with unknown consequences for integration. This paper investigates quantitatively how absence of the spouse affects migrants' integration outcomes, also in the long term. A theoretical model of migrants' investment behaviour predicts that migrants tend to focus on the short term rather than long-term wage growth, until the spouse arrives and the probability of staying increases. Using the American Community Survey, I estimate the effects from absence of the spouse and delays in the spouse’s arrival. An instrumental variable is used to isolate the causal effect of delays. The results indicate that migrants focus more on work when their spouse is absent and that delays significantly decrease their long-term wages, by around 2% per year of delay.
    Keywords: migration, family, spouse, integration, family separation, family reunification
    JEL: J12 J15 J61
    Date: 2020–02–12
  2. By: Budría, Santiago (Universidad Nebrija); Martínez de Ibarreta, Carlos (Universidad Pontificia Comillas)
    Abstract: This paper asks to what extent host language proficiency can insure immigrants against the risk of ending up in mismatched jobs. Using the 2003-2016 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA), the paper discriminates between three forms of mismatch, overqualification, under-qualification and over-skilling. Host language proficiency is instrumented using Bleakley and Chin (Rev Econ Stat 86:481–496, 2004) strategy, which exploits the fact that younger children learn languages more easily than older ones. To differentiate between local average treatment effects (LATE) and average treatment effects (ATE), the paper considers two alternative models, 2SLS instrumental variables and biprobit. We find that treatment effects are heterogeneous. English language proficiency among immigrants in Australia reduces the probability of ending up in over-qualified jobs, by between 17.2 (LATE) and 36.7 (ATE) percentage points. The ATE of overs-skilling is also significant and about -8.9 percentage points. In contrast, language skills tend to raise the probability of being under-qualified at the job, by about 8.6 percentage points according to the ATE. Local effects of over-skilling and underqualification fail to be statistically significant, suggesting that host language proficiency may be innocuous for some workers. Overall, the results indicate that host language proficiency is a country-specific, valuable form of human capital.
    Keywords: over-qualification, under-qualification, over-skilling, host language proficiency, instrumental variables
    JEL: F22 J24 J61
    Date: 2020–03
  3. By: Adserà, Alícia; Ferrer, Ana M.; Herranz, Virginia
    Abstract: We consider the job progression of immigrant women in five European countries: France, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK. We complement data from the European Labour Force Survey (2005-2015), with information about the skills contained in the jobs held by women, using data from the O*Net. In particular, we focus on analytical and strength skills in immigrant's jobs and compare them to those required by jobs held by similar native women. Even though immigrants experience upon arrival a gap in participation relative to the native born, they gradually increase participation during the first ten years spent in the country (approximately, 1% per year in Spain, Italy and the UK, and 2% and 4 % per year in France and Sweden respectively). Our results reveal significant differences across countries of origin as well as differences within countries over the period of analysis. Recent immigrant women show relatively large gaps in the analytical skill content of the jobs they held relative to native-born women across our host countries. Further, with the exception of immigrants to Spain, they also work jobs with higher requirements of strength than their native-born counterparts do. Although educated immigrants show a different pattern in most countries (included Spain). We find differences within countries over the period of analysis that may be consistent with the variation of incentives to move depending on the business cycle at arrival - particularly given the meager opportunities in many destination countries during aftermath of the recent great recession.
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Vera Barinova (RANEPA University); Sylvie Rochhia (Université Côte d'Azur, France; GREDEG CNRS); Stepan Zemtsov (RANEPA University)
    Abstract: In this work, we examine the factors and patterns of attracting highly skilled migrants by the Russian regions. Attracting such specialists is particularly relevant for large developing countries with territories actively losing qualified personnel, and, accordingly, opportunities for long-term development. The results of an econometric study show that there are a number of objective factors that are poorly modifiable but have a significant positive effect on staff recruitment: the demographic potential of neighbouring regions, the size of accessible markets, and the natural comfort of living. Adverse socio-economic conditions in the region, such as high unemployment, negatively affect the possibility of emigration. However, there are factors that the regional authorities and the federal government are able to influence in the medium term. One of the most important determinants remains the income of highly qualified specialists and the availability of housing. Highly qualified specialists also strive to move to regions with a high level of education and a good healthcare system. The creation of favourable conditions for entrepreneurship has a positive effect on attracting active migrants, providing opportunities for new firms' establishments. As recommendations for regional policy, in particular, attracting highly qualified specialists to the Russian rare-populated Far East, efforts are needed to develop rental housing and zero-interest mortgages, create high-performance jobs, especially in education, science and medicine, as well as general improvement of institutional conditions for conducting business.
    Keywords: Russian regions, migration, gravity model, market access, institutions, human development index, regional policy, high-tech sector
    JEL: P23 J61 P36 R23
    Date: 2020–03

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