nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2020‒02‒24
24 papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. A global profile of emigrants to OECD countries: Younger and more skilled migrants from more diverse countries By Rohen d’Aiglepierre; Anda David; Charlotte Levionnois; Gilles Spielvogel; Michele Tuccio; Erik Vickstrom
  2. Involuntary migration, inequality, and integration: National and subnational influences By Gisselquist Rachel
  3. What are Europeans’ views on migrant integration?: An in-depth analysis of 2017 Special Eurobarometer “Integration of immigrants in the European Union” By Lenka Drazanova; Thomas Liebig; Silvia Migali; Marco Scipioni; Gilles Spielvogel
  4. Is Immigration Enforcement Shaping Immigrant Marriage Patterns? By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Arenas-Arroyo, Esther; Wang, Chunbei
  5. Refugees and Foreign Direct Investment: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from U.S. Resettlements By Mayda, Anna Maria; Parsons, Christopher; Pham, Han; Vézina, Pierre-Louis
  7. Intergenerational Impact of Population Shocks on Children’s Health: Evidence from the 1993-2001 Refugee Crisis in Tanzania By Soazic Elise Wang Sonne; Paolo Verme
  8. Migrants leaving mega-cities: Where they move and why prices matter By Egger Eva-Maria
  9. Ethnicity differentials in academic achievements: The role of time investments By Nguyen, Ha Trong; Connelly, Luke B.; Le, Huong Thu; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.
  10. Is Immigration Necessary for Italy? Is it Desirable? By Luigi Bonatti
  11. Ethnic Networks and the Employment of Asylum Seekers: Evidence from Germany By Stips, Felix; Kis-Katos, Krisztina
  12. #Portichiusi: the human costs of migrant deterrence in the Mediterranean By Michele Cantarella
  13. Ethnic Attrition, Assimilation, and the Measured Health Outcomes of Mexican Americans By Antman, Francisca M.; Duncan,Brian; Trejo, Stephen J.
  14. Internal migration and crime in Brazil By Egger Eva-Maria
  15. Cooperation in a Fragmented Society: Experimental Evidence on Syrian Refugees and Natives in Lebanon By Drouvelis, Michalis; Malaeb, Bilal; Vlassopoulos, Michael; Wahba, Jackline
  16. Social networks, role models, peer effects, and aspirations By Mani Anandi; Riley Emma
  17. “Us” and “Them”: Prosocial attitudes between refugees and host communities exposed to armed conflict: Experimental evidence from Northern Uganda By Adong, Annet; Kirui, Oliver Kiptoo; Achola, Jolly
  18. Who is Thinking of Leaving Germany? The Role of Postmaterialism, Risk Attitudes, and Life-Satisfaction on Emigration Intentions of German Nationals By Elena Samarsky
  19. Intergenerational Impact of Population Shocks on Children's Health : Evidence from the 1993-2001 Refugee Crisis in Tanzania By Wang Sonne,Soazic Elise; Verme,Paolo
  20. The Impact of Forced Displacement on Host Communities: A Review of the Empirical Literature in Economics By Paolo Verme; Kirsten Schuettler
  21. Immigration Lottery Design: Engineered and Coincidental Consequences of H-1B Reforms By Parag A. Pathak; Alex Rees-Jones; Tayfun Sönmez
  22. From global refugee norms to local realities: Implementing the global compact on refugees in Kenya By Dick, Eva; Rudolf, Markus
  23. Self-selection and Motivations of Emigrants from a Welfare State By Ilpo Kauppinen; Till Nikolka; Panu Poutvaara
  24. How Has Germany's Economy Been Affected by the Recent Surge in Immigration? By Matthew Higgins; Thomas Klitgaard

  1. By: Rohen d’Aiglepierre; Anda David; Charlotte Levionnois (OECD); Gilles Spielvogel (OECD); Michele Tuccio (OECD); Erik Vickstrom (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper presents new findings on the main characteristics of immigrants living in OECD countries by country of origin, drawing from the updated Database on Immigrants in OECD Countries (DIOC) 2015/16. It describes migrant populations by country of destination and country of origin in 2015/16, as well as the dynamics of international migration to OECD countries since 2000/01. It also presents evidence on overall emigration rates and emigration rates of the highly educated at the regional and country levels. Finally, the paper looks at age patterns in immigrant populations.
    Keywords: DIOC, Emigration rates, Immigrant stocks, International migration
    JEL: F22 J61 O15
    Date: 2020–02–20
  2. By: Gisselquist Rachel
    Abstract: Across the world, we observe different experiences in terms of inequality between migrant and ‘host-country’ populations. What factors contribute to such variation? What policies and programmes facilitate ‘better’ economic integration?This paper, and the broader collection of studies that it frames, speaks to these questions through focused comparative consideration of two migrant populations (Vietnamese and Afghan) in four Western countries (Canada, Germany, the UK, and the US). It pays particular attention to involuntary migrants who fled conflict in their home regions beginning in the 1970s.The paper builds in particular on the literature on segmented assimilation theory, exploring new linkages with work on horizontal inequality, to highlight the role of five key sets of factors in such variation: governmental policies and institutions; labour market reception; existing co-ethnic communities; human capital and socioeconomic characteristics; and social cohesion or ‘groupness’.
    Keywords: Segmented assimilation,Horizontal inequality,Migration,Economic integration,Involuntary migration,Inequality
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Lenka Drazanova (European University Institute); Thomas Liebig (OECD); Silvia Migali (Joint Research Centre - European Commission); Marco Scipioni (Joint Research Centre - European Commission); Gilles Spielvogel (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper provides an in-depth description of public opinion about immigrants’ integration in European countries, as captured in the 2017 Special Eurobarometer on this topic. It highlights a near consensus among European respondents on the meaning of integration, but more variation across countries regarding policy options to support integration. It also shows that positive opinions about immigration are often associated with a favourable public perception of integration. Looking at the individual correlates of opinions about immigration and integration, this paper finds that actual knowledge about the magnitude of immigration is positively correlated with attitudes to immigration but not integration. In contrast, more interactions with immigrants are associated with more positive views on integration but not necessarily on immigration.
    Keywords: Eurobarometer, Immigration, Integration, Public opinion
    JEL: F22 J61 J68
    Date: 2020–02–19
  4. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (University of California, Merced); Arenas-Arroyo, Esther (Vienna University of Economics and Business); Wang, Chunbei (University of Oklahoma)
    Abstract: This paper identifies intermarriage (between non-citizens and citizens) as an important response mechanism to intensified immigration enforcement, particularly among Mexican non-citizens. Exploiting the temporal and geographic variation in the implementation of interior immigration enforcement from 2005 to 2017, we find that a one standard deviation increase in enforcement raises Mexican non-citizens' likelihood of marrying a U.S. citizen by 3 to 6 percent. Our results show that this effect is driven by a change in spousal preference. Both police-based and employment-based enforcement contribute to this impact. The analysis adds to a growing literature examining how immigrants respond to tightened enforcement and, importantly, sheds light on the recent growth of intermarriage among Mexican immigrants.
    Keywords: immigration enforcement, undocumented immigrants, family structure, intermarriage, United States
    JEL: J12 J15 K37
    Date: 2019–12
  5. By: Mayda, Anna Maria (Georgetown University); Parsons, Christopher (University of Western Australia); Pham, Han (University of Western Australia); Vézina, Pierre-Louis (King's College London)
    Abstract: We exploit the designs of two separate U.S. refugee dispersal policies to provide causal evidence that refugees foster outward FDI to their countries of origin. Drawing upon aggregated individual-level refugee and project-level FDI data, we first leverage the quasi-random distribution of refugees "without U.S. ties" after the enactment of the 1980 Refugee Act, to show that outward FDI to refugees' countries of origin grew more from those U.S. commuting zones that hosted greater numbers of refugees after 1990. Secondly, we exploit the specificities of the Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, which resulted in a quasi-experimental dispersal of Vietnamese refugees in 1975, to provide causal evidence that Vietnamese refugees fostered FDI to their home region, while national domestic reforms in Vietnam amplified the positive FDI-creating effects of the overseas Vietnamese diaspora. Overall, our results highlight a new mechanism through which refugees foster development to their origin countries.
    Keywords: refugees, networks, foreign direct investment
    JEL: F21 F22 F23
    Date: 2019–12
  6. By: Anda David (Agence Française de DéveloppementAuthor-Name: Nelly El-Mallakh; Paris School of Economics, Institut Convergences Migrations, and Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University); Jackline Wahba (University of Southampton)
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between internal, international, and return migration in Egypt. Using the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS), this paper documents the evolution and patterns of internal migration over time. We examine patterns and trends of international and return migration, as well as the characteristics of international and return migrants. We then investigate the relationship between internal and international migration. We find evidence that internal migration has been rather low in Egypt. However, international migration rates have been rather high and prominent across all educational groups. Suggestive evidence indicates that individuals tend to engage in one type of migration only and that few engage in both internal and international migration
    Date: 2019–10–20
  7. By: Soazic Elise Wang Sonne (World Bank and United Nations University-Maastricht Economics and social Research Institute and Training Center on Innovation and Technology (UNU-MERIT)); Paolo Verme (World Bank)
    Abstract: This paper examines how parents’ early childhood exposure to a refugee crisis impacts their children’s health status. Based on Demographic and Health Survey data from Tanzania with the migration history of mothers and fathers, the analysis exploits geographical, time, and cohort variations using shock intensity and distance from refugee camps to instrument treatment. The findings show that children who were born to parents who were living closer to refugee camps during their early childhood have lower height for their age and are more likely to be stunted. The results are robust to alternative functional forms of the distance from camps, alternative specifications of the treatment and control groups, alternative cohorts of mothers, and several placebo tests.
    Keywords: Early childhood development; refugees; forced displacement, health outcomes, children JEL Classification: O10; O12; O13; O15; F22; R23; R12
    Date: 2019–12
  8. By: Egger Eva-Maria
    Abstract: Traditional economic models predict rural to urban migration during the structural transformation of an economy. In middle-income countries, it is less clear which direction of migration to expect.In this paper I show that in Brazil as many people move out of as into metropolitan cities, and they mostly move to mid-sized towns.I estimate the determinants of out-migrants’ destination choice, accounting for differences in earnings, living costs, and amenities, and I test whether the migrants gain economically by accepting lower wages but enjoying lower living costs.The findings suggest that the destination choice of out-migrants minimizes the costs of moving. On average, city-leavers realize higher real wages, including lowskilled migrants who would lose out in nominal terms.The paper thus provides evidence on economic incentives to leave big cities in a middle-income country.
    Keywords: secondary towns,Prices,Brazil,Internal migration
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Nguyen, Ha Trong; Connelly, Luke B.; Le, Huong Thu; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.
    Abstract: Children of Asian immigrants in most English-speaking destinations have better academic outcomes, yet the underlying causes of their advantages are under-studied. We employ panel time-use diaries by two cohorts of children observed over a decade to present new evidence that children of Asian immigrants begin spending more time than their peers on educational activities from school entry; and, that the ethnicity gap in the time allocated to educational activities increases over time. By specifying an augmented value-added model and invoking a quantile decomposition method, we find that the academic advantage of children of Asian immigrants is attributable mainly to their allocating more time to educational activities or their favorable initial cognitive abilities and not to socio-demographics or parenting styles. Furthermore, our results show substantial heterogeneity in the contributions of initial cognitive abilities and time allocations by test subjects, test ages and points of the test score distribution.
    Keywords: Migration,Education,Test Score Gap,Time Use Diary,Quantile Regression,Second-generation Immigrants,Australia
    JEL: C21 I20 J13 J15 J22
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Luigi Bonatti
    Abstract: Italy, together with other Southern European countries, represents an anomaly in the history of modern migration. In the last three decades, the country has attracted a substantial number of migrants while its employment rate has remained structurally low because of a persistently high unemployment rate and its population’s low participation to the labor market. This article illustrates some facts in order to escape from the obtuse dispute between anti-immigrant propagandists on one side and a rhetoric of immigrant reception on the other. It shows what this anomaly implies and suggests possible policy options for dealing with it.
    Date: 2020
  11. By: Stips, Felix (University of Göttingen); Kis-Katos, Krisztina (University of Goettingen)
    Abstract: Using novel registry data on the population of asylum seekers in Germany for the period from 2010 to 2016, and quasi-experimental variation induced by German allocation policies, we identify causal effects of the size and composition of local co-national networks on formal labor market access of asylum seekers. While the individual employment probability is not linked to network size, it increases with the number of employed local co-national asylum seekers and decreases with the number of non-employed network members, thereby underlining the central importance of network quality.
    Keywords: social networks, refugees, employment, Germany, dispersal policies
    JEL: F22 J61 R23
    Date: 2020–01
  12. By: Michele Cantarella (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and European Central Bank)
    Abstract: Using daily data on forced migration from the IOM, I compare trends in flows and mortality across three major migration routes in the Mediterranean, analysing the effects of the introduction of rescue-deterrence policies in Italy. Controlling for exogenous shocks which affect push and pull factors in mobility, along with sea state conditions and route-day fixed effects, I find that the reduction in refugee migration flows in the Central Mediterranean has been modest, at best. At the same time, these policies have generated a permanent increase in daily mortality rates in the Central Mediterranean, having grown by more than 4 deaths per day. Finally, I investigate whether variations in mortality are sufficient to offset migration flows. Increases in mortality rates, however, are only accompanied by a short-term negative displacement effect, as migration attempts are delayed by increases in absolute mortality, rather than being prevented.
    Keywords: costs of migration, forced migration, EU refugee crisis, deterrence policies JEL Classification: F22, J15, J61, J68
    Date: 2019–10
  13. By: Antman, Francisca M.; Duncan,Brian; Trejo, Stephen J.
    Abstract: The literature on immigrant assimilation and intergenerational progress has sometimes reached surprising conclusions, such as the puzzle of immigrant advantage which finds that Hispanic immigrants sometimes have better health than U.S.-born Hispanics. While numerous studies have attempted to explain these patterns, almost all studies rely on subjective measures of ethnic selfidentification to identify immigrants’ descendants. This can lead to bias due to “ethnic attrition,” which occurs whenever a U.S.-born descendant of a Hispanic immigrant fails to self-identify as Hispanic. In this paper, we exploit information on parents’ and grandparents’ place of birth to show that Mexican ethnic attrition, operating through intermarriage, is sizable and selective on health, making subsequent generations of Mexican immigrants appear less healthy than they actually are. Consequently, conventional estimates of health disparities between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites as well as those between Mexican Americans and recent Mexican immigrants have been significantly overstated.
    Keywords: assimilation,immigrant health advantage,ethnic attrition
    JEL: J15 J12 I14
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Egger Eva-Maria
    Abstract: Empirical evidence suggests that the social effects of internal migration may be substantially different from those associated with the arrival of international migrants.In this paper, I provide the first evidence of the effect of internal migration on crime with longitudinal data from Brazilian microregiões.Using local labour demand shocks in the manufacturing sector as an instrument for migratory flows, I find that a 10 per cent increase in the in-migration rate translates into a 6 per cent increase in the homicide rate in destinations.Exploring possible channels, I do not find that crime-prone migrants drive the results. The effect is only significant in locations with high past crime rates, indicating crime inertia, and in places with a small informal sector, suggesting that the impact of internal migration is conditioned by the ability of local labour markets to accommodate migrants.
    Keywords: Crime,Internal migration,Brazil
    Date: 2019
  15. By: Drouvelis, Michalis (University of Birmingham); Malaeb, Bilal (London School of Economics); Vlassopoulos, Michael (University of Southampton); Wahba, Jackline (University of Southampton)
    Abstract: Lebanon is the country with the highest density of refugees in the world, raising the question of whether the host and refugee populations can cooperate harmoniously. We conduct a lab-in-the-field experiment in Lebanon studying intra- and inter-group behavior of Syrian refugees and Lebanese nationals in a repeated public good game without and with punishment. We find that homogeneous groups, on average, contribute and punish significantly more than mixed groups. These patterns are driven by the Lebanese participants. Our findings suggest that it is equally important to provide adequate help to the host communities to alleviate any economic and social pressures.
    Keywords: refugees, public good game, cooperation, punishment
    JEL: D91 J5 F22
    Date: 2019–12
  16. By: Mani Anandi; Riley Emma
    Abstract: We review the literature on pathways through which social networks may influence social mobility in developing countries.We find that social networks support members in tangible waysâ۠via access to opportunities for migration, credit, trading relationships, information on jobs, and new technologiesâ۠as well as in intangible ways, such as shaping their beliefs, hopes, and aspirations, through role models and peers. Nevertheless, networks can disadvantage non-members, typically the poor and marginalized.Recent evidence suggests a range of policy tools that could help mitigate disadvantages faced by excluded groups: temporary incentives to encourage experimentation into new regions, occupations, or technologies, and role modelsâ۠real and virtualâ۠to mitigate psychosocial challenges faced by marginalized groups.Targeting large fractions of marginalized groups simultaneously could increase the effectiveness of such policies by leveraging the influence of existing social networks.
    Keywords: geographic labour mobility,Social networks,Migration,Behavioral economics,cultural economics,human resources
    Date: 2019
  17. By: Adong, Annet; Kirui, Oliver Kiptoo; Achola, Jolly
    Abstract: We examine prosocial attitudes between refugees and host communities exposed to armed conflict and living in close proximity in Northern Uganda. By conducting trust and dictator games in the field, we test if there are in-group preferences or parochialism regarding trust, trustworthiness and altruism and whether parochial tendencies change with remoteness. We find that refugees show out-group preferences for reciprocating trust and altruism with increasing remoteness from district headquarters while members of the host communities show parochial preferences for trust although this changes with increasing remoteness. Refugees also do not perceive that their partners might expect them to discriminate along social identities of being refugee or host while hosts believe that their partners expect them to show parochial preferences. We conclude that refugees do not consider the social differentiation of “us refugees” and “them host” in their interactions as much as hosts do particularly in areas remote from urban areas which offer opportunities for increased interactions. The results are crucial to the policy arena in humanitarian contexts where concerns for the assistance of the vulnerable displaced people are high.
    Keywords: Institutional and Behavioral Economics
    Date: 2020–02–17
  18. By: Elena Samarsky
    Abstract: The subject of emigration from affluent countries, such as Germany, raises the question of who are more likely to leave their highly-industrialized countries known for high living standards, stable political scene and prosperous economy. Using the theory of postmaterialism (Inglehart, 1997) this paper explores emigration intentions of German nationals taking into account country’s specific socio-economic context through the value sets of its nationals. By analyzing emigration intentions of German nationals recorded by the German SocioEconomic Panel (SOEP) the findings link postmaterialism theory to emigration intentions, and show that those who express emigration intentions are more likely to have postmaterialistic values than materialistic or mixed values. Furthermore, when controlling for life-satisfaction and risk attitudes, the effect of postmaterialistic and materialistic values on intentions to emigrate remain significant. Lastly, the analysis corroborates other studies by showing that those who display emigration intentions also more likely to have higher risk tolerance and lower life-satisfaction.
    Keywords: Migration intentions, value set, risk attitudes, life-satisfaction, Germany
    Date: 2020
  19. By: Wang Sonne,Soazic Elise; Verme,Paolo
    Abstract: This paper examines how parents'early childhood exposure to a refugee crisis impacts their children's health status. Based on Demographic and Health Survey data from Tanzania with the migration history of mothers and fathers, the analysis exploits geographical, time, and cohort variations using shock intensity and distance from refugee camps to instrument treatment. The findings show that children who were born to parents who were living closer to refugee camps during their early childhood have lower height for their age and are more likely to be stunted. The results are robust to alternative functional forms of the distance from camps, alternative specifications of the treatment and control groups, alternative cohorts of mothers, and several placebo tests.
    Date: 2019–12–03
  20. By: Paolo Verme (World Bank); Kirsten Schuettler (World Bank)
    Abstract: The paper reviews 54 empirical studies that estimated the impact of forced displacement on host communities. A review of the empirical models used by these studies and a meta-analysis of 868 separate results collected from these studies are the main contributions of the paper. Coverage extends to 18 major forced displacement crises that occurred between 1922 and 2016, to host countries at different levels of economic development and different types of forced migrants. The focus is on outcomes related to household well-being, prices, employment, and wages. All studies can be classified as ex-post quasi-natural experiments. The analysis on empirical modeling shows a preference for partial equilibrium modeling, differences-in-differences evaluation methods, and cross-section econometrics, with all these choices largely dependent on the type of data available. The meta-analysis on household well-being finds that the probability of a negative and statistically significant outcome for hosts (a decrease in well-being) is below 20%. The probability of finding a decrease in employment or wages for hosts is less than 30%. When this occurs, it is mostly related to female, informal and low-skilled workers. Results on prices show that the probability of finding changes in prices is around 80% equally distributed between increases and decreases in prices with increases mostly associated with food and rental prices. Overall, adverse effects are associated with larger crises and tend to vanish in the long-run.
    Keywords: Refugees, Returnees, Expellees, Escapees, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), Forced Migration, Forced Displacement, Host Communities, Labor Markets, Wages, Prices, Employment, Unemployment, Well-being JEL Classification: D12; E24; F22; F66; J08; J1; J2; J3; J4; J7; J8; N3; O15; P46; R2
    Date: 2019–05
  21. By: Parag A. Pathak (MIT); Alex Rees-Jones (Cornell University); Tayfun Sönmez (Boston College)
    Abstract: In response to increasing demand for high-skilled labor, the U.S. Congress legis- lated in 2005 that the H-1B visa program create 20,000 additional slots for advanced degree applicants on top of 65,000 slots open to all. Since then, the U.S. Customs and Immigration Service (USCIS) has implemented this policy through visa alloca- tion rules that comply with this legislation. Following a directive in the April 2017 Buy American and Hire American Executive Order by President Trump, USCIS tweaked its H-1B visa allocation rule in 2019, in an explicit effort to increase the share of higher-skill beneficiaries, bypassing the need for Congressional approval to increase the number of advanced degree slots. The USCIS estimated that the rule change, engineered solely for this objective, would increase the number of higher- skill beneficiaries by more than 5,000 at the expense of lower-skill beneficiaries. In this paper, we characterize all visa allocation rules that comply with the legislation. Despite specifying rigid caps, we show that the legislation still allows for rules that can change the number of high-skill awards by as many as 14,000 in an average year. Of all rules that comply with the legislation, the 2019 rule adopted by the Trump ad- ministration produces the best possible outcome for higher-skill applicants and the worst possible outcome for lower-skill applicants. We also discover that each of the two previous and much less known changes to the H-1B visa allocation rule resulted in more substantial changes to the share of higher-skill beneficiaries than the 2019 reform. The distributional effects of these earlier reforms in 2006 and 2008, how- ever, were motivated by logistical considerations, potentially without understanding of their importance for the rate of higher-skill awards.
    Keywords: H1B, Immigration Policy, Reserve Design
    JEL: C78 D47
    Date: 2020–02–01
  22. By: Dick, Eva; Rudolf, Markus
    Abstract: Adopted by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in December 2018, the Global Compact on Refugees (GCR) and its Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) point to a paradigm shift in international refugee policy. The social and economic independence of refugees in destination countries and communities in particular is to be increased. In return, the international community commits to engage in burden- and responsibility-sharing by supporting hosting countries and communities with knowledge and resources. With this new deal, the UN announced its intention to break existing vicious cycles of displacement and dependence on aid in order to ensure that refugees and host communities benefit equally from the measures. The East African nation of Kenya is one of 15 pilot countries working to promote the implementation of the CRRF. The Kenyan Government pledged at the UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants in September 2016 to integrate refugees more effectively and involve them in national and local development planning processes. It underscored its commitments in March 2017 in the context of the regional Nairobi Declaration and Action Plan (NAP). While the national operational plan announced at the time has not yet been adopted, individual commitments are already being implemented. These also include the (further) development of the integrated refugee settlement of Kalobeyei in Turkana Country in the far north-west of the country, a project supported by the international community as part of the CRRF, but originally initiated at local level. The example of Kenya and Turkana County shows that the (capacity for) implementation of global agreements depends not least on the specific interests of sub-national actors. Requirements of the CRRF, such as better infrastructure for refugees and host communities, are compatible with the local government's economic development priorities. The capacity of Kenyan counties to take action has also been improved as a result of the decentralisation process in 2010. To a certain degree at least, counties can challenge the national security-related narratives which restrict the opportunities of refugees to participate in society to this day. In neighbouring Tanzania, implementation of the CRRF failed due in no small part to the fact that barely any consideration was given to the concerns of local actors in the nation's centralised political system. Based on our analysis, we make the following recommendations for German development policy: Local state and non-governmental actors should be involved in drafting global norms and dialogue between municipalities should be promoted, Partner governments should be made aware of the benefits of integrating refugees and political and administrative implementation should be supported, Local stakeholders should be actively involved and supported in the planning and prioritisation of refugee integration strategies.
    Date: 2019
  23. By: Ilpo Kauppinen; Till Nikolka; Panu Poutvaara
    Abstract: This report analyzes self-selection and motivations of emigrants from Denmark, one of the richest and most redistributive welfare states in the world. Authors Ilpo Kauppinen (EconPol Europe, VATT Institute for Economic Research), Till Nikolka (EconPol Europe, ifo Institute, LMU Munich) and Panu Poutvaara (EconPol Europe, ifo Institute, LMU Munich) present evidence on how migrants are self-selected with respect to their education, earnings, and unobservable abilities, measured by residual earnings. They document main motivations of emigrants, present evidence on how couples have self-selected into emigration, how couples decided on their emigration and how the partners’ labor force participation changed after emigration. Finally, they ask whether emigrants differ from non-migrants in terms of their attitudes towards redistribution.
    Date: 2020
  24. By: Matthew Higgins (National Bureau of Economic Research; Georgia Institute of Technology; Federal Reserve Bank of New York; College of Management); Thomas Klitgaard
    Abstract: Germany emerged as a leading destination for immigration around 2011, as the country's labor market improved while unemployment climbed elsewhere in the European Union. A second wave began in 2015, with refugees from the Middle East adding to already heavy inflows from Eastern Europe. The demographic consequences of the surge in immigration include a renewed rise in Germany's population and the stabilization of the country's median age. The macroeconomic consequences are hard to measure but look promising, since per capita income growth has held up and unemployment has declined. Data on labor-market outcomes specific to immigrants are similarly favorable through 2015, but reveal challenges in how well the economy is adjusting to the second immigration wave.
    Keywords: germany european union europe demographics employment labor markets migration immigrants foreign workers employment unemployment
    JEL: E2

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