nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒12‒16
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The Effect of Education on Geographic Mobility: Incidence, Timing, and Type of Migration By Abdurrahman B. Aydemir; Murat Güray Kırdar; Huzeyfe Torun
  2. The Effects of Foreign-Born Peers in US High Schools and Middle Schools By Jason Fletcher; Jinho Kim; Jenna Nobles; Stephen Ross; Irina Shaorshadze
  3. How Settlement Locations and Local Networks Influence Immigrant Political Integration By Bernt Bratsberg; Jeremy Ferwerda; Henning Finseraas; Andreas Kotsadam
  5. Police Trust and Domestic Violence: Evidence from Immigration Policies By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Arenas-Arroyo, Esther
  6. Modelling International Migration Flows by Integrating Multiple Data Sources By Del Fava, Emanuele; Wiśniowsk, Arkadiusz; Zagheni, Emilio
  7. Immigrant Child Poverty in an Emerging Country of Destination: the Evidence from Finland By Ognjen Obucina; Ilari Ilmakunnas
  8. Fast Locations and Slowing Labor Mobility By Coate, Patrick; Mangum, Kyle
  9. Financing refugee situations By OECD

  1. By: Abdurrahman B. Aydemir (Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Orhanlı, Tuzla 34956, Istanbul); Murat Güray Kırdar (Department of Economics Bogazici University 34342 Istanbul, Turkey); Huzeyfe Torun
    Abstract: We take advantage of a major compulsory school reform in Turkey to provide novel evidence on the causal effect of education on both the incidence and timing of internal migration. In addition, for the first time in literature, we provide causal effects of education on migration by reason for migration. We find that while education substantially increases the incidence of migration among men, there is no evidence of an effect among women. Women, however, become more likely to migrate at earlier ages and their migration reasons change. Revealing the empowering role of education, women become more likely to move for human capital investments and for employment purposes and less likely to be tied-movers.
    Keywords: education, internal migration, incidence and timing of migration, reason for migration, 2SLS, regression discontinuity design
    JEL: J61 I2
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: Jason Fletcher; Jinho Kim; Jenna Nobles; Stephen Ross; Irina Shaorshadze
    Abstract: The multi-decade growth and spatial dispersion of immigrant families in the United States has shifted the composition of US schools, reshaping the group of peers with whom students age through adolescence. US-born students are more likely to have foreign-born peers and foreign-born students are more likely to be educated outside of enclaves. This study examines the short-term and long-term impact of being educated with immigrant peers, for both US-born and foreign-born students. We leverage a quasi-experimental research design that uses across-grade, within-school variation in cohort composition for students in the Add Health study. We describe effects on a broad set of education, social, and health outcomes. For US-born students, we find little evidence that having immigrant peers affects a wide array of outcomes, either in adolescence or in adulthood. For foreign-born students, attending school with other immigrant students is protective against risky health behaviors and social isolation, relative to native born students. However, foreign-born students’ language skills measured with Picture-Vocabulary Test scores are negatively affected by attending school with a larger share of other immigrant students. The negative effect on vocabulary scores persists through young adulthood but does not translate into reductions in most longer-run socioeconomic outcomes, including earnings or the economic status of their residential neighborhoods.
    JEL: I1 I12 I14 I24 J1 J15 J24
    Date: 2019–11
  3. By: Bernt Bratsberg (Frisch Centre for Economic Research); Jeremy Ferwerda (Dartmouth College); Henning Finseraas (Institute for Social Research); Andreas Kotsadam (Frisch Centre for Economic Research)
    Abstract: To what extent do early experiences in the host country shape the political integration of immigrants? We argue that the initial neighborhoods immigrants settle in establish patterns of behavior that influence subsequent political participation. Using Norwegian administrative register data, we leverage quasi-exogenous variation in the placement of refugees to assess the consequences of assignment to particular neighborhoods. We find that the di erence in turnout between refugees initially placed in 20th and 80th percentile neighborhoods is 12.6 percentage points, which represents 47 percent of the participation gap between refugees and residents. To assess the mechanism, we draw on individual level data on all neighbors present at the time of each refugees' arrival, and evaluate the relative impact of neighborhood characteristics and available social networks. Our findings suggest that while neighborhood socioeconomic factors play a limited role, early exposure to politically engaged neighbors and peer cohort increases immigrants' turnout over the long run.
    Keywords: Voter turnout, minorities, immigration, social networks, Western Europe
    Date: 2019–11
  4. By: Giulia Bettin (Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche); Isabella Giorgetti (Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche); Stefano Staffolani (Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche)
    Abstract: We analyse how the availability of immigrant workers in the elderly care sector affects the labour force participation of Italian females aged between 45 and 65. We estimate a selection bias correction model and exploit an IV strategy based on the role of migration networks in determining the geographical distribution of immigrants over time. Our main findings show that the local availability of foreign–born caregivers has a positive impact on the number of hours worked by Italian women, especially those with high–educational levels and living in the Northern regions. The effect on participation rates are instead positive and significant only for low–educated women and for women living in Central Italy.
    Keywords: Keywords: immigration, female labour supply, elderly care services
    JEL: F22 J22 J61 C26
    Date: 2019–12
  5. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (University of California, Merced); Arenas-Arroyo, Esther (Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: Domestic violence is a serious under-reported crime in the United States, especially among immigrant women. While the Violence against Women Act (VAWA) allows battered immigrants to petition for legal status without relying on abusive U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident spouses, we find that intensified interior immigration enforcement has curbed the VAWA self-petition rate. In contrast, sanctuary policies limiting the cooperation of police with immigration authorities have helped counteract that impact. The results, which prove robust to alternative measures of the policies, support the hypothesized changes in victims' reporting in response to the policies. Understanding survivors' responses to immigration policy is crucial given growing police mistrust and vulnerability to crime among immigrants.
    Keywords: immigration enforcement, trust acts, domestic violence, United States
    JEL: J12 J16 J15 K37
    Date: 2019–10
  6. By: Del Fava, Emanuele (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research); Wiśniowsk, Arkadiusz; Zagheni, Emilio
    Abstract: Migration has become a significant source of population change at the global level, with broad societal implications. Although understanding the drivers of migration is critical to enacting effective policies, theoretical advances in the study of migration processes have been limited by the lack of data on flows of migrants, or by the fragmented nature of these flows. In this paper, we build on existing Bayesian modeling strategies to develop a statistical framework for integrating different types of data on migration flows. We offer estimates, as well as associated measures of uncertainty, for immigration, emigration, and net migration flows among 31 European countries, by combining administrative and household survey data from 2002 to 2015. Substantively, we document the historical impact of the EU enlargement and the free movement of workers in Europe on migration flows. Methodologically, our approach improves on the Integrated Modeling of European Migration (IMEM) framework by providing a robust statistical framework for evaluating recent migration trends that is flexible enough to be further extended to incorporate new data sources, like social media.
    Date: 2019–11–13
  7. By: Ognjen Obucina; Ilari Ilmakunnas
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the patterns of poverty and housing overcrowding among immigrant children in Finland, with a particular focus on the standard of living in the first years of settlement. We also seek to explore whether and to what degree foreign-born children are disadvantaged relative to native children in terms of income poverty and housing conditions. We use data from a compilation of Finnish registers. The registers are of longitudinal nature and contain yearly information on all individuals who resided in Finland at any point between 1995 and 2014. We distinguish between four different types of poverty trajectories in the first five years after arrival in Finland: 1) no experience of poverty, 2) not poor in at least three out of five years, 3) poor in at least three out of five years, and 4) poor in all five years. An analogous classification is applied when looking at housing overcrowding. The relative disadvantage of immigrant children relative to native children is more pronounced in terms of income poverty than in terms of housing. The most frequent outcome in terms of income poverty in the first years of settlement is no experience of poverty, followed by persistent poverty, i.e. poverty in all five years after arrival. The same patterns are found for overcrowding. The multivariate analysis, based on the ordered logistic regression, shows a substantial heterogeneity across immigrant groups defined by country of birth
    Date: 2019
  8. By: Coate, Patrick (National Council on Compensation Insurance); Mangum, Kyle (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: Declining internal migration in the United States is driven by increasing home attach-ment in locations with initially high rates of population turnover. These “fast” locations were the population growth destinations of the 20th century, where home attachments were low, but have increased as regional population growth has converged. Using a novel measure of attachment, this paper estimates a structural model of migration that distinguishes moving frictions from home utility. Simulations quantify candidate explanations of the decline. Rising home attachment accounts for most of the decline not attributable to population aging, and its effect is consistent with the observed spatial pattern.
    Keywords: declining internal migration; labor mobility; home attachment; rootedness; local ties; conditional choice probability estimation
    JEL: C50 J61 R11 R23
    Date: 2019–12–02
  9. By: OECD
    Abstract: Forced displacement, including refugee flows, is a global phenomenon. As of 2018, 26 million people were refugees. Financing from the international community makes a significant contribution to supporting refugees and host communities. But in order to meet those needs effectively and efficiently, financing strategies need to take account of the particularities of large-scale refugee situations. Refugee flows are complex, often protracted, and, require humanitarian, development and peace financing to work in complementary ways. Doing this effectively can create opportunities that are of benefit to both refugees and host communities. This policy paper presents seven principles for improving financing for refugee situations, based on global trends and case studies in three hosting countries (Uganda, Lebanon, and Colombia) and one origin/return country (Central African Republic). Both the quality and the quantity of financing matters to get the greatest value for refugees and their host communities.
    Keywords: Burden- and Responsibility-sharing, Developing Countries, Development Finance, Displacement, Financing, Forced Displacement, Foreign Aid, Global Compact on Refugees, Humanitarian, New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, ODA, Policy, Refugee
    JEL: O1 O19 F22 F35 F63
    Date: 2019–12–16
  10. By: Gidehag, Anton (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut))
    Abstract: Immigrants have long faced great challenges in European labor markets, and policymakers in many countries are struggling to improve immigrants’ labor market integration. This paper evaluates whether a Swedish youth payroll tax cut had the unintended effect of promoting employment of nonwestern immigrants. The reform generated firm-level labor cost savings, which were proportional to the number of young employees at the time of the reform implementation. Utilizing matched employer-employee data, this study investigates the effect of these labor cost savings on the recruitment of nonwestern immigrants. The findings suggest a strong and positive link between firms’ labor cost savings and their subsequent hiring of first-generation nonwestern immigrants, which is largely driven by increased employment of older immigrants who were not targeted by the reform. Within the analyzed sample of firms, 1,100 jobs were created for this group, which corresponds to a net job creation that is more than proportionate to the group’s population share. The youth payroll tax reform thus had employment-promoting effects outside its target group, illustrating that general labor cost reductions can lower barriers against immigrant employment and enhance the labor market opportunities for non-western immigrants.
    Keywords: labor market integration; labor costs; payroll tax cut; non-western immigrants; employment
    JEL: H32 J23 J30 J61 L25
    Date: 2019–12–09

This nep-mig issue is ©2019 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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