nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒12‒09
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Migrating for Children's Better Future: Intergenerational Mobility of Internal Migrants' Children in Indonesia By Fatimah, Alfariany Milati; Kofol, Chiara
  2. The Effect of E-Verify Laws on Crime By Churchill, Brandyn; Dickinson, Andrew; Mackay, Taylor; Sabia, Joseph J.
  3. Across the sea to Ireland: Return Atlantic migration before the First World War By Fernihough, Alan; Ó Gráda, Cormac
  4. American geography of opportunity reveals European origins By Berger, Thor; Engzell, Per
  5. Does Birthplace Diversity Affect Economic Complexity? Cross-Country Evidence By Dany Bahar; Hillel Rapoport; Riccardo Turati
  6. Do potential migrants internalise migrant rights in OECD host societies? By BEINE Michel; MACHADO Joël; RUYSSEN Ilse
  7. Immigrant Examination Behavior By Epstein, Gil S.; Sansani, Shahar
  8. The Social Preferences of the Native Inhabitants, and the Decision How Many Asylum Seekers to Admit By Stark, Oded; Jakubek, Marcin; Szczygielski, Krzysztof
  9. Supporting or thwarting? The influence of European Union migration policies on African free movement regimes in West and North-Eastern Africa By Castillejo, Clare; Dick, Eva; Schraven, Benjamin

  1. By: Fatimah, Alfariany Milati; Kofol, Chiara
    Abstract: Internal migration dominates population mobility in Indonesia; according to the 2010 census, there were almost 30 million permanent migrants, around 12.5 percent of the population. The effects of this internal migration on the second generation continue to be under-explored. This paper investigates the long-term impact of parents' migration on their children's intergenerational per capita expenditure when adults. We argue that parental migration affects the human capital investment on their children, which has a direct impact on the children's outcomes when adults and on their deviation from the parents' economic status, hence their intergenerational mobility. We pooled the data of five waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, and we tackled the self-selection of parents' migration using linear regression with endogenous treatment. Our findings show that despite the fact that parental migration increases the education level of children and their per capita expenditure, it increases intergenerational mobility only when grown-up children live in urban areas, come from the poorest parents, and migrated themselves in their childhood. The left-behind children have more intergenerational mobility only if their father migrated, while there is no significant impact on intergenerational mobility if their mother migrated. The results are consistent with the persistence of individual inequality in Indonesia.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–12–04
  2. By: Churchill, Brandyn (Vanderbilt University); Dickinson, Andrew (University of Oregon); Mackay, Taylor (University of California, Irvine); Sabia, Joseph J. (San Diego State University)
    Abstract: E-Verify laws, which have been adopted by 23 states, require employers to verify whether new employees are eligible to legally work prior to employment. In the main, these laws are designed to reduce employment opportunities for unauthorized immigrants, reduce incentives for their immigration, and increase employment and earnings for low-skilled natives. This study explores the impact of state E-Verify laws on crime. Using agency-by-month data from the 2004 to 2015 National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS), we find that the enactment of E-Verify is associated with a 5 to 10 percent reduction in property crimes involving Hispanic arrestees, an effect driven by universal E-Verify mandates that extend to private employers. Supplemental analyses from the Current Population Survey (CPS) suggest that E-Verify-induced increases in employment of low-skilled natives of Hispanic descent, and outmigration of younger Hispanics are important channels. We find no evidence that crime was displaced to nearby U.S. jurisdictions without E-Verify or that violent crime was impacted by E-Verify mandates. Moreover, neither arrests nor labor market outcomes of white or African American adults were affected by E-Verify laws. The magnitudes of our estimates suggest that E-Verify mandates generated $491 million in social benefits of reduced crime to the United States.
    Keywords: E-Verify, immigration, crime, employment
    JEL: K14 J61
    Date: 2019–11
  3. By: Fernihough, Alan; Ó Gráda, Cormac
    Abstract: Are return migrants 'losers' who fail to adapt to the challenges of the host economy, and thereby exacerbate the brain drain linked to emigration? Or are they 'winners' whose return enhances the human and physical capital of the home country? These questions are the subject of a burgeoning literature. This paper analyze a new database culled from the 1911 Irish population census to address these issues for returnees to Ireland from North America more than a century ago. The evidence suggests that those who returned had the edge over the population as a whole in terms of human capital, if not also over those who remained abroad.
    Keywords: migration,brain gain,economic history,Ireland
    JEL: N N33 J61
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Berger, Thor; Engzell, Per
    Abstract: A large literature documents how intergenerational mobility—the degree to which (dis)advantage is passed on from parents to children—varies across and within countries. Less is known about the origin or persistence of such differences. We show that U.S. areas populated by descendants to European immigrants have similar levels of income equality and mobility as the countries their forebears came from: highest in areas dominated by descendants to Scandinavian and German immigrants, lower in places with French or Italian heritage, and lower still in areas with British roots. Similar variation in mobility is found for the black population and when analyzing causal place effects, suggesting that mobility differences arise at the community level and extend beyond descendants of European immigrant groups. Our findings indicate that the geography of U.S. opportunity may have deeper historical roots than previously recognized.
    Date: 2018–06–12
  5. By: Dany Bahar; Hillel Rapoport; Riccardo Turati
    Abstract: We empirically investigate the relationship between a country’s economic complexity and the diversity in the birthplaces of its immigrants. Our cross-country analysis suggests that birthplace diversity is strongly and positively associated with economic complexity. This holds particularly for diversity among highly educated migrants and for countries at intermediate levels of economic complexity. The results are robust to accounting for previous trends in birthplace diversity as well as to using alternatives diversity measures. We address endogeneity concerns by instrumenting diversity through predicted stocks from a pseudo-gravity model as well as from a standard shift-share approach. Finally, we provide evidence suggesting that birthplace diversity boosts economic complexity by increasing the diversification of the host country’s export basket.
    Keywords: economic complexity, birthplace diversity, immigration, growth
    JEL: F22 O31 O33
    Date: 2019
  6. By: BEINE Michel; MACHADO Joël; RUYSSEN Ilse
    Abstract: This paper analyses how countries' provision of migrant rights a ects potential migrants' destination choice. Combining data on bilateral migration desires from over 140 origin countries and data on migrant rights in 38 destination countries over the period 2007-2014, we nd that potential migrants tend to favor destinations that are more open to the inclusion of immigrants into their society. In particular, better access to and conditions on the labour market, as well as access to nationality and to permanent residency signi cantly increase the perceived attractiveness of a destination country. These results are robust across di erent speci cations and hold for subsamples of origin countries as well as of destinations. Moreover, some results vary across types of respondents. Educational opportunities for migrants, for instance, a ect the migration desires of individuals aged 15 to 24 years, but less so of individuals in other age groups.
    Keywords: Migration desires; Migrants' destination choice; Migrant rights; Quality of institutions; naturalization rights
    JEL: F22 O15 O57 P16
    Date: 2019–12
  7. By: Epstein, Gil S. (Bar-Ilan University); Sansani, Shahar (College of Management Academic Studies)
    Abstract: In this paper, we estimate differences in examination behavior between immigrants and natives, by examining differences in the propensity to forego a passing grade on a final exam in order to retake that final exam. Retaking a final exam involves some level of uncertainty, so differences in examination behavior may be due to differences in motivation, risk-taking, and discipline. We find that immigrants are about 2 percentage points more likely to retake a passed exam than natives. This represents a large difference given a baseline retake rate of about 6.5 percentage points.
    Keywords: immigrant-native differences, examination behavior, uncertainty, motivation
    JEL: J15 I23 D81
    Date: 2019–11
  8. By: Stark, Oded (University of Bonn); Jakubek, Marcin (Institute of Economics, Polish Academy of Sciences); Szczygielski, Krzysztof (University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: We consider a tax-funded policy of admitting and integrating asylum seekers in a country in which the incomes of the native inhabitants are differentiated; for the sake of simplicity, we assume that there are just two groups of native inhabitants: high-income natives and low-income natives. As a consequence of their social preferences, the latter experience disutility caused by relative deprivation. Because integrating the asylum seekers into the mainstream labor force and thereby into the income distribution of the native population "from below" reduces the relative deprivation of the low-income natives, admitting and integrating asylum seekers can be socially beneficial. We derive the optimal number of asylum seekers by maximizing the natives' social welfare function that incorporates these considerations. We find that as long as the cost of admission and integration is not exceptionally high, this number is strictly positive. We then address the issue of how to distribute a given number of asylum seekers among several receiving countries. We find that, rather than allocating the asylum seekers in proportion to the population of each country, aggregate welfare will be maximized through an allocation that is increasing in the within-country difference between the incomes of the high-income natives and the low-income natives. Additionally, we formulate conditions under which admission of the optimal number of asylum seekers is socially preferable to a direct transfer of income from high-income natives to low-income natives.
    Keywords: admission and integration of asylum seekers, social preferences, relative deprivation, tax-funded integration policy, maximization of social welfare
    JEL: D60 F02 F22 I31 J61 J68
    Date: 2019–11
  9. By: Castillejo, Clare; Dick, Eva; Schraven, Benjamin
    Abstract: The European Union (EU) approach to migration in Africa has significantly shifted in the last few years. Notably since 2015, it has focused on preventing irregular migration and privileges engagement with the main countries of origin and transit of migrants. In the context of the 2015 Joint Valletta Action Plan (JVAP), a funding instrument - the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa (EUTF) -was created to channel development aid in support of EU interests in curbing migration. As reflected in historical and more recent policy agendas, economic integration and free movement within the continent and its regions constitute key elements of African development ambitions and narratives. But an increasing body of research suggests that EU activities (in particular the EUTF) sideline or even undermine African stakeholders and interests in decision-making and programming on migration. This paper analyses the effects of EU political dialogue and programming on regional free movement (RFM) in two African regions: the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in the Horn of Africa and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in West Africa. These regions receive the greatest amount of EUTF funding. While both IGAD and ECOWAS have frameworks on RFM, these are at very different stages of development. The analysis, based on literature review and field research, shows that EU approaches to and impact on RFM differ significantly in the two regions. In the IGAD region, the EU is not undermining but rather supporting free movement - albeit not as significantly as it could. In contrast, in the ECOWAS region the EU's focus on preventing irregular migration is undermining progress on RFM. At least three factors drive this difference: 1) institutional coherence and decision-making powers vary considerably in the two regions; 2) whereas some powerful member states in the IGAD region consider free movement to be a barrier to their hegemonic role, member states in the ECOWAS region largely see it as positive; and 3) EU migration programming in these regions is driven by different levels of urgency - with the largest number of irregular migrants coming from West Africa, the EU's objective of curbing migration is more accentuated in the ECOWAS region. A number of policy processes between and within the EU and Africa are currently underway that could reshape how the EU engages with Africa on migration issues, provided existing tensions are acknowledged and addressed. Since RFM is in the long-term interests of both parties, given its potential value to contribute to growth, development and stability within Africa, the EU should pursue the following programmatic steps for its support: Supporting regional organisations. This includes tailored capacity support in strategic direction, analytical capacity and outreach to member states. This should build on lessons from existing EU projects in support of RFM. Enhancing coherence between security and development. This means for example that existing programmes addressing irregular migration are examined regarding their impact on free movement. Improving capacity of EU delegations. This requires linking the regional EU delegations more effectively to EU delegations in member states to support joint regional and national level actions on RFM.
    Date: 2019

This nep-mig issue is ©2019 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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