nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒11‒04
six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Intergenerational Mobility of Immigrants in the US over Two Centuries By Ran Abramitzky; Leah Platt Boustan; Elisa Jácome; Santiago Pérez
  2. Immigrants’ Changing Labor Market Assimilation in the United States during the Age of Mass Migration By William J. Collins; Ariell Zimran
  3. International Migration Processes and its Impact on the Georgian Labor Market By Nanuli Okruashvili; Lela Bakhtadze
  4. Berlin calling - Internal migration in Germany By Bauer, Thomas K.; Rulff, Christian; Tamminga, Michael M.
  5. Coming to stay or to go? Stay intention and involved uncertainty of international students By Fabian Koenings; Tina Haussen; Stefan Toepfer; Silke Uebelmesser
  6. Neoliberalism and Negative Attitudes toward Immigrants By IGARASHI Akira; ONO Yoshikuni

  1. By: Ran Abramitzky; Leah Platt Boustan; Elisa Jácome; Santiago Pérez
    Abstract: Using millions of father-son pairs spanning more than 100 years of US history, we find that children of immigrants from nearly every sending country have higher rates of upward mobility than children of the US-born. Immigrants’ advantage is similar historically and today despite dramatic shifts in sending countries and US immigration policy. In the past, this advantage can be explained by immigrants moving to areas with better prospects for their children and by “under-placement” of the first generation in the income distribution. These findings are consistent with the “American Dream” view that even poorer immigrants can improve their children’s prospects.
    JEL: J15 J61 J62 N30
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: William J. Collins; Ariell Zimran
    Abstract: Whether immigrants advance in labor markets relative to natives as they gain experience is a fundamental question in the economics of immigration. For the US, it has been difficult to answer this question for the period when the immigration rate was at its historical peak, between the 1840s and 1920s. We develop new datasets of linked census records for foreign- and native-born men in 1850-80 and 1900-30. We find that for the nineteenth century cohort, there is evidence of substantial “catching up” by immigrants in terms of occupational status, but for the twentieth century cohort there is not. These changes do not reflect the shift in source countries from Northern and Western Europe to Southern and Eastern Europe. Instead, we find that natives had advantages in upgrading relative to immigrants conditional on initial occupation in both periods, but that by 1900, natives were less concentrated than previously in jobs with low upward mobility (farming) and more concentrated in jobs with lower initial status but higher upward mobility. The difference in assimilation over time is thus rooted in a sizable change in native men’s occupational distribution between 1850 and 1900. These results revise the oversimplified but influential view that historical immigrants “worked their way up” in the American labor market.
    JEL: J61 J62 N11 N12 N13 N14
    Date: 2019–10
  3. By: Nanuli Okruashvili (IvaneJavakhishvili, Tbilisi, State University, Department of Marketing); Lela Bakhtadze (IvaneJavakhishvili, Tbilisi, State University,Department of international economics and economic teaching history)
    Abstract: The purpose of the presented paper is to analyze the impact of international migration processes on the labor market of Georgia, to develop methodological and practical recommendations on the basis of which the efficiency of the labor market will be increased. The authors of the work have identified the theoretical and practical, conceptual and organizational problems existing in the field of international migration, and worked out the specific ways of solving them.The article discusses the international migration processes of the new millennium, social, cultural and economic aspects of international migration and development in Georgia, the problems identified in the state regulation of labor migration, the scale of labor migration and the current state of its study. In the article, the authors reviewed the scope and current state of international migration, its impact on the Georgian labor market, long-term results of labor mobility. The goals , strengths and weaknesses of the migration policy of the Government of Georgiaare analyzed, the basic directions and mechanisms of its realization. It analyzes the fact that, only by effective marketing of the labor market, of the country will make maximum use of the global challenges, associated with international migration processes. The authors have estimated systems of specific measures that will ensure the effective functioning of the Georgian labor market in the growth of international migration and the full involvement of the country in integration processes.
    Keywords: International Business, International Migration, Labor Market, Migration Policy, Marketing of the Labor Market
    JEL: F00 F66 F22
    Date: 2019–07
  4. By: Bauer, Thomas K.; Rulff, Christian; Tamminga, Michael M.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the determinants of internal migration in Germany. Using data on the NUTS-3 level for different age groups and Pseudo-Poisson Maximum Likelihood (PPML) gravity models, the empirical analysis focuses on the relevant push and pull factors of internal migration over the life cycle. Labor market variables appear to be most powerful in explaining interregional migration, especially for the younger cohorts. Furthermore, internal migrants show heterogeneous migration behavior across age groups. In particular the largest group, which is also the youngest, migrates predominantly into urban areas, whereas the oldest groups chose to move to rural regions. This kind of clustering reinforces preexisting regional heterogeneity of demographic change.
    Keywords: internal migration,gravity model,demographic polarization
    JEL: R23 J11 O18
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Fabian Koenings (Friedrich Schiller University Jena); Tina Haussen (Friedrich Schiller University Jena); Stefan Toepfer (Friedrich Schiller University Jena); Silke Uebelmesser (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, and CESifo)
    Abstract: Countries compete for young talents to alleviate skilled-labor shortage. International students, who stay after graduation, allow host countries to overcome those challenges. This study investigates the factors associated with international students' intention to stay or to go after graduation. In contrast to the existing literature, this analysis employs survey data collected at the beginning of the studies. This assures that the analysis is not distorted by attrition and provides policymakers with more time for interventions. At the same time, it requires to deal with uncertainty as the actual migration decision will only be due in a few years. This study introduces a set of uncertainty models to the migration context to account for this. It finds that the results are largely robust across the different models: lower economic growth in the home country, a stay in the host country before the studies and being enrolled in a Bachelor program instead of a Master program are significantly associated with the intention to stay with certainty. Furthermore, Master students are found to be more uncertain than Bachelor students.
    Keywords: Stay intention, International students, Uncertainty, Labor shortage
    JEL: F22 J24 I23
    Date: 2019–08–12
  6. By: IGARASHI Akira; ONO Yoshikuni
    Abstract: Existing studies emphasize that the neoliberal ideology creates anti-immigrant attitudes. They attribute this to the influence of radical right-wing parties, which combine a pro-market ideology with authoritarian social conservatism. However, this claim has not been fully tested. To understand the mechanisms behind this association, our study analyzes data drawn from a representative survey and an online survey experiment conducted in Japan. Our results demonstrate that an association between neoliberalism and anti-immigrant attitudes exists even where radical right-wing parties are absent. Furthermore, the results of our experiment, where immigrants' skill levels and country of origin are varied in the vignette, show that respondents espousing neoliberal ideology are sensitive to the skill level of immigrants in that they strongly oppose low-skilled immigrants, while welcoming high-skilled immigrants. These results suggest that the association between neoliberalism and anti-immigrant attitudes is not simply a result of the influence of radical right-wing parties but rather stems from concerns over their future welfare burden.
    Date: 2019–10

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