nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒10‒14
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Behavioral Responses to State Income Taxation of High Earners: Evidence from California By Joshua Rauh; Ryan J. Shyu
  2. Immigration, Internal Migration, and Technology Adoption By Monras, Joan
  3. Return, Circular, and Onward Migration Decisions in a Knowledge Society By Constant, Amelie F.
  4. Integration of immigrants in the EU_15: success or failure? By Adéla Zubíková
  5. The economic impact of migrants and refugees on Europe By Jamal Bouoiyour; Amal Miftah; Refk Selmi
  6. An experimental Study on the Social Identity and Trust Behaviors of North Korean Refugees By Seo-Young Cho
  7. First union formation among the children of immigrants in Norway. Timing and choice of union type By Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik
  8. Migration, Income Pooling and Food Deprivation in Zimbabwe By Gift Dafuleya

  1. By: Joshua Rauh; Ryan J. Shyu
    Abstract: Drawing on the universe of California income tax filings and the variation imposed by a 2012 tax increase of up to 3 percentage points for high-income households, we present new findings about the effects of personal income taxation on household location choice and pre-tax income. First, over and above baseline rates of taxpayer departure from California, an additional 0.8% of the California residential tax filing base whose 2012 income would have been in the new top tax bracket moved out from full-year residency of California in 2013, mostly to states with zero income tax. Second, to identify the impact of the California tax policy shift on the pre-tax earnings of high-income California residents, we use as a control group high-earning out-of-state taxpayers who persistently file as California non-residents. Using a differences-in-differences strategy paired with propensity score matching, we estimate an intensive margin elasticity of 2013 income with respect to the marginal net-of-tax rate of 2.5 to 3.3. Among top-bracket California taxpayers, outward migration and behavioral responses by stayers together eroded 45.2% of the windfall tax revenues from the reform.
    JEL: H24 H31 H71 H73 J22 J61 R23
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: Monras, Joan
    Abstract: An abundance of a certain factor may shape technology adoption. Traditional approaches have used proxies of local technology adoption in combination with immigrant-driven exogenous changes in the factor mix to document this relationship. In this paper, I back-out implied technology adoption from long-run internal migration patterns in Miami relative to a number of controls groups following the Mariel Boatlift. The identifying assumption is that technology adoption explains the part of the wage recovery that cannot be explained by internal migration. Model-based estimates suggest that local technology adoption explains 60 percent of the relative wage recovery in Miami.
    Keywords: International and internal migration; Technology adoption
    JEL: F22 J20 J30
    Date: 2019–09
  3. By: Constant, Amelie F.
    Abstract: This chapter provides a state-of-the-art literature review about research that aims to explain the return, repeat, circular and onward migration of the highly-skilled migrants around the world. After it describes the status quo in the knowledge economy and the international race for talent, it presents the relevant theories and concepts of migration in the social sciences and how these theories accommodate the phenomena of return, repeat and onward migration. A special section is devoted to selection. The chapter then summarizes, evaluates, and juxtaposes existing empirical evidence related to theoretical predictions. Observables such as education, income, gender and home country as well as unobservables such as ability, social capital and negotiating skills play a strong role in influencing return, repeat and onward migration decisions. Yet, there is no consensus on the direction of the effect. The chapter discusses shortcomings and limitations along with policy lessons. It concludes by highlighting holes in the literature and the need for better data.
    Keywords: Return,circular,onward,international labor migration,knowledge economy,high-skilled,public policy
    JEL: F22 J15 J18 J20 J61
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Adéla Zubíková (Faculty of Economics, University of Economics, Prague)
    Abstract: In 2015, the so-called migration crisis culminated in Europe. Although immigration can bring along many benefits (labor force, cultural diversification), it constitutes a challenge for fiscal policy if immigrants fail to integrate. This paper examines the level of integration in the EU_15 on the data from Eurostat in period 2009 to 2018. The results show that immigrants who were not born in the EU_28 were significantly worse off in terms of the unemployment rate and the risk-of-poverty rate than the host society. Immigrants born in the other EU_28 country were not significantly worse off on the labor market, but the at-risk-of-poverty rate was significantly higher in comparison with the host society. The data didn?t confirm that share of immigrants with tertiary education (both from the EU_28 or outside the EU_28) was significantly lower than the share of the tertiary educated population in the host society. The level of integration of immigrants did not got worse after the migration crisis. Furthermore, the results showed a considerable difference in the degree of integration between EU_15 countries.
    Keywords: immigration, economic integration, social integration, refugees, European Union
    JEL: F22 F29 F50
    Date: 2019–10
  5. By: Jamal Bouoiyour (IRMAPE - Institut de Recherche en Management et Pays Emergents - ESC Pau, CATT - Centre d'Analyse Théorique et de Traitement des données économiques - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour); Amal Miftah (LEDA-DIAL - Développement, Institutions et Modialisation - LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IRMAPE - Institut de Recherche en Management et Pays Emergents - ESC Pau); Refk Selmi (IRMAPE - Institut de Recherche en Management et Pays Emergents - ESC Pau, CATT - Centre d'Analyse Théorique et de Traitement des données économiques - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour)
    Abstract: This policy brief presents some preliminary findings of a recent research regarding the economic impact of legal immigration in terms of growth and unemployment in a large panel of European countries. It sheds some light on a useful and interesting question for policy debate by explicitly distinguishing refugee and economic category immigrants. Our research reveals a non-negative effect of immigration on per capita growth and on employment. The results allow to consider particular implications for the collaboration of EU countries on the immigration issue and seek to inform more specific and actionable public policy interventions .
    Date: 2019–09–29
  6. By: Seo-Young Cho (Philipps-Universitaet Marburg)
    Abstract: Many of North Korean refugees in South Korea struggle to reconcile their different identities of: being a Korean who shares ethnicity with South Koreans vs. being a North Korean who fled from an estranged neighboring country. This paper shows that emphasizing the Korean unity can help their integration in South Korea, despite considerable differences caused by seven-decade long separation between the North and the South. The results of a behavioral experiment with 130 North Korean refugees conducted in this study suggest that the unified Korean identity stimulates the refugees’ social trust with South Koreans, cooperation in South Korea, and their self-confidence.
    Keywords: North Korean Refugees, Identity, Social Trust, Cooperation, Confidence, Integration
    JEL: D91 J15
    Date: 2019
  7. By: Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Using Norwegian register data on all individuals born 1985 to 2000 who were either nativeborn or who immigrated as children or teens (N=1,013,734), the current study investigated timing of first co-residential union and choice of union type in the period 2005 through 2018. Descriptive results showed that 64% of the second generation (Norwegian-born children of immigrants) and 75% of the 1.5 generation (immigrated prior to age 18) chose cohabitation as first union, compared with 94% of those without a migration background. Results from competing risk event history models confirmed that second-generation immigrants, and particularly women, were more likely to marry directly and less likely to cohabit than those belonging to the 1.5 generation and Norwegians without a migration background. Secondgeneration individuals originating from Turkey, Pakistan, Morocco, Kosovo, Sri-Lanka, and India were more prone to marry directly than the native-born children of immigrants from other non-Western countries. Conversely, second-generation Iranians were less likely to marry, whereas those originating from Vietnam and Bosnia and Herzegovina were most likely to cohabit. The chance of marrying directly decreased across the study period among immigrant-background and majority individuals alike.
    Keywords: First union formation; Cohabitation; Marriage; The Second generation; Immigrants; Norway
    JEL: J10 J12 J15
    Date: 2019–09
  8. By: Gift Dafuleya
    Abstract: Income pooling in the context of geographically stretched households, that is, households with migrants who maintain close relations and economic ties with household members left behind, is examined in this article. Focus is also directed at evaluating whether migration assists in reducing food deprivation in the household of origin. A model to generalise the relationship between the migrant and the family left behind is presented and then applied to Bulawayo, the second largest city of Zimbabwe. The analysis is tripartite. First, the determinants of migrant remittances are established; second, tests of income pooling between migrant remittances and income of the household at origin are conducted; and third, the impact of migration on family left behind is examined in the context of food deprivation. Results show that gender is not a determinant of remittances, but it matters for income pooling of remittances with income at the household of origin on frequent and low-cost purchases. The evidence provided challenges the idea that a household is a separate and independent unit composed of co-residents eating from the same pot.
    Keywords: migration, Remittances, income pooling, geographically stretched household, food deprivation
    JEL: D13 D64 F24
    Date: 2019–07

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