nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒09‒30
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Climate Change, Migration and Voice: An Explanation for the Immobility Paradox By Michel Beine; Ilan Noy; Christopher Parsons
  2. Self-Employment and Migration By Giambra, Samuele; McKenzie, David
  3. The educational consequences of migration for women and men. Migrant and Europe-born Turkish origin people compared to non-migrants in Turkey By Bayrakdar, Sait; Güveli, Ayse
  4. Education-occupation mismatch of migrants in the Italian labour market: the effect of social networks By Van Wolleghem, Pierre Georges; De Angelis, Marina; Scicchitano, Sergio
  5. Talent Misallocation across Countries: Evidence from Educational Achievement Tests By Alexander Ugarov
  6. Minimum Wages and the Health and Access to Care of Immigrants' Children By Averett, Susan L.; Smith, Julie K.; Wang, Yang
  7. The Influences of Housing Prices on Residential Mobility and Unemployment By Chien-Wen Peng; I-Chun Tsai

  1. By: Michel Beine; Ilan Noy; Christopher Parsons
    Abstract: This paper sheds light on the apparent paradox, wherein populations adversely affected by climatic conditions fail to migrate as much as would otherwise be expected. Drawing on Hirschman’s treatise on Exit, Voice and Loyalty, we develop a simple model, which highlights the theoretical case for a substitution effect between voicing and emigration. We subsequently provide causal evidence of voicing representing a new mechanism through which countries adapt to climate change, implementing wage differentials and changes in visa policies at destination as instruments. More intense voicing, as captured by greater numbers of press reports, is associated with lower emigration rates. This substitution effect holds for both internal and international voicing. Our results suggest that restrictions on mobility could result in increasing voicing, both within and between countries.
    Keywords: emigration, climate change, voicing, trapped populations
    JEL: F22 O15 P16 O57
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Giambra, Samuele (Brown University); McKenzie, David (World Bank)
    Abstract: There is a widespread policy view that a lack of job opportunities at home is a key reason for migration, accompanied by suggestions of the need to spend more on creating these opportunities so as to reduce migration. Self-employment is widespread in poor countries, and faced with a lack of existing jobs, providing more opportunities for people to start businesses is a key policy option. But empirical evidence to support this idea is slight, and economic theory offers several reasons why the self-employed may in fact be more likely to migrate. We put together panel surveys from eight countries to descriptively examine the relationship between migration and self-employment, finding that the self-employed are indeed less likely to migrate than either wage workers or the unemployed. We then analyze seven randomized experiments that increased self-employment, and find their causal impacts on migration are negative on average, but often small in magnitude.
    Keywords: internal migration, international migration, self-employment, migrant selection, randomized experiment
    JEL: F22 J61 O15
    Date: 2019–09
  3. By: Bayrakdar, Sait; Güveli, Ayse
    Abstract: Research commonly compares the educational outcomes of migrants and the second generation to their native peers in destination countries, often finding the former groups lagging behind in education. Their outcomes are rarely compared to their non-migrant peers in the origin countries. Using the dissimilation from origins perspective, we ask whether Turkish-origin men and women in Europe benefit from migration by comparing their educational outcomes to non-migrants in Turkey. At the same time, we comparatively examine the intergenerational transmission of education to determine whether individuals are better off than their parents and grandparents. Analysing the novel 2000 Families data, we show that migrants and their descendants in Europe obtain higher education than their nonmigrant peers in Turkey. While both men and women experience educational benefits from migration, women’s gains are higher. Another salient finding is that Turkish-origin parents in Europe are less able to pass on their socioeconomic resources to their children than their counterparts in Turkey. Overall, the findings corroborate the theory of the dissimilation of Turkish-origin Europeans from their Turkish peers in educational attainment.
    Date: 2019–09–23
  4. By: Van Wolleghem, Pierre Georges; De Angelis, Marina; Scicchitano, Sergio
    Abstract: Whilst migration has become a structural feature of most European countries, the integration of foreigners in the labour market continues to raise concerns. Evidence across countries shows that migrants are more often over-educated than natives. Over the last years, scholarship has intended to capture the effect of informal networks on migrants’ over-education. Interestingly, no study has looked into the Italian case, yet a country for which the effect of networks on education-occupation mismatch is well documented. This article has two objectives: it assesses the extent to which over-education affects migrants and it evaluates the role informal networks play in producing it. We find that foreigners are more over-educated than natives but that the role of networks is consistent across the two groups. Empirical evidence is drawn from the application of quantitative and counter-factual methods to PLUS 2018 – Participation, Labour, Unemployment Survey.
    Keywords: Network,Over-education,Migrants,labour market
    JEL: F22 J61 Z13
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Alexander Ugarov (University of Arkansas)
    Abstract: Despite growing evidence on occupational and educational barriers in developing countries, there are few estimates of their effect on the aggregate productivity. This paper measures the magnitude of these barriers and their impact on aggregate productivity using the data on expected occupational choice of students. First, I document striking differences in the way students' skills affect occupational choice across countries. In most developing countries cognitive skills of students have a relatively little effect on prestige, skill intensity, or earning potential of expected occupations. This suggests a higher incidence of occupational barriers in developing countries. Next, I evaluate the efficiency losses associated with occupational barriers by calibrating a model of occupational choice based on the Roy (1951) framework. Workers have correlated Frechet-distributed talents for professional occupations, non-professional occupations, and academic study as measured by academic proficiency scores. I calibrate the model by combining the data on expected occupations and skills from the PISA database with the data from nationally-representative samples of working adults. I find that developing countries can increase the productivity of workers with high school education by up to twenty percent by reducing the barriers to the level of a benchmark country (UK).
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Averett, Susan L. (Lafayette College); Smith, Julie K. (Lafayette College); Wang, Yang (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
    Abstract: States are increasingly resorting to raising the minimum wage to boost the earnings of those at the bottom of the income distribution. In this paper, we examine the effects of minimum wage increases on the health of the children of immigrants. Their parents are disproportionately represented in minimum wage jobs, typically have less access to health care and are a growing part of the U.S. labor force. Using a difference-in-differences identification strategy and data drawn from the National Health Interview Survey from the years 2000 - 2015, we examine whether children of low-educated immigrants experience any changes in health or access to care when the minimum wage increases.
    Keywords: minimum wage, immigrant children, access to care, health insurance, health
    JEL: J15 I12 I13 I14
    Date: 2019–09
  7. By: Chien-Wen Peng; I-Chun Tsai
    Abstract: A change of housing price has great impact on households’ housing equity and further moving decision. Some previous studies reveal that whether owning a home is an important factor of residential mobility, and a declining housing price may cause mobility lock-in effect and higher unemployment (Henely1998; Hsieh et al. 2003; Zabel 2012; Blozea and Skak 2016). However, some other studies find that the influences of housing price on residential mobility and unemployment are not significant as expected (Engelhardt 2003; Coulson and Grieco 2013; Vallentta 2013) or the influences are only significant in a smaller regional level but not significant in a national level (Modestino and Dennet 2013). This study reexamines their relationship by using panel cointegration method and the city level panel data during 1994 and 2017 in Taiwan. The empirical results reveal that housing price are cointegrated with migration and unemployment, and the influences of housing price on migration and unemployment are significantly positive and negative respectively in the long run. However, the influences of housing price on migration and unemployment are not as significant as expected in the short run. We used quantile regression to further examine their short run relationships. It shows that the influence of housing price on migration and unemployment might be asymmetric.
    Keywords: Housing Price; lock-in effect; residential mobility; unemployment rate
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2019–01–01

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