nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒09‒16
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Parental Migration, Investment in Children, and Children's Non-cognitive Development: Evidence from Rural China By Jiang, Hanchen; Yang, Xi
  2. Seasonal Migration and Education of Children Left Behind: Evidence from Armenia By Davit Adunts; Geghetsik Afunts
  3. The Impact of Family Size and Sibling Structure on the Great Mexico-U.S. Migration By Bratti, Massimiliano; Fiore, Simona; Mendola, Mariapia
  4. Heterogeneity in marginal returns to language training of immigrants By Giesecke, Matthias; Schuß, Eric
  5. Improving well-being in New Zealand through migration By David Carey
  6. The supply of foreign talent: How skill-biased technology drives the skill mix of immigrants Evidence from Switzerland 1990–2010 By Andreas Beerli; Ronald Indergand; Johannes Kunz
  7. What s in a Name? The Semantics of Migration and Its Policy Implications By Nguh Nwei Asanga Fon
  8. Were there long-term economic effects of exposure to Polio Vaccination?: An analysis of migrants to Sweden 1946-2003 By Serratos-Sotelo, L.;

  1. By: Jiang, Hanchen; Yang, Xi
    Abstract: Many children worldwide are left behind by parents who are migrating for work. While previous literature has studied the effect of parental migration on children's educational outcomes and cognitive achievements, this study focuses on how parental migration affects children's non-cognitive development. We use longitudinal data of children in rural China and adopt labor market conditions in destination provinces as instrumental variables for parental endogenous migration choice. We find that parental migration has a significant negative effect on children's non-cognitive development. Differentiating inter- and intra-provincial migrations suggests that the negative effect of parental migration is mainly driven by inter-provincial migrations. We test four different mechanisms of how parental migration affects child development including parental financial inputs, parental time inputs, household bargaining, and children's own time input. Our results provide insights into the relative importance of different mechanisms in determining the effect of parental migration on children's non-cognitive skill formation.
    Keywords: Left-behind Children,Parental Migration,Parental Input,Non-cognitive Development,China
    JEL: J12 J13 J24 J61 R23
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Davit Adunts; Geghetsik Afunts
    Abstract: There is much evidence that migration of a parent affects the educational performance of children left behind (CLB). Nevertheless, there is no agreement on the direction of the impact. In this paper, we use Armenian school data and report evidence of a negative impact of parental seasonal migration on the educational performance of CLB. We employ a different approach than those used in the prior literature by (i) using the intensity of seasonal migration (the number of times the parent migrated) instead of a binary variable (whether the parent migrated or not) and (ii) the number of children entering first grade whose parent is a seasonal migrant as an instrument for the intensity of seasonal migration. We find that seasonal migration negatively affects the educational performance of CLB, and that it mainly affects boys; there is no significant impact on girls. Additionally, we find that using a zero-one dummy for migration as prior studies have done upwardly biases the IV estimate by approximately a factor of three, while our intensity measure yields more accurate results.
    Keywords: seasonal migration; children left behind; educational performance;
    JEL: F22 J13 O15
    Date: 2019–04
  3. By: Bratti, Massimiliano; Fiore, Simona; Mendola, Mariapia
    Abstract: We investigate how fertility and demographic factors affect migration at the household level by assessing the causal effects of sibship size and structure on offspring's international migration. We use a rich demographic survey on the population of Mexico and exploit presumably exogenous variation in family size induced by biological fertility and infertility shocks. We further exploit cross-sibling differences to identify birth order, sibling-sex, and sibling-age composition effects on migration. We find that large families per se do not boost offspring out-migration. Yet, the likelihood of migrating is not equally distributed within a household, but is higher for sons and decreases sharply with birth order. The female migration disadvantage also varies with sibling composition by age and gender.
    Keywords: International Migration,Mexico,Family Size,Sibling Structure
    JEL: J13 F22 O15
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Giesecke, Matthias; Schuß, Eric (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "We estimate the effect of language training on subsequent employment and wages of immigrants under essential heterogeneity. The identifying variation is based on regional differences in language training availability that we use to instrument endogenous participation. Estimating marginal treatment effects along the distribution of observables and unobservables that drive individual participation decisions, we find that immigrants with higher gains are more likely to select into language training than immigrants with lower gains. We document up to 15 percent higher employment rates and 13 percent wage gains for immigrants with a high desire to participate but the positive returns vanish with increasing resistance to treatment. This pattern of selection on gains correlates with unobserved ability and motivation, promoting investments in education and job-specific skills that yield higher returns when complemented by language capital in the host country." (Autorenreferat, IAB-Doku)
    Keywords: Sprachunterricht, Einwanderer, Beschäftigungseffekte, Lohnhöhe, Sprachkenntnisse
    JEL: F22 J24 J61 J68 O15
  5. By: David Carey
    Abstract: New Zealand’s immigration system aims to enhance well-being by promoting economic development, reuniting families and meeting humanitarian objectives. Immigration is high and residence admissions are focused on the high skilled to enhance economic outcomes. Empirical evidence suggests that immigration has had small positive effects on per capita incomes and has not adversely affected the wage or employment outcomes of the average NZ-born worker. However, temporary migration has had small negative impacts on new hires of some groups of people, notably social welfare beneficiaries not in the (16) most urbanised areas. Immigrants have high well-being outcomes on average but suffer an initial shortfall in employment and wages relative to the comparable NZ-born. New Zealand has refined the migration system over the years to attract those who are more likely to ease labour shortages and, should they apply for residence, have better earnings prospects. It has also deployed settlement and integration programmes to improve labour market and other outcomes that affect well-being. This chapter looks at further adjustments to the system to enhance its well-being benefits for both the NZ-born and immigrants.This Working Paper relates to the 2019 OECD Economic Survey of New Zealand ( -economic-snapshot/).
    Keywords: discrimination, emigration, employment effects, exploitation, immigration, integration, new hires, points system, productivity, refugees, residence, skills, temporary migration, wage effects, well-being
    JEL: F22 J15 J24 J61 J71
    Date: 2019–09–11
  6. By: Andreas Beerli (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Ronald Indergand (Staatssekretariat für Wirtschaft SECO); Johannes Kunz (Centre for Health Economics)
    Abstract: An important goal of immigration policy is facilitating the entry and supply of workers whose skills are scarce in national labour markets. In recent decades, the introduction of information and communication technology [ICT] fuelled the demand for highly skilled workers at the expense of lower skill groups throughout the developed world. In this paper, we show that the skill mix of newly arriving immigrants strongly responded to this shift in the demand for skills. Exploiting the fact that different regions in Switzerland were differentially exposed to ICT due to their pre-ICT industrial composition, we present evidence suggesting more exposed regions experienced stronger growth in relative employment and wage premia for highly skilled workers between 1990 and 2010. We find robust evidence that regions with higher initial ICT exposure experienced a considerably stronger relative influx of highly skilled immigrants. Taken together, these results strongly sug- gest that immigrants responded to skill-biased changes in economic opportunities. Complementing these findings, we document whether and how the response of immigrants to skill demand changed when Switzerland abolished immigration restrictions for European workers.
    Keywords: Keywords: immigrant sorting, international migration; routine-biased technical change; information and communication technology; skill supply
    JEL: F22 J61 J24 J31 J23
    Date: 2017–11
  7. By: Nguh Nwei Asanga Fon (Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus,)
    Abstract: Across the globe, migration has emerged as one of the most daunting challenges bedeviling globalization. The second decade of the 21st Century has been marked by issues on how to manage influx of migrants on both sides of the Atlantic (the European Migrant Crisis of 2015 and debates on ‘Migrant Caravan’ and border security in the US). A major borne of contention on migration is a war of words over its framing. The semantics of migration are meticulously exploited by rival politicians and political parties, policy actors, and other stakeholders to frame the issue, orient policy and mobilize support or acquiescence to their cause (usually securitization versus accommodation). This paper probes into the discourse on migration with a focus on its framing by pro and anti-migration actors and stakeholders and how this has affected policy decisions and actions concerning the issue. Empirical cases of how migration was framed in Europe and the US were examined with a greater tendency towards securitization. Recommendations were also advanced on how to resolved the migration stalemate with the de-politicization of the term as a starting point.
    Keywords: Migration, Immigration, Migrant crisis, Refugee, Open door policy
    Date: 2019–07
  8. By: Serratos-Sotelo, L.;
    Abstract: Recent research showed that exposure to the vaccine against polio in early life had no longterm economic benefits among native Swedes. However, whether this result holds for individuals from other countries remains unexplored. This study explores the relationship between exposure to the vaccine and later-life outcomes, but focuses on individuals who migrated to Sweden (birth cohorts 1946-1971), who constitute a diverse sample in terms of national origin. Using a differences-in-differences approach and register data from the Swedish Longitudinal Immigrant Database, this study explores if being exposed to the vaccine against polio in the year of birth in the country of origin has any impact on adult income, educational achievement, nor days or number of hospitalizations. The results are in line with the previous research in showing that there are no statistically significant effects on adult income, education, or health from exposure to the vaccine against polio, regardless of national origin. Furthermore, no scarring effects of exposure to polio epidemics were found on any of the outcomes, reinforcing the hypothesis that polio did not scar individuals in the same way as other contemporary epidemic diseases did, and that the lack of scarring could explain the absence of long-term impact from vaccine exposure.
    Keywords: vaccine; polio; income; education; early-life; Sweden; migration;
    JEL: I15 I18 H41 N34
    Date: 2019–09

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