nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒09‒09
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Spatial Dependence, Social Networks, and Economic Structures in Regional Labor Migration By Murayama, Koji; Nagayasu, Jun
  2. September 11 and the Rise of Necessity Self-Employment among Mexican Immigrants By Wang, Chunbei; Lofstrom, Magnus
  3. Does Halting Refugee Resettlement Reduce Crime? Evidence from the United States Refugee Ban By Masterson, Daniel; Yasenov, Vasil
  4. Perceived Immigration And Voting Behavior. By Bellucci, Davide; Conzo, Pierluigi; Zotti, Roberto
  5. The Impact of Exposure to Missionaries on the English Language Proficiency and Earnings of Immigrants in the USA By Larsen, Nicholas; Chiswick, Barry R.
  6. Migration, Innovation, and Growth: An African Story? By Mbaye, Linguère Mously; Tani, Massimiliano

  1. By: Murayama, Koji; Nagayasu, Jun
    Abstract: This study empirically analyzes the determinants of regional labor migration in Japan, where small towns are disappearing due to the shortage of labor. Using spatial models of origin-destination flows and considering network effects of labor and economic structures, we obtain results more consistent with the standard migration theory than previous studies. First, unlike previous studies, we find that migration decisions in Japan are based on economic motivations consistent with economic theories. Particularly, unemployment rates in origins and destinations and income in origins are found to be the determinants of labor migration. Second, we report that network effects, which help reduce migration costs, have encouraged relocation of labor. Third, considering spatial weights based on distance, goods flow, and economic structures, we show that neighbors can be most appropriately defined with economic structures; migration patterns are alike in regions with similar economic structures.
    Keywords: labor migration; spatial models; regional economy; economic structures; network effects
    JEL: J61 R23
    Date: 2019–08
  2. By: Wang, Chunbei (University of Oklahoma); Lofstrom, Magnus (Public Policy Institute of California)
    Abstract: Since the September 11 attacks (9/11), the U.S. has seen a tightening of immigration policies. Previous studies find that stricter immigration enforcement has the unintended effect of pushing undocumented immigrants into self-employment. This paper builds on the literature to better understand the changes in the types of self-employment among Mexican immigrants triggered by the tightened immigration enforcement after 9/11. Using a difference-in-differences approach, and the recently developed measures by Fairlie and Fossen [2018] to distinguish between necessity and opportunity self-employment, we find that both necessity and opportunity self-employment increased among Mexican immigrants after 9/11. However, the effect is most prominent on necessity self-employment, consistent with the hypothesis that they are pushed into self-employment as a survival alternative.
    Keywords: mexican immigrants, self-employment, 9/11, tightened immigration policies, necessity
    JEL: J15 L26
    Date: 2019–08
  3. By: Masterson, Daniel (Stanford University); Yasenov, Vasil (University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: Many countries have reduced refugee admissions in recent years, in part due to fears that refugees and asylum seekers increase crime rates and pose a national security risk. Existing research presents ambiguous expectations about the consequences of refugee resettlement on crime. We leverage a natural experiment in the United States, where an Executive Order by the president in January 2017 halted refugee resettlement. This policy change was sudden and significant – it resulted in the lowest number of refugees resettled on US soil since 1977 and a 66% drop in resettlement from 2016 to 2017. We find that there is no discernible effect on county-level crime rates. These null effects are consistent across all types of crime and precisely estimated. Overall, the results suggest that crime rates would have been similar had refugee arrivals continued at previous levels.
    Keywords: refugees, immigration, crime
    JEL: F22 J15 K42
    Date: 2019–08
  4. By: Bellucci, Davide; Conzo, Pierluigi; Zotti, Roberto (University of Turin)
    Abstract: A growing number of studies have found significant effects of inflows of migrants on electoral outcomes. However, the role of perceived immigration, which in many European countries is above official migration statistics, is overlooked. This paper investigates the effects of perceived threat of immigration on voting behavior, by looking at whether local elections in Italy were affected by sea arrivals of refugees before the election day. While, upon arrival, refugees cannot freely go to the destination municipality, landing episodes were discussed in the media especially before the elections, thereby influencing voters’ perceptions about the arrivals. We develop an index of exposure to arrivalsthat varies over time and across municipalities depending on the nationality of the incoming refugees. This index captures the impact of perceived immigration on voting behavior, on top of the effects of real immigration as proxied for by the stock of immigrants and the presence of refugee centers. Results show that, in municipalities where refugees are more expected to arrive, participationdecreases, whereas protest votes and support for extreme-right, populist and anti-immigration parties increase. Since these effects are driven by areas with fast broadband availability, we argue that antiimmigration campaigns played a key role.
    Date: 2019–06
  5. By: Larsen, Nicholas; Chiswick, Barry R.
    Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how potential exposure to missionary activity impacts both English language proficiency and labor market earnings of male and female immigrants to the United States. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study uses the pooled files of the American Community Survey (2005-09). To estimate the relationship between the missionary activity of both Protestants and Catholics on an immigrant’s English language proficiency using a linear probability model and their labor market earnings using the human capital earnings function that is estimated with an ordinary least squares model. Among other relevant variables, the analysis controls for the colonial heritage of the immigrant’s country of origin. Findings: Overall, and within colonial heritages, our results indicate that male and female immigrants from countries with a higher concentration of Protestant missionaries tend to exhibit higher levels of English language proficiency and earnings, and those from countries with a greater concentration of Catholic missionaries exhibit lower levels of both, compared to countries with lower concentrations of missionaries. Furthermore, a greater proficiency in English enhances earnings. One of the important implications of the findings in this paper is that a “missionary variable” often used in other studies is too aggregate and may mask important findings because of strikingly different effects of Protestant and Catholic activities and characteristics of the missionaries. Originality/value: This study explores for the first time how, through a missionary concentration variable, potential exposure to missionary activity impacts the English language proficiency and earnings of immigrants.
    Keywords: Immigrants,Protestant,Catholic,Missionaries,Earnings,Schooling,English Language,Proficiency,American Community Survey
    JEL: F22 J61 J31 J24
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Mbaye, Linguère Mously (African Development Bank); Tani, Massimiliano (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: This chapter brings new evidence on the relationship between short-term labour mobility, as proxied by tourism flows, and innovation in Africa. Using data from 34 African countries over the period 2011-2016 sourced from the World Bank’s Enterprise Survey, we find that short–term mobility positively contributes to innovation, making this a potentially effective channel for economic development alongside established determinants such as investments in R&D, foreign direct investments, and trade. Short-term labour mobility thus emerges in Africa, too, as a prospective policy lever to generate new productive knowledge and promote sustainable economic growth.
    Keywords: Africa, innovation, business visits, labour mobility, migration
    JEL: J61 O15 O33
    Date: 2019–08
  7. By: Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut)); Westerberg, Hans (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut))
    Abstract: The number of refugees in Europe has increased dramatically in recent years, and many countries are facing great challenges to integrating these refugees into their societies. A small group of high-growth firms have at the same time attracted attention because they create the most new jobs at any given point in time. Using matched employer-employee data from Statistics Sweden, we find that these high-growth firms in general are more likely to recruit first-generation immigrants that are unemployed. This provides support for the hypothesis that managers in high-growth firms, to greater extents, recruit marginalized individuals because they want to take advantage of their growth opportunities and therefore do not wait for the best match. Rapidly growing firms are thus less selective in their hiring decisions, and policies that are focused on increasing the number of high-growth firms might also help immigrants who face difficulties entering the labor market.
    Keywords: Firm growth; Gazelles; High-growth firms; Immigration; Integration; Labor market; Matching models; Resource based theory; Interaction effects; Logit; Odds ratio
    JEL: D22 J15 L25 L26
    Date: 2019–08–30

This nep-mig issue is ©2019 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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