nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒08‒19
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The Impact of Climate Change on Internal Migration in Brazil By Jaqueline Oliveira; Paula Pereda
  2. Social cohesion in times of forced displacement – the case of young people in Jordan By Jana Kuhnt; Ramona Rischke; Anda David; Tobias Lechtenfeld
  3. Forced to leave: Determinants of slow-onset displacement in Colombia By Deacon, Helen; Görgens, Maximilian
  4. Does College Location Affect the Location Choice of New College Graduates? Evidence from China By Huang, Mian; Xing, Chunbing; Cui, Xiaoyong
  5. Immigrants and Workplace Training: Evidence from Canadian Linked Employer Employee Data By Dostie, Benoit; Javdani, Mohsen
  6. Immigration and Work-Related Injuries: Evidence from Italian Administrative Data By Alacevich, Caterina; Nicodemo, Catia
  7. Immigration and Wage Growth: The Case of Australia By Courtney Brell; Christian Dustmann
  8. Immigration and Crimes against Natives: The 2015 Refugee Crisis in Germany By Huang, Yue; Kvasnicka, Michael
  9. Estimating the Determinants of Remittances Originating from U.S. Households using CPS Data By Simpson, Nicole B.; Sparber, Chad
  10. Talent Migration in Emerging Markets: Agenda for Talent Management By Latukha, M.; Shagalkina, M.
  11. Do Rail Transit Stations Induce Displacement? By Boarnet, Marlon; Bostic, Raphael; Rodnyansky, Seva; Santiago-Bartolomei, Raúl; Williams, Danielle

  1. By: Jaqueline Oliveira; Paula Pereda
    Abstract: Business-as-usual climate-change forecasts point to sharp temperature rises and agriculture yield losses in Brazil. We study the impact of these changes on internal migration and population distribution. We employ a spatial equilibrium model in which the climate shapes workers' locational choices through the usual amenity-value channel and the novel indirect channel via agriculture wages. Our simulations reveal that migration rates are 5.9% higher, and that half million more people migrate inter regionally under future climate conditions. Furthermore, climate change will likely exacerbate the country's regional inequalities, as the most developed regions gain population and welfare while the least developed regions lose.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Agriculture Productivity; Internal Migration; Regional Inequality; Spatial Equilibrium.
    JEL: O15 Q54 R13 Q51
    Date: 2019–07–29
  2. By: Jana Kuhnt; Ramona Rischke; Anda David; Tobias Lechtenfeld
    Abstract: Countries hosting large numbers of refugees often face immense challenges in providing sufficient economic opportunities, and access to basic services. Competition over limited resources can lead to tension and conflict between host and refugee populations. Increases in social tensions have typically been associated with limited social cohesion and inclusion. Jordan is a case in point: with a population of 7.6 million, the country was hosting more than 650,000 Syrian refugees in 2016, most of whom lived in urban areas. To this end, this article explores perceptions of social cohesion among youth (age 18-35) as well as short-term changes over the past two years. Using novel data from an online survey, the article presents evidence of a modest decrease in overall social cohesion in Jordan. At the same time however, young people want to be actors of change and have a clear desire for more civic participation in their communities. Frequently mentioned barriers are a lack of public spaces and limited knowledge regarding possibilities to more actively engage. The results further point to opportunities to strengthen social cohesion between host and refugee youth by supporting joint programs by age and interest, as identities of young people are less driven by nationality, ethnicity or religion, and primarily by age group and interest. While quite encouraging, these findings underscore the importance of further monitoring changes in social cohesion over time.
    Date: 2017–12–22
  3. By: Deacon, Helen; Görgens, Maximilian
    Abstract: In Colombia, the ongoing armed conflict has had severe effects on internal migration and displacement. While occasions of mass displacement usually attract significant attention, little is known about why forced displacement in Colombia primarily occurs gradually over time and in smaller groups. To address the apparent research gap, this paper analyses the consequences and mechanisms of forced slow-onset displacement and focuses on the interactions between "violence," "food security," and "climate change" as its determinants.
    Keywords: forced slow-onset displacement,migration,Colombia,violence,food security,climate change
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Huang, Mian (Southwestern University of Economics and Finance); Xing, Chunbing (Beijing Normal University); Cui, Xiaoyong (Peking University)
    Abstract: Based on a representative survey of new college graduates in China, we examine the impact of college location on their location choice upon graduation. We use a discrete choice model and the BLP method to solve the endogeneity problem of housing cost and to estimate the unobservable location features. Furthermore, we allow for different distributions of city preference for graduates studying in different regions to address the self-selection problem of college location. Empirical results show that the graduates are significantly more likely to stay in where they attended college, to return to their hometown, and to avoid cities with high housing costs. Simulation exercise shows that the impact of college location on migration varies considerably across cities, and there is significant heterogeneity for students from universities of different tiers and from rural vs. urban areas. Reduced form evidence suggests that internship in the local labor market plays an important role in raising the probability of staying. College education increased the students' interaction with the local economy and reduced the costs of job search.
    Keywords: higher education, regional development, location choice, human capital
    JEL: J13 J16 J61 J24
    Date: 2019–07
  5. By: Dostie, Benoit (HEC Montreal); Javdani, Mohsen (University of British Columbia, Okanagan)
    Abstract: Job training is one of the most important aspects of skill formation and human capital accumulation. In this study we use longitudinal Canadian linked employer-employee data to examine whether white/visible minority immigrants and Canadian-borns experience different opportunities in two well-defined measures of firm-sponsored training: on-the-job training and classroom training. While we find no differences in on-the-job training between different groups, our results suggest that visible minority immigrants are significantly less likely to receive classroom training, and receive fewer and shorter classroom training courses, an experience that is not shared by white immigrants. For male visible minority immigrants, these gaps are entirely driven by their differential sorting into workplaces with less training opportunities. For their female counterparts however, they are mainly driven by differences that emerge within workplaces. We find no evidence that years spent in Canada or education level can appreciably reduce these gaps. Accounting for potential differences in career paths and hierarchical level also fails to explain these differences. We find however that these gaps are only experienced by visible minority immigrants who work in the for-profit sector, with those in the non-profit sector experiencing positive or no gaps in training. Finally, we show that other poor labor market outcomes of visible minority immigrants, including their wages and promotion opportunities, stem in part from these training gaps.
    Keywords: immigrants, wages, firm-sponsored training, linked employer-employee data
    JEL: J24 L22 M53
    Date: 2019–07
  6. By: Alacevich, Caterina (Pompeu Fabra University); Nicodemo, Catia (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: There is growing evidence that foreign-born workers are over represented in physically demanding and dangerous jobs with relatively higher injury hazard rates. Given this pattern, do increasing inflows of foreign-born workers alleviate native workers' exposure to injuries? This paper provides evidence of the effects of immigration on the incidence and severity of workrelated accidents. We combine administrative data on work-place accidents in Italy with the Labour Force Survey from 2009 to 2017. Our approach exploits spatial and temporal variation in the distribution of foreign-born residents across provinces. Using province fixed-effects and an instrumental variable specification based on historical settlements of immigrants, we show that inflows of foreign-born residents drive reductions in the injury rate, paid sick leave, and severity of impairment for natives. Next, we investigate potential underlying mechanisms that could drive this effect, such as increased unemployment and selection of the workforce, and the sorting of native workers into less physically demanding jobs. Our results rule out that decreased injuries are driven by higher native unemployment. We find that employment rates are positively associated with immigration, in particular for workers with higher education. While not statistically significant at conventional levels, we also find that average occupational physical intensity for natives is lower in provinces that receive larger foreign-born inflows.
    Keywords: immigration, labour-market flexibility, work-related injuries, health
    JEL: J61 J28 I1
    Date: 2019–07
  7. By: Courtney Brell; Christian Dustmann
    Abstract: We discuss various ways in which an economy can adjust to immigration-induced labour supply shocks, and what the implications are for wages. We then describe the empirical approaches that aim at quantifying the wage effects of immigration, and point out the challenges for empirical work. Turning to Australia, we review the status of Australia's immigration program and migrant population, as well as recent developments in the labour market outcomes of Australian residents. We survey existing empirical evidence analysing the links between immigration and wages in Australia, which, while sparse, does not generally support adverse impacts on average wages or wages of low-skilled Australians. Finally, we discuss this Australian experience in the context of the adjustment mechanisms reviewed earlier and consider the implications of these findings.
    Keywords: wages; immigration; literature review; Australian migration; skill-cell; spatial analysis
    Date: 2019–04
  8. By: Huang, Yue (Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg); Kvasnicka, Michael (Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg)
    Abstract: In the 2015 refugee crisis, nearly one million refugees came to Germany, raising concern that crimes against natives would rise. Using novel county-level data, we study this question empirically in first-difference and 2SLS regressions. Our results do not support the view that Germans were victimized in greater numbers by refugees as measured by their rate of victimization in crimes with refugee suspects. Our findings are of great policy and public interest, and also of material relevance for the broader literature on immigration and crime which considers only crimes per capita or variants thereof, but never actual crimes by foreigners against natives. We show that this shortcoming can lead to biased inference.
    Keywords: immigration, refugees, crimes, crimes against natives
    JEL: F22 J15 K42
    Date: 2019–07
  9. By: Simpson, Nicole B. (Colgate University); Sparber, Chad (Colgate University)
    Abstract: The U.S. is the largest source country of remittances with an outflow of more than $70 billion estimated for 2016 (according to data from the World Bank). This paper is the first to use Current Population Survey (CPS) data to estimate the determinants of remittances originating from the United States for a diverse set of approximately 3,800 households with at least one foreign-born worker. We employ a gravity model examining the role of various push, pull, and distance factors. Most notably, higher household earnings push monetary transfers abroad: We estimate an average earnings elasticity in the range of 0.20-0.30. Remittances are more responsive to earnings in households with more adult women relative to men.
    Keywords: immigration, remittances
    JEL: F24 J61
    Date: 2019–07
  10. By: Latukha, M.; Shagalkina, M.
    Abstract: Although the problem of talent migration (brain drain) is not new and many countries, especially emerging markets, experience it currently, there is no universal remedy for solving it. Most research connect brain drain with macro-level determinants (institutional, economic, political). Little attention has been paid to firm-level talent management (TM) as a possible tool for overcoming national-level brain drain. Based on existing literature on talent migration and TM, three research questions were derived aiming at identifying factors that influence talent emigration in the Russian context and the role of TM in brain drain prevention. In order to answer the research questions, quantitative study will be conducted. The data will be collected via survey. The respondents of it are graduates of Russian Universities. Expected results imply the possible positive effect of TM development on brain drain problem at a country-level.
    Keywords: brain drain, student migration, labor market mobility, talent management, emerging market strategies, Russia,
    Date: 2019
  11. By: Boarnet, Marlon; Bostic, Raphael; Rodnyansky, Seva; Santiago-Bartolomei, Raúl; Williams, Danielle
    Abstract: As the construction and usage of rail transit proliferates in cities across the world, concerns abound about impacts on surrounding neighborhoods – including gentrification and displacement. Los Angeles County has seen a massive rail transit buildout—from zero to 93 stations along six lines—in 25 years. This boom has led to a prevailing perception that Los Angeles’ rail transit development causes an influx of high-income residents and an outflow of low-income residents near rail stations. This policy brief summarizes research that tests this perception by answering the following questions related to rail transit and household moves: Do rail transit stations affect residential move rates in surrounding neighborhoods? And, if so, then are lower income or long-term residents disproportionally displaced from the neighborhood? View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Demographics, Households, Low income groups, Mobility, Neighborhoods, Population movements, Rail transit, Rail transit stations, Transit oriented development, Urban population
    Date: 2018–08–01

This nep-mig issue is ©2019 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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