nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒07‒15
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Decomposing Immigrant Differences in Physical and Mental Health: A 'Beyond the Mean' Analysis By Gabriella Berloffa; Francesca Paolini
  2. The settlement experience of Pacific migrants in New Zealand: Insights from LISNZ and the IDI By Sin, Isabelle; Ormsby, Judd
  3. Not Just a Work Permit: EU Citizenship and the Consumption Behavior of Documented and Undocumented Immigrants By Effrosyni Adamopoulou; Ezgi Kaya
  5. Hate at first sight? Dynamic aspects of the electoral impact of migration: The case of Ukip By Levi, Eugenio; Mariani, Rama Dasi; Patriarca, Fabrizio
  6. International Student Mobility: Growth and Dispersion By Neeraj Kaushal; Mauro Lanati
  7. Say it like Goethe: Language learning facilities abroad and the self-selection of immigrants By Jaschke, Philipp; Keita, Sekou
  8. Immigrants' Deportations, Local Crime and Police Effectiveness By Hines, Annie Laurie; Peri, Giovanni
  9. "Tax Competition and Fiscal Sustainability" By Kazutoshi Miyazawa; Hikaru Ogawa; Toshiki Tamai
  10. Calling from the outside: The role of networks in residential mobility By Konstantin Büchel, Maximilian v. Ehrlich, Diego Puga, Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal

  1. By: Gabriella Berloffa; Francesca Paolini
    Abstract: This paper takes a ‘beyond the mean’ perspective on physical and mental health differences between natives and immigrants and among immigrants themselves. We test the ‘healthy immigrant effect’ (HIE) and assess its deterioration, focusing on the evolution of the entire health distributions over time. Indeed, mean differ- ences can have very different consequences in terms of health care costs and health inequalities, according to the underlying differences at the top and at the bottom of the health distribution. Using unconditional quantile regressions on data from the Italian Health Condition Survey, we find a HIE for both physical and mental health, which is mainly due to large differences in the lowest quartiles. Detailed decompositions show that observed characteristics (such as age, gender, and occu- pation) are associated with better health for both natives and long-stay immigrants compared to short-stay immigrants. At the bottom of both physical and mental health distributions, these gains are more than offset by the negative impact of some unobserved characteristics. Our results point towards the need of improving the data collection on health determinants, especially among immigrants, in order to uncover what is behind the unobserved component.
    Keywords: Immigration; health, unconditional quantile regression, decomposition analysis,Italy
    JEL: I14 C21 J15 O15
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Sin, Isabelle; Ormsby, Judd
    Abstract: New Zealand has a long history of migration from the Pacific. Migrants from the Pacific, like all people moving to a new country, face the challenges of finding suitable employment and a place to live, accessing education, and forming new social, professional, and community networks while adapting to differences in culture. Our research uses the Longitudinal Immigration Survey New Zealand (LISNZ) and Statistics New Zealand’s Integrated Data Infrastructure to focus on differences in outcomes between migrants from different Pacific countries who gained residence approval under different visa types. Pacific migrants interviewed in LISNZ faced a number of challenges to becoming successful and settled in New Zealand, including limited English and low education, which may have caught many in low-paying or part-time work and made them particularly vulnerable to economic conditions. Although most reported good health and generally positive non-economic outcomes in New Zealand, some of their outcomes grew worse over their first three years after residence approval. The reasons for these declines are not wholly clear and could be investigated in future research.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2019–03
  3. By: Effrosyni Adamopoulou; Ezgi Kaya
    Abstract: This paper explores the impact of the 2007 European Union enlargement on the consumption behavior of immigrant households. Using data from a unique Italian survey and a difference-in-differences approach, we find that the enlargement induced a significant consumption increase for the immigrant households from new member states both in the short- and in the medium-run. This enlargement effect cannot be attributed to the mere legalization as it concerns both undocumented and documented immigrants, albeit through different channels. Detailed information on immigrants' legal status (undocumented/documented) and sector of employment (informal/formal) allows us to shed light on the exact mechanisms. Following the enlargement, previously undocumented immigrants experienced an increase in the labor income by moving from the informal towards the formal economy, whereas immigrants who were already working legally in Italy benefitted from the increased probability of getting a permanent contract. Enhanced employment stability in turn reduced the uncertainty about future labor income leading to an increase in documented immigrants' consumption expenditure.
    Keywords: consumption; citizenship; informality; (un)documented immigrants; work permit
    JEL: D12 E21 F22
    Date: 2019–07
  4. By: Cao Chenrui
    Abstract: Human resource mobility is an essential feature of today’s globalized world where integrated world markets, networks and technologies are all contributing to the increasing movement of labor, students, professionals, and families. Governments on both sides of the migration chain increasingly recognize the value of the diaspora’s voluntary engagement with their countries of origin and are seeking ways to optimize this engagement. The question facing policy-makers is not so much whether the diaspora can benefit their countries of origin, but what kind of government policies and programmes’ can foster and promote these relationships. Diasporas are not only key drivers in development efforts but also in strengthening bilateral relations between host and home nations. In the contemporary globalized world, the diasporas have emerged as a powerful factor in developing relations between the nation-states. Notably, the Indian diaspora has acted as a catalyst in strengthening bilateral relations between India and the host nations. The India-US Civil Nuclear Deal is a case in point, as Indian diasporas in the United States successfully lobbied for clinching of the nuclear deal. Indian Diaspora is one of the largest in the world and it has considerable soft power credentials for the Indian Foreign Policy effecting trade and business relations. The South East Asian region has a plethora of economic avenues for investors from across the globe. It has become vital for India to build a favorable rapport with this region. The Indian presence in Southeast Asia is set deep down in history. There are innumerable accounts of traders, preachers and adventures who ventured into the high seas and influenced the eastern part of the world, to the extent of ‘Indianising’ it socially, culturally, religiously, and in many other ways. However, it was during the colonial period that government sponsored migrations in the form of labourers, officials and service providers started, which later resulted into permanent settlements. The diasporic consciousness emerged as the settlers became integral part of economic and political lives of receiving societies, while continuing to be connected with the motherland. More recently, the migration of skilled and highly skilled professionals and entrepreneurs and India’s opening towards Southeast Asia has given a new face and identity to the Indian communities in the region. Hence, this paper is an attempt to analyze the impact of India’s diaspora policy with regard to Indian diaspora in Southeast Asia. It seeks to examine how effectively India can utilize its diaspora as a foreign policy tool to exert its influence in the South East Asia. Key Words:diaspora, Indian diaspora, foreign policy, south east asia Policy
    Date: 2018–03
  5. By: Levi, Eugenio; Mariani, Rama Dasi; Patriarca, Fabrizio
    Abstract: In this paper, we test the hypothesis that the causal effect of immigrant presence on anti-immigrant votes is a short-run effect. For this purpose, we consider a distributed lag model and adapt the standard instrumental variable approach proposed by Altonji and Card (1991) to a dynamic framework. The evidence from our case study, votes for the UK Independent Party (Ukip) in recent European elections, supports our hypothesis. Furthermore, we find that this effect is robust to differences across areas in terms of population density and socioeconomic characteristics, and it is only partly explained by integration issues.
    Keywords: Immigration,Voting,Political Economy
    JEL: P16 J61 D72
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Neeraj Kaushal; Mauro Lanati
    Abstract: Recent years have seen an unprecedented growth and geographic dispersion in international student mobility. In this paper, we empirically test the predictions of two competing theoretical models underpinning the determinants of student mobility – the human capital model and the migration model – across traditional and emerging destinations. Our findings suggest that while the predictions of the migration model are generally valid in explaining student emigration to non-English speaking OECD destinations, student flows to English speaking countries and emerging economies are largely in line with the predictions of the human capital model. The growing dispersion of international students to emerging economies and continuing large flows to English speaking countries are therefore indicative of the rising demand to acquire tertiary skills and much less of the desire to migrate for permanent settlement.
    JEL: J1 J15 J24
    Date: 2019–06
  7. By: Jaschke, Philipp (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Keita, Sekou (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "Immigration policy in most high-income countries is designed to promote qualified migration while maintaining high requirements on characteristics such as education and language skills. We rely on a standard self-selection model with heterogeneous migration costs to discuss the effect of access to language learning services in the country of origin on the skill composition of immigrants in Germany. Using individual-level survey data on immigrants from different cohorts over the period 2000 - 2014, combined with unique data on the presence of Goethe Institutes - a German association promoting German language and culture worldwide - in origin countries, the results of our empirical analysis show that the acquisition of the German language is fostered by the availability of language courses abroad. Moreover, we find that language services abroad induce a positive (self-)selection of migrants along several dimensions, such as education, experience, and the probability of holding a job offer at arrival. These characteristics are in turn highly relevant for long- term integration in Germany. To disentangle transmission channels, we perform a causal mediation analysis. We find that 25 % of the total effect of language services abroad on language skills at immigration trace back directly to migrants' participation in language courses, revealing important spillover effects." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    JEL: F22 J18 J24 J61 Z13
    Date: 2019–07–03
  8. By: Hines, Annie Laurie (University of California, Davis); Peri, Giovanni (University of California, Davis)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of immigrant deportations on local crime and police efficiency. Our identification relies on increases in the deportation rate driven by the introduction of the Secure Communities (SC) program, an immigration enforcement program based on local-federal cooperation which was rolled out across counties between 2008 and 2013. We instrument for the deportation rate by interacting the introduction of SC with the local presence of likely undocumented in 2005, prior to the introduction of SC. We document a surge in local deportation rates under SC, and we show that deportations increased the most in counties with a large undocumented population. We find that SC-driven increases in deportation rates did not reduce crime rates for violent offenses or property offenses. Our estimates are small and precise, so we can rule out meaningful effects. We do not find evidence that SC increased either police effectiveness in solving crimes or local police resources. Finally, we do not find effects of deportations on the local employment of unskilled citizens or on local firm creation.
    Keywords: immigrants, deportation, crime, police effectiveness, secure communities
    Date: 2019–06
  9. By: Kazutoshi Miyazawa (Faculty of Economics, Doshisha University); Hikaru Ogawa (Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo); Toshiki Tamai (Department of Socio-Economic System)
    Abstract: We develop a model in which ethnic minorities can either assimilate to the majority's norm or reject it by trading o higher productivity and wages with a greater social distance to their culture of origin. We show that "oppositional" minorities reside in more segregated areas, have worse outcomes (in terms of income) but are not necessary worse off in terms of welfare than assimilated minorities who live in less segregated areas. We nd that a policy that reduces transportation cost decreases rather than increases assimilation in cities. We also nd that when there are more productivity spillovers between the two groups, ethnic minorities are more likely not to assimilate and to reject the majority's norm. Finally, we show that ethnic minorities tend to assimilate more in bigger and more expensive cities.
    Date: 2018–12
  10. By: Konstantin Büchel, Maximilian v. Ehrlich, Diego Puga, Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal
    Abstract: Using anonymised cellphone data, we study the role of social networks in residential mobility decisions. Individuals with few local contacts are more likely to change residence. Movers strongly prefer places with more of their contacts close-by. Contacts matter because proximity to them is itself valuable and increases the enjoyment of attractive locations. They also provide hard-to-find local information and reduce frictions, especially in home-search. Local contacts who left recently or are more central are particularly influential. As people age, proximity to family gains importance relative to friends.
    Keywords: social networks, residential mobility
    JEL: R23 L14
    Date: 2019–03

This nep-mig issue is ©2019 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.