nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒05‒27
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The paradox of the unhappy, growing city: reconciling evidence By Fredrik Carlsen; Stefan Leknes
  2. Network Effects in Internal Migration By Laszlo Lorincz; Brigitta Nemeth
  3. Borrowing constraints and location choice - Evidence from the Paris Region By Sophie Dantan; Nathalie Picard
  4. Managing health issues with low wages – A study of female domestic workers By Bhattacharjee, Sanghita; Goswami, Bhaskar
  5. Beyond the agrimafie-caporalato binary: the restructuring of agriculture in Central Italy and its implications on labour relations. By Lucilla Salvia
  6. The impact of migration on regional political and economic development By Vikulov, Alexandr (Викулов, Александр)
  7. Migrant families in industrialized countries: new dimensions of integration problems By Malakhov, Vladimir (Малахов, Владимир); Letnyakov, Denis (Летняков, Денис); Simon, Mark (Симон, Марк); Motin, Alexander (Мотин, Александр); Timoshkin, Dmitriy (Тимошкин, Дмитрий)
  8. Russia in the system of global regulation of migration flows: opportunities for the development of international cooperation By Malakhov, Vladimir (Малахов, Владимир); Letnyakov, Denis (Летняков, Денис); Simon, Mark (Симон, Марк); Motin, Alexander (Мотин, Александр)
  9. The US Labor Market in 2050: Supply, Demand and Policies to Improve Outcomes By Holzer, Harry J.
  10. Explaining Gaps in Educational Transitions Between Migrant and Native School Leavers By Zimmermann, Markus
  11. The Immigrant-Native Wage Gap in Germany Revisited By Ingwersen, Kai; Thomsen, Stephan L

  1. By: Fredrik Carlsen; Stefan Leknes (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: This paper attempts to explain why large cities tend to score low on indices of happiness/life satisfaction, while at the same time experiencing population growth. Using Norwegian survey and register data, we show that different population segments are behind these seemingly contradictory attributes of large cities. A minority of highly mobile citizens are satisfied with life in Norway’s biggest city, Oslo, and exhibits positive net in-migration to the city. A majority of less mobile groups are dissatisfied and tend to move out of Oslo, but these flows are too small to determine the overall migration pattern. Our results indicate that the Rosen-Roback framework for analysis of regional quality of life, which builds on the assumption of perfect mobility, is appropriate only for the most mobile segments of the population.
    Keywords: Happiness; life satisfaction; quality of life; big cities; mobility
    JEL: J17 R23 I31
    Date: 2019–05
  2. By: Laszlo Lorincz (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Corvinus University of Budapest); Brigitta Nemeth (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences)
    Abstract: Previous studies have shown the impact of family, community, and ethnic networks on migration. Our research focuses on the role of social networks in Hungarian internal migration. We examine the factors determining out-migration rate from municipalities, and the factors influencing location choice by analysingmigration volumes on the municipality-municipality level. We measure social network effects by the migration rate of previous years, and by the intensity of user-user connections on the iWiW online social network (representing3.7million users) between two municipalities. The migration volumes and the characteristics of the municipalities are included in the analysis based on administrative data, and the distance between municipalities are indicated by the travel time. We analyselongitudinal data for the2000-2014 period, and cross-sectional models for the year 2014. Based on multilevel and fixed-effect regression models we show that both leaving and choosing municipalities is associated with network effects: the migration of previous years, and also the connections on iWiW social network influence the current migration rate, even after controlling for each other.
    Keywords: chain migration, internal migration, network effects, online social networks, social networks
    JEL: R23
    Date: 2019–05
  3. By: Sophie Dantan; Nathalie Picard (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of residential segregation using a nested logit model to disentangle household preferences for local amenities, for dwelling type and for homeownership. The model is extended to account for unobservable borrowing constraints which might prevent some households from purchasing a dwelling. A counterfactual distribution of socio-demographic characteristics across the Paris region is then built by relaxing those constraints. The comparison of the actual and counterfactual distributions suggests that if their credit constraints were alleviated, households would tend to locate further from Paris. In particular if constraints were relaxed only on the poorest households, they would not be likely to mix with the richest households.
    Keywords: Homeownership, Tenure choice, Borrowing constraints, Residential segregation, Suburbanization, Urban sprawl, Location choice model, Endogenous choice sets.
    JEL: R21 R23 R31
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Bhattacharjee, Sanghita; Goswami, Bhaskar
    Abstract: Domestic workers are the most vulnerable group of informal workers who work to supplement their household income. They work for survival, hypothesis being that, women work to make up the difference between subsistence requirements and the total earnings of the family. They lack education or skill, work for long hours and perform specific tasks in several households. They have no leave rules or security benefits as they are excluded from the ambit of labour legislation. They are susceptible to serious health problems that often go unattended. Health issues results in a toll on their consumption expenditure and they are in a constant fear of losing job. The present study is based on a primary survey of 300 domestic workers conducted in the district of South 24Parganas, West Bengal, India for a period of six months from January 16 to June 16. The choice of the district was prompted by the inter-linkage between the growth and expansion of the city of Kolkata in her southern part, existence of a large number of Bangladeshi migrants in South 24 Parganas (Kumar, 2010), evidences of large scale commuting of unorganized workers (Roy, 2003) and the growing informal market where the major source of manual labour comes from the fringes of the district. The study was conducted to understand the socio-demographic characteristics of the workers household, their economic status and method of coping with health issues subject to limited income of the family.
    Keywords: Female Domestic Workers, Health Vulnerability, socio-demographic, South 24 Parganas
    JEL: I14 J31
    Date: 2019–05–31
  5. By: Lucilla Salvia (Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (IT).)
    Abstract: As in many other countries in the world, the Italian agricultural sector has witnessed a process of deep restructuring with the expansion of export-oriented production and the rise of global value chains in the agrifood sector. This paper argues that the new way of producing and delivering food, coupled with country-specific conditions, such as the structure of Italian agrarian capital, have created the room for new forms of exploitation, such as those based on seasonal migrant labour through practices of labour contracting and that sometimes amount to forms of 'modern slavery'. These new forms of exploitation are far from being exceptional. Although often associated with the territory control of Mafia organizations, this article argues that migrant labour exploitation through the labour contracting system is an integral feature of the contemporary agricultural production in Italy. This is shown through the case study of the fruit and vegetable production in the south area of Lazio region where firms can rely, through the role of labour contractors, on cheap and disposable migrant labour, especially Indian workers.
    Keywords: labour contractors, caporalato, Italian agricultural sector, FFV value chain, labour exploitation.
    JEL: J61 J81 Q1
    Date: 2019–05
  6. By: Vikulov, Alexandr (Викулов, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (Povolzhsky Institute of management named after P.A. Stolypin – branch of RANEPA))
    Abstract: Political, social, economic and especially migration processes in Russia significantly affect regional development and sometimes involve worsening of existing problems or arising of new ones. Migration in Russia has a long-standing history; however, its numbers were not significant against the total population. When the Soviet Union broke up, migration rate has been increased. It is necessary to regulate and control migration processes wisely and professionally to build a civil society in Russia.
    Keywords: migration, territorial entities of the RF, demographic situation
    Date: 2019–04
  7. By: Malakhov, Vladimir (Малахов, Владимир) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Letnyakov, Denis (Летняков, Денис) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Simon, Mark (Симон, Марк) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Motin, Alexander (Мотин, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Timoshkin, Dmitriy (Тимошкин, Дмитрий) (Irkutsk State University)
    Abstract: Despite the new demographic opportunities coming from the migration inflow, the governments of the receiving countries cannot but realize the possible risks. In particular, this is the rise of nationalist populism as a reaction to the growth of ethnocultural diversity. The most vulnerable category of the population in terms of adaptation to new social realities is the so-called “second generation of migrants” - children who grew up in migrant families. Born in European countries, but often being perceived as aliens by the host societies, children from such families are often susceptible to social deprivation. In Russia, migrants from the second generation are only entering social life. Therefore, a thorough study of the European experience migrant’s children integration is of particular importance. The paper traces the evolution of approaches to the social incorporation of second-generation immigrants; analyzes the mechanisms for ensuring the “entrance” into the system of public institutions; reveals which cultural and religious practices function more likely as a “barrier” to civil integration, and which, on the contrary, contribute to it; outlines the Russian institutional context of the socialization of second-generation immigrants.
    Keywords: second generation of migrants, integration of migrants, accommodation of ethnocultural differences, convivial culture, cultural minorities, conflict prevention.
    Date: 2019–04
  8. By: Malakhov, Vladimir (Малахов, Владимир) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Letnyakov, Denis (Летняков, Денис) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Simon, Mark (Симон, Марк) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Motin, Alexander (Мотин, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: At present, Russia is already involved in the regime of international legal regulation of labor mobility, implementing the construction project of the Eurasian Economic Union. However, in the medium term, the issue of our country's participation in the development of a supranational, global migration management strategy is becoming increasingly topical. The paper analyzes a) the main international and regional migration management regimes (both labor and forced) and the role of key institutions for each of these regimes; b) the nature and dynamics of the main world migration flows, and the place of Russia as a country of immigration, emigration and transit; c) management efforts undertaken by Russia in the context of national, regional and international regulation of migration flows and management tools at the disposal of the Russian state; d) administrative forms of regulation of labor mobility in Russia in connection with the processes of economic integration within the EAEU.
    Keywords: international migrations, migration regimes, labor mobility, international cooperation, international institutions, Russian migration policy.
    Date: 2019–04
  9. By: Holzer, Harry J. (Georgetown University)
    Abstract: Current estimates suggest that over the coming decades, slower population growth and lower labor force participation will constrain the supply of labor in the U.S. The U.S. labor force will also become more diverse as immigration and fertility trends increase the size of minority populations. New forms of automation will likely require workers to adapt to keep their old jobs, while many will be displaced or face less demand for their work (while others benefit). Firms will continue to implement alternative staffing arrangements, like turning workers into independent contractors or outsourcing their human resource management to other firms; and many will adopt "low-road" employment practices to keep labor costs low. Exactly whom these changes will benefit or harm remains unclear, though non-college workers will likely fare the worst; higher productivity from new technologies and reduced labor supply could raise average wages, but many workers will clearly be worse off. Policy makers should provide incentives for firms to train current employees, rather than replace them, and should encourage schools and colleges to teach flexible, transferable skills, as the future workforce will likely need to adapt quickly to new and changing job requirements. Lifelong learning accounts for workers could help. Expanding wage insurance and improving unemployment insurance and workforce services could help workers adapt after suffering job displacement. Policies that make work pay, like the EITC, and others designed to increase labor force attachment, like paid family leave, could help mitigate declines in the labor force. Reforms in immigration and retirement policy will help as well, as would policy experimentation at the state and local level (with federal support).
    Keywords: labor market, labor supply, labor demand, employment outcomes, automation
    JEL: J2 J3
    Date: 2019–05
  10. By: Zimmermann, Markus (HU Berlin)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the reasons for the large and persistent gaps in transitions after secondary school between native pupils compared to second- and third generation immigrant pupils in Germany. I first document that differences in parental background, skills (such as school degrees or test scores), and school fixed effects explain part of the migrant-native gaps, but are not sufficient. Conditional on these factors, there is a \"polarization\" of educational choices: migrants are more likely to attend tertiary education, less likely to attend vocational education, and more likely to end without qualified training than their background and skills would predict. I then show that this polarization is driven by the migrant pupils\' more academically oriented career aspirations and expectations before leaving school. On the one hand, these higher ambitions allow higher skilled migrants to hieventertiary education despite their less favourable background characteristics. On the other hand, less skilled migrants who in Germany\'s tracked school system do not have the option to enter academic education, may be diverted from vocational training as a more viable alternative. These patterns are stronger for boys than for girls. Finally, I discuss various possible explanations for the migrants\' different career plans, including expected labour market returns to education, expected discrimination, the intention to leave Germany, overconfidence, or information deficits.
    Keywords: migrant youth; vocational education; tertiary education; aspirations; expectations;
    JEL: I24 I21 J24 J15
    Date: 2019–05–24
  11. By: Ingwersen, Kai; Thomsen, Stephan L
    Abstract: This study provides new evidence on the levels of economic integration experienced by foreigners and naturalised immigrants relative to native Germans from 1994 to 2015. We decompose the wage gap using the method for unconditional quantile regression models by employing a regression of the (recentered) influence function (RIF) of the gross hourly wage on a rich set of explanatory variables. This approach enables us to estimate contributions made across the whole wage distribution. To allow for a detailed characterization of labour market conditions, we consider a comprehensive set of socio-economic and labour-related aspects capturing influences of, e.g., human capital quality, cultural background, and the personalities of immigrants. The decomposition results clearly indicate a significant growing gap with higher wages for both foreigners (13.6 to 17.6 percent) and naturalised immigrants (10.0 to 16.4 percent). The findings further display a low explanation for the wage gap in low wage deciles that is even more pronounced within immigrant subgroups. Cultural and economic distances each have a significant influence on wages. A different appreciation of foreign educational qualifications, however, widens the wage gap substantially by 4.5 ppts on average. Moreover, we observe an indication of deterioration of immigrants’ human capital endowments over time relative to those of native Germans.
    Keywords: Immigration; wage gap; unconditional quantile regression; Germany
    JEL: J61 J31 J15
    Date: 2019–05

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