nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒03‒25
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. An Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Syrian Refugees on the Turkish Labor Market By Suzuki, Ken; Paul, Saumik; Maru, Takeshi; Kusadokoro, Motoi
  2. Markov Chain Models of Refugee Migration Data By Vincent Huang; James Unwin
  3. All That Glitters Is Not Gold: Wages and Education for US Immigrants By Bertoli, Simone; Stillman, Steven
  4. The lives of teachers in diverse classrooms By Neda Forghani-Arani; Lucie Cerna; Meredith Bannon
  5. Integration of second generation migrants aged 18–35 years in Russia By Varshaver, Evgeniy (Варшавер, Евгений); Rocheva, Anna (Рочева, Анна); Ivanova, Natalia (Иванова, Наталья)
  6. Human Capital Investment under Exit Options: Evidence from a Natural Quasi-Experiment By Chand, Satish; Clemens, Michael A.
  7. Immigrant Entrepreneurs and Innovation in the U.S. High-Tech Sector By Brown, J. David; Earle, John S.; Kim, Mee Jung; Lee, Kyung Min
  8. The Impact of Migration and Remittances on Labor Supply in Tajikistan By Enerelt Murakami; Eiji Yamada; Erica Sioson
  9. Regional Migration and Wage Inequality in the West African Economic and Monetary Union By Esther Mirjam Girsberger; Romuald Meango; Hillel Rapoport
  10. Beautiful City: Leisure Amenities and Urban Growth By Carlino, Gerald A.; Salz, Albert
  11. Urbanization and Development: A Spatial Framework of Rural-to-urban Migration By Marco Baudino

  1. By: Suzuki, Ken (Asian Development Bank Institute); Paul, Saumik (Asian Development Bank Institute); Maru, Takeshi (Asian Development Bank Institute); Kusadokoro, Motoi (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: We examine the effects of the recent influx of Syrian refugees on the Turkish labor market. Exploiting this natural experiment, we estimated the causal impacts of involuntary migration on labor market outcomes. We selected the five refugee-hosting regions with the highest number of refugees as treatment regions and four comparable regions with a low refugee-to-population ratio as control regions. Using a difference-in-differences estimation, we found that informal Turkish workers in the refugee-hosting regions were about 4% more likely to leave their job than workers in regions that did not widely host refugees. Such negative impacts on labor market outcomes became larger in 2014–2015 compared with 2012–2013. Furthermore, while females and older workers withdrew themselves from the labor market, males and younger workers become unemployed after the refugee influx.
    Keywords: refugee; migration; Syria; Turkey; difference-in-differences estimation
    JEL: F22 J00
    Date: 2019–03–20
  2. By: Vincent Huang; James Unwin
    Abstract: The application of Markov chains to modelling refugee crises is explored, focusing on local migration of individuals at the level of cities and days. As an explicit example we apply the Markov chains migration model developed here to UNHCR data on the Burundi refugee crisis. We compare our method to a state-of-the-art `agent-based' model of Burundi refugee movements, and highlight that Markov chain approaches presented here can improve the match to data while simultaneously being more algorithmically efficient.
    Date: 2019–03
  3. By: Bertoli, Simone (CERDI, University of Auvergne); Stillman, Steven (Free University of Bozen/Bolzano)
    Abstract: Many destination countries consider implementing points-based migration systems as a way to improve migrants' quality, but our understanding of the actual effects of selective policies is limited. We use data from the ACS 2001-2017 to analyze the overlap in the wage distribution of low- and high-educated recent migrants from different origins after controlling for other observable characteristics. When we randomly match a high- with a low-educated immigrant from the same country, more than one-quarter of time the low-educated immigrant has a higher hourly wage, notwithstanding a statistically significant difference in the mean wage of the two groups for most origins. For 98 out of 114 countries, this synthetic measure of the overlap in the two wage distributions stands above the corresponding figure for natives. We also find that at least 82 percent of the variance in log wages for migrants with a given number of years of schooling is due to differences within rather than across countries. This suggests that heavily relying on education to select immigrants might fail to markedly improve their quality.
    Keywords: migration, selection, wages, point-system, United States
    JEL: F22 J24
    Date: 2019–02
  4. By: Neda Forghani-Arani (University of Vienna); Lucie Cerna (OECD); Meredith Bannon (Pennsylvania State University)
    Abstract: Recent migration patterns have brought major change to the experience of schooling for students, parents and teachers. This paper focuses on teachers, and explores their roles, functions and challenges in classrooms with diverse student populations. It examines initial and in-service teacher education and professional development programmes and approaches that can foster the teacher competencies called for in school settings characterised by migration-induced diversity, and offers policy pointers. The paper argues that in order to fulfil the growing expectations teachers face, they need to be equipped with relevant knowledge, capabilities, dispositions, values and skills, such as knowledge and understanding of diversity issues, reflectivity about identities, perspectives and practices, teacher agency and autonomy, empathy, and pedagogical judgement and tact. The paper suggests that responsive teacher education should integrate diversity into the curriculum, approach diversity as an asset, link theory and practice, create spaces for action, reflection, study and anticipation in handling diversity, and incorporate relevant technologies for innovative teaching.
    Date: 2019–03–14
  5. By: Varshaver, Evgeniy (Варшавер, Евгений) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Rocheva, Anna (Рочева, Анна) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Ivanova, Natalia (Иванова, Наталья) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The paper presents results of a two-year research project on integration trajectories of second generation migrants from Transcaucasia and Central Asia aged 18-35 years old in Russia. The research is focused on the people who graduated from school in Russia and who has at least one parent who was born in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan and can be identified with one of the “non-Russian” ethnic categories. The empirical basis of the paper is a survey of migrants and local youth with non-migrant background with the help of targeting in social networking sites (N=12524) and a series of interviews in four regions of Russia (N=260). The paper characterizes structural, social, cultural and identificational integration of second generation migrants in Russia and compares them with the corresponding data in other countries. On the basis of this analysis, the authors provide recommendations.
    Date: 2019–03
  6. By: Chand, Satish (University of New South Wales); Clemens, Michael A. (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: Theory suggests that groups historically subject to discrimination, such as Jews, could exhibit traditionally high investment in education because discrimination spurred exit facilitated by human capital. Theory moreover suggests that if exit is uncertain, it could induce investment in skill that more-than-offsets the mechanical reduction in skill stocks at the origin. Tests of such theories are difficult and few. We examine a unique natural quasiexperiment in the Republic of Fiji, in which a sharp increase in discrimination induced mass exit by one ethnic group and mass skill investment by the same group. We show that the induced investment more than offset the loss from exit, producing a net increase in skill stocks. We argue with theory and a range of nonexperimental falsification tests that exit by skilled workers was a necessary causal mechanism of the offsetting skill investment.
    Keywords: brain drain, migration, immigration, emigration, skill, student, tertiary, postsecondary, college, university, training, human capital, education, Jewish, Asian, ethnic, discrimination, schooling, selection, commonwealth, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Pacific, brain gain, natural experiment, Fiji
    JEL: F22 J24 O15
    Date: 2019–02
  7. By: Brown, J. David (U.S. Census Bureau); Earle, John S. (George Mason University); Kim, Mee Jung (George Mason University); Lee, Kyung Min (George Mason University)
    Abstract: We estimate differences in innovation behavior between foreign versus U.S.-born entrepreneurs in high-tech industries. Our data come from the Annual Survey of Entrepreneurs, a random sample of firms with detailed information on owner characteristics and innovation activities. We find uniformly higher rates of innovation in immigrant-owned firms for 15 of 16 different innovation measures; the only exception is for copyright/trademark. The immigrant advantage holds for older firms as well as for recent start-ups and for every level of the entrepreneur's education. The size of the estimated immigrant-native differences in product and process innovation activities rises with detailed controls for demographic and human capital characteristics but falls for R&D and patenting. Controlling for finance, motivations, and industry reduces all coefficients, but for most measures and specifications immigrants are estimated to have a sizable advantage in innovation.
    Keywords: immigration, entrepreneur, innovation, high-tech, patent
    JEL: F22 J15 J60 J61 L26 O15 O30 O31 O32
    Date: 2019–02
  8. By: Enerelt Murakami; Eiji Yamada; Erica Sioson
    Abstract: major labor migrant sending and remittance dependent country in Central Asia. We contribute to the literature in two ways. First, we effectively address the common methodological issues that result in biased estimates in analyses of migration and remittances. Our empirical work accounts for the endogeneity of migration and remittances with respect to the labor supply decisions of household members left at home, and for the self-selection of migrants and remittance senders through the application of a control function approach. Second, we apply our empirical model to unique high-frequency household panel data that further helps to remedy methodological problems present in cross-sectional studies. The findings suggest that having a migrant member and receiving remittances increases the reservation wages of the household members left at home, thereby reducing their labor supply and economic activity rate. This result is robust to different model specifications and definitions of migration and remittances.
    Keywords: Migration, remittances, labor market participation, economic activity rate, endogenous switching, Tajikistan
    Date: 2018–12
  9. By: Esther Mirjam Girsberger (Economics Discipline Group, University of Technology Sydney); Romuald Meango (Max-Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, Munich); Hillel Rapoport (Paris School of Economics, Universit´e Paris 1 Panth´eon-Sorbonne; CEPII; IZA)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of regional migration on average wages and wage inequality in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA). We exploit a unique data from a unified labour force household survey which covers natives and migrants in the seven economic capitals of the region. We estimate the counterfactual wage distributions of UEMOA migrants in absence of migration to evaluate the effect of regional migration. We find that regional migration increases the average wage by 1.8% and it entails a decrease in inequality in the UEMOA region between -1.5% (for the Gini coefficient) and -4.5% (for the interquartile ratio). The decrease in inequality in the UEMOA region is driven by a reduction in inequality between countries, while the migration effect on within-inequality differs across countries and remains overall small. When accounting for possible general equilibrium effects of migration on stayers’ wages, we find a similar or even stronger decrease in inequality, yet a smaller increase in the average wage. With general equilibrium effects, (negatively-) intermediately selected UEMOA migrants depress the average wage of natives in their host country and lead to a slight increase of the average wage among natives in the sending country, with the former effect dominating. Moreover, regional migration in the UEMOA mostly flows from countries with low wages to countries with higher wages. In combination with the general equilibrium effects described above this leads to a larger decrease in between-country inequality than in a setting with exogenous wages.
    Keywords: Migration; inequality; Gini index; West Africa
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2019–02–21
  10. By: Carlino, Gerald A. (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia); Salz, Albert (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Modern urban economic theory and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer-leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have arguably only provided indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban development. In this paper, we propose and validate the number of tourist trips and the number of crowdsourced picturesque locations as measures of consumer revealed preferences for local lifestyle amenities. Urban population growth in the 1990-2010 period was about 10 percentage points (about one standard deviation) higher in a metro area that was perceived as twice more picturesque. This measure ties with low taxes as the most important predictor of urban population growth. “Beautiful cities” disproportionally attracted highly educated individuals and experienced faster housing price appreciation, especially in supply-inelastic markets. In contrast to the generally declining trend of the American central city, neighborhoods that were close to central recreational districts have experienced economic growth, albeit at the cost of minority displacement
    Keywords: Internal migration; amenities; urban population growth
    JEL: J11 J61 R23
    Date: 2019–03–12
  11. By: Marco Baudino (Université Côte d'Azur, France; GREDEG CNRS)
    Abstract: This paper relies upon some of the assumptions of the classical Alonso-Muth-Mills model in order to construct a spatial framework of rural-to-urban migration; specifically, it develops a spatial framework of migration where rural workers are uniformly distributed throughout a rural area, which it develops around a monocentric nuclear urban area. The spatial interactions between the rural and the urban areas are modeled via the two spatial variables of the rural rents and productivity spillover, whose effects of propagation from the urban to the rural area depend on the distance of the rural area from the urban area. From the model, it emerges how the rural rents affect the final levels of congestion in both the two areas, so that the urbanization level of the market solution can be inferior or superior with respect to the urbanization level set by the city planner. On the other hand, the inclusion of spatial variables does not seem to produce scenarios for urban growth which significantly differ from the ones detected in previous studies. Ultimately, these findings suggest the need for a city planner to design policies affecting the level of rural rents in order to modify the desired level of rural-to-urban migration, and hence the desired trade-off between urban growth and congestion.
    Keywords: Alonso-Muth-Mills model, Spatial analysis, Migration
    JEL: R12 R23 O43
    Date: 2019–03

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