nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2019‒01‒14
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Explaining the evolution of ethnicity differentials in academic achievements: The role of time investments By Nguyen, Ha Trong; Connelly, Luke; Le, Huong Thu; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine; Zubrick, Stephen
  2. Internal migration and education: A cross-national comparison By Aude Bernard; Martin Bell
  3. Rainfall, Internal Migration and Local labor Markets in Brazil By Raphael Corbi; Tiago Ferraz
  4. Getting the First Job – Size and Quality of Ethnic Enclaves for Refugee Labor Market Entry By Öner, Özge; Klaesson, Johan
  5. The Impact of Syrian Crisis on the Quality of Education in Jordan: A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment. By Abdullah Bataineh; Pierluigi Montalbano
  6. Education Interrupted: Enrollment, Attainment, and Dropout of Syrian Refugees in Jordan By Maia Sieverding; Caroline Krafft; Nasma Berri; Caitlyn Keo; Mariam Sharpless
  7. The Economics of the Syrian Refugee Crisis in Neighboring Countries. The Case of Lebanon By Anda David; Mohamed Ali Marouani; Charbel Nahas; Björn Nilsson
  8. Immigration and Public Finances in OECD Countries By Hippolyte D'Albis; Ekrame Boubtane; Dramane Coulibaly

  1. By: Nguyen, Ha Trong; Connelly, Luke; Le, Huong Thu; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine; Zubrick, Stephen
    Abstract: Children of Asian immigrants in most English-speaking destinations have better academic outcomes, yet the underlying causes of their advantages are under-studied. We employ panel time-use diaries by two cohorts of children observed over a decade to present new evidence that children of Asian immigrants begin spending more time than their peers on educational activities from school entry; and, that the ethnicity gap in the time allocated to educational activities increases over time. By specifying an augmented value-added model and invoking a quantile decomposition method, we find that the academic advantage of children of Asian immigrants is attributable mainly to their allocating more time to educational activities or their favorable initial cognitive abilities and not to socio-demographics or parenting styles. Furthermore, our results show substantial heterogeneity in the contributions of initial cognitive abilities and time allocations by test subjects, test ages and points of the test score distribution.
    Keywords: Migration, Education, Test Score Gap, Time Diary, Quantile Regression, Second-generation Immigrants, Australia
    JEL: C21 I20 J13 J15 J22
    Date: 2018–12
  2. By: Aude Bernard; Martin Bell
    Abstract: Migration the main process shaping patterns of human settlement within and between countries. It is widely acknowledged to be integral to the process of human development as it plays a significant role in enhancing educational outcomes. At regional and national levels, internal migration underpins the efficient functioning of the economy by bringing knowledge and skills to the locations where they are needed. It is the multi-dimensional nature of migration that underlines its significance in the process of human development. Human mobility extends in the spatial domain from local travel to international migration, and in the temporal dimension from short-term stays to permanent relocations. Classification and measurement of such phenomena is inevitably complex, which has severely hindered progress in comparative research, with very few large-scale cross-national comparisons of migration. The linkages between migration and education have been explored in a separate line of inquiry that has predominantly focused on country-specific analyses as to the ways in which migration affects educational outcomes and how educational attainment affects migration behaviour. A recurrent theme has been the educational selectivity of migrants, which in turn leads to an increase of human capital in some regions, primarily cities, at the expense of others. Questions have long been raised as to the links between education and migration in response to educational expansion, but have not yet been fully answered because of the absence, until recently, of adequate data for comparative analysis of migration. In this paper, we bring these two separate strands of research together to systematically explore links between internal migration and education across a global sample of 57 countries at various stages of development, using data drawn from the IPUMS database.
    Date: 2018–12
  3. By: Raphael Corbi; Tiago Ferraz
    Abstract: We investigate the labor market impacts of weather-induced internal migration in Brazil between 1987 and 2010. We instrument the number of migrants at the destination municipalities using a two-step approach. First, we exploit the variation of out-migration flows from the Brazilian Semiarid, driven by deviations from historical average rainfall, to predict the number of internal migrants leaving their hometowns. Then, we distribute this predicted flow according to the preexisting support network in each destination based on the migrant’s region of origin. Our results indicate that increasing in-migration rate by 1ð ‘ .ð ‘ . reduces native employment by 0.3ð ‘ .ð ‘ ., mostly in the formal sector, decreases wages in the informal sector by 0.2% and deepens earnings inequality.
    Keywords: Migration; labor supply; wage effects; rainfall
    JEL: J21 J22 J61 R23
    Date: 2018–12–20
  4. By: Öner, Özge (University of Cambridge); Klaesson, Johan (Jönköping University)
    Abstract: This article analyses the relationship between the size and the quality of ethnic enclaves on immigrants’ labour market integration. Using exogenously defined grid cells to delineate neighbourhoods we find robust empirical evidence that the employment rate of the respective immigrant group in the vicinity (as a measure of enclave quality) facilitates labour market integration of new immigrants. The influence of the overall employment rate and the share of co-nationals in the neighbourhood tend to be positive, but less robust. We thus conclude that the quality is more important than the size of the ethnic enclave in helping new immigrants finding jobs.
    Keywords: Refugee immigrants; Ethnic enclave quality; Labor market outcomes
    JEL: F22 J15 J60 R23
    Date: 2018–12–05
  5. By: Abdullah Bataineh (Sapienza University of Rome (IT).); Pierluigi Montalbano (Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (IT).)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the causal impact of the Syria crisis on education quality in Jordan. We collected and analyzed primary quantitative and qualitative data for a sample of Jordanian public schools in Qasabet-Irbid district (Northern Jordan), close to the Syrian border. Our empirical analysis assesses an overall negative impact of Syrian refugee enrollment in the Jordanian education system induced by both overcrowding and double-shift practices. This impact on students' performance is represented by a declining in their scores in four main subjects (Math, Science, Arabic, and English) relative to the counterfactual sample. This negative impact is confirmed by the qualitative analysis as well. This study provides the first empirical evidence on the impact of Syria crisis on the education quality in the affected public schools in Jordan, with possible long-term effects on economic growth. Although it does not represent, by any means, an argument against hosting policies of refugees, it represents a quest for International agencies and donors to refine their financial and technical support to schooling the refugees without affecting the education quality provided in the public schools. This will also help to prevent tensions between the incoming and the host communities.
    Keywords: Syria Crisis, Refugee Education, Education Quality, Overcrowding, Double-shift Schools, and Causal Impact.
    JEL: I25 O15
    Date: 2018–12
  6. By: Maia Sieverding (American University of Beirut); Caroline Krafft; Nasma Berri; Caitlyn Keo; Mariam Sharpless
    Abstract: Education is a key means to integrate refugee populations into their host countries, as well as to prevent permanent deficits in human development among children affected by conflict. The large population of children affected by the Syrian conflict are at risk of becoming a “lost generation” due to interruptions in their schooling. Jordan hosts one of the largest populations of Syrian refugees and has made a concerted effort to provide access to education for refugee children. This paper assesses how educational enrollment, attainment, and dropout of Syrian refugees in Jordan have been affected by conflict, displacement, and educational opportunities and experiences after arrival to Jordan. We rely on nationally representative survey data from Jordan in 2016 and in-depth interviews with 71 Syrian refugee youth. Syrian refugees in Jordan faced disrupted schooling in Syria due to the conflict, followed by challenges in joining the Jordanian school system. Yet ultimately enrollment rates, at least through 2016, have recovered to pre-conflict levels for basic education among the group of Syrians in Jordan in 2016. Refugee youth faced a number of barriers to school reentry and persistence in Jordan, including school interruptions leading to students being older than their classmates, discrimination from peers and teachers, and academic difficulty particularly at the secondary level. For male youth, the pressure to work to support their families underlay many non-enrollment decisions. Although some youth faced documentation challenges upon initial enrollment in school, they were able to overcome these challenges, demonstrating the importance of Jordan’s efforts to expand public school access to refugees.
    Date: 2018–12–03
  7. By: Anda David (Agence Française de Développement); Mohamed Ali Marouani; Charbel Nahas; Björn Nilsson
    Abstract: In this article, we investigate the effects of a massive displacement of workers from a war-torn economy on the economy of a neighboring country. Applying a general equilibrium approach to the Lebanese economy, we explore effects from various components of the crisis on the labor market, the production apparatus, and macroeconomic indicators. Along with previous literature, our findings suggest limited or no adverse effects on high-skilled native workers, but a negative impact on the most vulnerable Lebanese workers is found. When aid takes the form of investment subsidies, significantly better growth and labor market prospects arise, recalling the necessity of complementing humanitarian aid with development aid to succeed in achieving long-term objectives. This may however not be politically viable in a context where refugees are considered as temporary.
    Date: 2018–11–07
  8. By: Hippolyte D'Albis (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Ekrame Boubtane (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - UdA - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Dramane Coulibaly (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper shows that the macroeconomic and fiscal consequences of international migration are positive for OECD countries, and suggests that international migration produces a demographic dividend by increasing the share of the work- force within the population. The estimation of a structural vector autoregressive model on a panel of 19 OECD countries over the period 1980-2015 reveals that a migration shock increases GDP per capita through a positive effect on both the ratio of working-age to total population and the employment rate. International migration also improves the fiscal balance by reducing the per capita transfers paid by the government and per capita old-age public spending. To rationalize these findings, an original theoretical framework is developed. This framework highlights the roles of both the demographic structure and intergenerational public transfers and shows that migration is beneficial to host economies characterized by aging populations and large public sectors.
    Keywords: Immigration,public finances,overlapping-generation model,panel VAR
    Date: 2018–12–14

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