nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2018‒12‒03
twelve papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Comfort and Conformity: A Culture-based Theory of Migration By Ruxanda Berlinschi; Jan Fidrmuc
  2. Immigrant Voters, Taxation and the Size of the Welfare State By Arnaud Chevalier; Benjamin Elsner; Andreas Lichter; Nico Pestel
  3. Can Job Search Assistance Improve the Labour Market Integration for Refugees? Evidence from a Field Experiment By Michele Battisti; Yvonne Giesing; Nadzeya Laurentsyeva
  4. The Relative Impact of Different Forces of Globalisation on Wage Inequality: A Fresh Look at the EU Experience By Stefan Jestl; Sebastian Leitner; Sandra M. Leitner
  5. The Financial Decisions of Immigrant and Native Households: Evidence from Italy By Bertocchi, Graziella; Brunetti, Marianna; Zaiceva, Anzelika
  6. Revealing Stereotypes: Evidence from Immigrants in Schools By Alberto Alesina; Michela Carlana; Eliana La Ferrara; Paolo Pinotti
  7. How admitting migrants with any skills can help overcome a shortage of workers with particular skills By Stark, Oded; Byra, Łukasz
  8. Immigration and Offshoring By Michael Landesmann; Sandra M. Leitner
  9. Alt-Right Activism, Alternative Facts and Persecution of Refugees in the United States By Filiz Ruhm
  10. Impact of Remittances on Food Security and Nutrition of Migrant s Household: Evidence from Nigeria By Babatunde, R.O.
  11. Some Stylized Facts on Italian Inter-regional Migration By Davide Fiaschi; Cristina Tealdi
  12. Transitions from first unions among immigrants and their descendants. The role of partner choice By Jennifer A. Holland; Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik; Lars Dommermuth

  1. By: Ruxanda Berlinschi; Jan Fidrmuc
    Abstract: This paper proposes a theory of migration decisions in which cultural traits play a role. Individuals are assumed to value comfort (high wages) and conformity (interactions with individuals who share similar world views). Regions are assumed to differ economically (average wages) and culturally (average world views and their diversity). The model shows that self-selection of inter-regional migrants on world views is non-monotonic if one region is more diverse than the other, and it weakens with economic gaps between regions. This non-monotonicity can lead to a dichotomy of outcomes: culturally diverse regions become even more diverse because of migration, while culturally homogeneous regions become even more homogeneous. Consequently, Tieboutian sorting (people moving to the region in which world views are closer to theirs) only holds when regions have similar wages and diversity of world views.
    Keywords: migration, self-selection, culture, diversity, Tiebout model
    JEL: A13 F22 J61 Z10
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Arnaud Chevalier; Benjamin Elsner; Andreas Lichter; Nico Pestel
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of immigration on public policy setting. We exploit the sudden arrival of eight million forced migrants in West Germany after WWII. These migrants were poorer than the local population but had full voting rights and were eligible for social welfare. We show that cities responded to this shock with selective tax raises and shifts in spending. Voting data suggests that these changes were partly driven by the immigrants’ political influence. We further document a strong persistence of the effect. The initial migration shock changed the preferences for redistribution of the following generations.
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Michele Battisti; Yvonne Giesing; Nadzeya Laurentsyeva
    Abstract: We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the impact of job-search assistance on the employment of recently arrived refugees in Germany. The treatment group received job-matching support: an NGO identified suitable vacancies and sent the refugees' CVs to employers. Results of follow-up phone surveys show a positive and significant treatment effect of 13 percentage points on employment after twelve months. These effects are concentrated among low-educated refugees and those facing uncertainty about their residence status. These individuals might not search effectively, lack access to alternative support programmes, and may be disregarded by employers due to perceived higher hiring costs.
    Keywords: refugees, labour market integration, job search assistance, field experiment
    JEL: E24 F22 J61 J68
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Stefan Jestl (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sebastian Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the contribution of immigration, trade and FDI to wage inequality of native workers in a sample of old and new EU Member States between 2008 and 2013. Methodologically, we use the regression-based Shapley value decomposition approach of Shorrocks (2013) to filter out their relative importance. We find that globalisation has very mixed effects and generally contributes little to wage inequality. Regarding their relative contributions, immigration and FDI are key contributors to wage inequality in old EU Member States, while trade is the key source of wage inequality in new EU Member States. For immigration, the associated increase in wage inequality is strongest and most consistent among Southern EU Member States. We also show that immigration, trade and FDI have different effects across the wage distribution that are however strongest at its centre. For trade and FDI, we also find sporadic inequality-reducing effects that are strongest at the top of the wage distribution.
    Keywords: wage inequality, trade, FDI, immigration, Shapley value decomposition
    JEL: J31 O15 F16
    Date: 2018–11
  5. By: Bertocchi, Graziella; Brunetti, Marianna; Zaiceva, Anzelika
    Abstract: Using rich Italian data for the period 2006-2014, we document sizeable gaps between native and immigrant households with respect to wealth holdings and financial decisions. Immigrant household heads hold less net wealth than native, but only above the median of the wealth distribution, with housing as the main driver. Immigrant status reduces the likelihood of holding risky assets, housing, mortgages, businesses, and valuables, while it increases the likelihood of financial fragility. Years since migration, countries of origin, and the pattern of intermarriage also matter. The Great Recession has worsened the condition of immigrants in terms of wealth holdings, home ownership, and financial fragility.
    Keywords: immigrants,household finance,wealth,financial portfolios,Great Recession
    JEL: F22 G11 D14 E21 J15
    Date: 2018
  6. By: Alberto Alesina (Department of Economics, Harvard University, IGIER Bocconi, NBER and CEPR); Michela Carlana (Harvard Kennedy School and IZA); Eliana La Ferrara (Department of Economics, IGIER and LEAP, Bocconi University); Paolo Pinotti (Department of Social and Political Sciences at Bocconi University, DONDENA, and Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti)
    Abstract: If individuals become aware of their stereotypes, do they change their behavior? We study this question in the context of teachers' bias in grading immigrants and native children in middle schools. Teachers give lower grades to immigrant students compared to natives who have the same performance on standardized, blindly-graded tests. We then relate differences in grading to teachers' stereotypes, elicited through an Implicit Association Test (IAT). We find that math teachers with stronger stereotypes give lower grades to immigrants compared to natives with the same performance. Literature teachers do not differentially grade immigrants based on their own stereotypes. Finally, we share teachers' own IAT score with them, randomizing the timing of disclosure around the date on which they assign term grades. All teachers informed of their stereotypes before term grading increase grades assigned to immigrants. Revealing stereotypes may be a powerful intervention to decrease discrimination, but it may also induce a reaction from individuals who were not acting in a biased way.
    Keywords: immigrants, teachers, implicit stereotypes, IAT, bias in grading
    JEL: I24 J15
    Date: 2018–11
  7. By: Stark, Oded; Byra, Łukasz
    Abstract: A country that experiences a shortage of workers with particular skills naturally considers two responses: import skills or produce them. Skill import may result in large-scale migration, which will not be to the liking of the natives. Skill production will require financial incentives, which will not be to the liking of the ministry of finance. In this paper we suggest a third response: impose a substantial migration admission fee, “import” fee-paying workers regardless of their skills, and use the revenue from the fee to subsidize the acquisition of the required skills by the natives. We calculate the minimal fee that will remedy the shortage of workers with particular skills with fewer migrants than under the skill “import” policy.
    Keywords: Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2018–11–19
  8. By: Michael Landesmann (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Two Forces of ‘Globalisation’ and Their Impact on Labour Markets in Western Europe 2005-2014 This paper investigates with a joint approach the impact of immigration and different measures of ‘offshoring’ on the labour demand and demand elasticities of native workers in four different occupational groups managers/professionals, clerks, craft workers and manual workers. It shows that of all measures of globalisation considered immigration has the most consistent and strongest negative effect on the employment of native workers, particularly on managers/professionals, clerks and manual workers. The employment effects of offshoring differ by the measure used and are positive for craft workers but, in contrast to what is typically found in the literature, negative for the high-skilled group of managers/professionals. Furthermore, immigration and offshoring both impact on natives’ labour demand elasticities but the effect differs by occupational group. Thus, while the immigration of craft workers reduces labour demand elasticities for native craft workers, the immigration of managers/professionals and clerks has the opposite effect on native workers in the same occupations. Furthermore, we test for cross effects of migration and outsourcing between the different occupational groups.
    Keywords: offshoring, immigration, labour demand, labour demand elasticity, occupations
    JEL: F16 F22
    Date: 2018–11
  9. By: Filiz Ruhm (Plymouth State University)
    Abstract: Syrian displacement began in late 2011 and intensified between 2013 and 2016. With this intensification, the media coverage and political discourse in the United States shifted dramatically to demonize refugees, associating them with terrorism, and touting their potential as a grave security threat to the country. As a candidate, Donald Trump called ?to stop the tremendous flow of Syrian refugees into the United States,? citing their numbers ?incorrectly- as reaching the ?tens of thousands.? Trump -repeatedly said that the U.S. government had little information about the Syrian refugees it accepted, asked for extreme vetting,? drawing a link between refugees and a mass murder perpetrated by an American killer. Later, President-elect Trump accused Syrian refugees of links to terrorism, declaring that they are ?definitely in many cases, ISIS-aligned.? All these contributed to normalizing xenophobic and anti-refugee rhetoric. After January 20th, 2017 the Trump administration?s March 6th Executive Order on immigration included a 120-day shutdown of the U.S. Refugee Resettlement program.Though refugees are among the world?s most powerless and marginalized groups, live in perilous legal and political limbo and mostly non-violent, this paper, based on social constructivist theoretical framework, will look into persecution of refugees by Alt-Right Activists in the U.S.
    Keywords: Refugee, activism, social constructivism
    Date: 2018–11
  10. By: Babatunde, R.O.
    Abstract: Migration cum remittances has become an important livelihood strategy among households in most developing countries. This is because it provides migrant households with remittances that are uncorrelated with agricultural income. It is estimated that there are about 232 million migrants worldwide today. Remittances sent back home by these migrants is believed to have a huge impact on the socioeconomic conditions of families left behind in the country of origin. In Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria is the highest receiver of remittances. However, despite the huge remittances flow into the country, malnutrition, poverty and food insecurity are still widespread in Nigeria. This paper examined the impact of remittances on food security and nutrition of farming households in Kwara State of Nigeria. Descriptive analysis indicates that, compared to non-receiving households, remittances receiving households are better off in terms of total income, assets, calorie supply, micronutrients supply, as well as, child nutritional status. Econometric analyses show that remittance income contributes to improved calorie supply at the household level, an aspect which has not been analyzed previously. Likewise, household income net of remittances increase calorie supply in a significant way, but the effect is twice larger than the effect of remittance income. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2018–07
  11. By: Davide Fiaschi; Cristina Tealdi
    Abstract: In this chapter we provide a descriptive analysis of inter-regional mobility in Italy for the period between 1992 and 2005. We use ISTAT data on the change of residence for groups of individuals according to age and education. We find evidence of two different types of migration. The first is the migration of working age individuals who respond to changes in economic conditions. The second is the return migration, which involves older cohorts of individuals, it is mainly driven by factors non-economic in nature and it is roughly constant over time. We also find that migration intensity generally increases over the period, but only for the first type of migration, while return migration, after a phase of stability, decreases in 2004 and 2005. Overall, the use of disaggregated data by age and education appears crucial for the correct identification of the determinants of migration.
    Keywords: migration types, change of residence, age and education groups
    Date: 2018–04–01
  12. By: Jennifer A. Holland; Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik; Lars Dommermuth (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: The family life courses of immigrants and their descendants, particularly intermarriage and the timing of marriage and childbearing, have been widely studied as indicators of societal integration. But largely absent are investigations into the role of cohabitation in the family lives of these subpopulations. Choosing cohabitation as first union may, for instance, signal secularization and less social control. Using Norwegian register data on all first co-residential unions entered 2006-2015 among individuals born 1980 or later (N=218,833 unions, 80.5% cohabitations), we consider associations between partner choice and subsequent partnership transitions. Around half of first unions including second-generation individuals were cohabitations, among which 88% were exogamous (i.e., partners originating from different countries or with a majority partner). These exogamous cohabiting couples were more dissolution-prone and less likely to marry than endogamous immigrant and second-generation cohabiting couples. Among second-generation couples who married directly, on the other hand, 79% were endogamous. These marriages were less likely to divorce than their first-generation counterparts.
    Keywords: First union; Partner choice; Marriage; Cohabitation; Union dissolution; Second generation; Immigrants
    JEL: J12 J13 J15
    Date: 2018–11

This nep-mig issue is ©2018 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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