nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2018‒07‒23
fourteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Gravity and Migration before Railways: Evidence from Parisian Prostitutes and Revolutionaries By Morgan Kelly; Cormac Ó Gráda
  2. Back to Square One - Socioeconomic Integration of Deported Migrants By Mariana-Anda David
  3. The long-term outcomes of refugees: tracking the progress of the East African Asians By Jake Anders; Simon Burgess; Jonathan Portes
  4. The Effects of Immigration in Developed Countries: Insights from Recent Economic Research By Anthony Edo; Lionel Ragot; Hillel Rapoport; Sulin Sardoschau; Andreas Steinmayr
  5. Short-term migration in rural India: The Impact of nature and extent of partcipation in agriculture By S. Chandrasekhar; Soham Sahoo
  6. Identifying the Factors Driving West African Migration By Matthew Kirwin; Jessica Anderson
  7. Growing Up in Ethnic Enclaves: Language Proficiency and Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children By Danzer, Alexander M.; Feuerbaum, Carsten; Piopiunik, Marc; Woessmann, Ludger
  8. A Care Convergence? Quantifying Wage Disparities for Migrant Care Workers Across Three Welfare Regimes By Naomi Lightman
  9. Immigration, Housing Rents, and Residential Segregation: Evidence from Syrian Refugees in Turkey By Balkan, Binnur; Tok, Elif Ozcan; Torun, Huzeyfe; Tumen, Semih
  10. Labor Supply Shocks and the Beveridge Curve. Empirical Evidence from Austria By Stefan Schiman
  11. Understanding the Social and Cultural Bases of Brexit By Tak Wing Chan; Morag Henderson; Maria Sironi; Juta Kawalerowicz
  12. Media Coverage and Immigration Worries: Econometric Evidence By Christine Benesch; Simon Loretz; David Stadelmann; Tobias Thomas
  13. The age of mass migration in Latin America By Blanca Sánchez-Alonso
  14. Where is the Destination? Understanding the Determinants of International Students’ Destination Choices upon Graduation in Ireland By Zizhen Wang; Philip J O'Connell

  1. By: Morgan Kelly (University College Dublin, CAGE and CEPR); Cormac Ó Gráda (University College Dublin and CAGE)
    Abstract: Although urban growth historically depended on large inflows of migrants, little is known of the process of migration in the era before railways. Here we use detailed data for Paris on women arrested for prostitution in the 1760s, or registered as prostitutes in the 1830s and 1850s; and of men holding identity cards in the 1790s, to examine patterns of female and male migration. We supplement these with data on all women and men buried in 1833. Migration was highest from areas of high living standards, measured by literacy rates. Distance was a strong deterrent to female migration (reflecting limited employment opportunities) that falls with railways, whereas its considerably lower impact on men barely changes through the nineteenth century.
    Keywords: Migration, gravity, prostitution.
    Date: 2018–06
  2. By: Mariana-Anda David (LEDa - DIAL - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Equipe Economie de la mondialisation et du développement - Université Paris-Dauphine, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD))
    Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of socioeconomic integration of forced return migrants, focusing on the Maghreb countries. Starting from the hypothesis that the return has to be prepared, we test whether adisruption in the migration cycle (such as deportation) increases the individual’s vulnerability and affects his integration from both a structural and sociocultural point of view, using the 2006 MIREM survey. We find that forced returnees are more vulnerable to negative labour market outcomescompared to voluntary returnees. The absence of forced returnees from the labour market, or their underperformances, creates a net loss for the origin country and also incentives to re-migrate. The negative effect is statistically significant not only immediately after return, but also in the long run, atsurvey time. Forced return is also significantly and negatively correlated with sociocultural integration, reflecting a marginalization of deported migrants in their home environment, which may act as a re-emigration incentive.
    Abstract: Dans ce papier j’analyse l’intégration socioéconomique des migrants qui sont forcés de rentrer dans leur pays d’origine, avec un focus sur les pays du Maghreb. Ayant comme point de départ l’hypothèse que le retour doit être préparé, je teste si une interruption dans le cycle migratoire (telle quel’expulsion) accroit la vulnérabilité des individus et impacte leur intégration, à la fois d’un point de vue structurel et socioculturel, en utilisant l’enquête MIREM. Les résultats montrent que les migrants expulsés sont plus vulnérables et réussissent moins bien sur le marché du travail dans le paysd’origine, par rapport aux migrants qui ont choisi volontairement de rentrer. L’exclusion des rapatriésforcés du marché du travail, ou leur situation précaire, représente une perte nette pour le pays d’origineet résulte en une plus forte incitation à ré-émigrer. L’effet négatif de l’expulsion sur les performances sur le marché du travail est statistiquement significatif juste après le retour, mais également à plus long terme, au moment de l’enquête. Le retour forcé est également significativement et négativement corrélé avec le degré d’intégration socioculturelle, reflétant une marginalisation des migrants expulsés dans leur environnement d’origine.
    Keywords: intégration socio-culturelle,Migration de retour,migration forcée,expulsion,marché du travail,Maghreb
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Jake Anders (University College London); Simon Burgess (University of Bristol); Jonathan Portes (King's College London)
    Abstract: Refugees are often perceived as an economic "burden", as the current debate on the European refugee crisis illustrates. But there is little quantitative evidence on the medium-term outcomes of refugees in the UK. We fill this gap by looking at the case of "East African Asians" who arrived as refugees in the late 1960s and early 1970s. We use data from the UK Census to describe their economic outcomes forty years later. We show that their outcomes are at least as good as the population average, with the younger cohort performing better. Refugee status, as distinct from ethnicity or immigrant status, appears to have a positive impact.
    Keywords: Migration, Refugees, East African Asians
    JEL: J15
    Date: 2018–06–01
  4. By: Anthony Edo; Lionel Ragot; Hillel Rapoport; Sulin Sardoschau; Andreas Steinmayr
    Abstract: Immigrants currently account for 3.3% of the world’s population. We know that migration is demographically important, but what are its implications for the labour market, public finance and political landscape? To answer these questions, this report draws on recent literature on the economic and cultural effects of immigration on host societies, with a focus on evidence for European countries. Although the average effects of immigration on labour markets and public finance are marginal, immigration can create winners and losers in the native workforce. By affecting the skill composition of receiving economies, an immigration-induced increase in the labour supply can impact wage dispersion in host countries. It is cultural concerns, however, that tend to fuel scepticism towards immigration, with fiscal or labour market playing only a secondary role. A deeper understanding of these concerns is a precondition for designing policies that foster a positive atmosphere and combat negative attitudes towards immigrants and extreme voting.
    Date: 2018
  5. By: S. Chandrasekhar (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Soham Sahoo (Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore)
    Abstract: We analyse a nationally representative data set from India for the year 2013 in order to provide evidence on how short term migration is affected by household's ownership of land, and participation in agricultural activities. We estimate a recursive bivariate probit model recognizing the simultaneity between short term migration and decision to operate land. The results of the likelihood ratio test imply that it would be incorrect to ignore this simultaneity. Households with less than 1 hectare of land and those leasing out land are more likely to have a short term migrant (STM). Households leaving their land fallow, a common occurrence in south Asia, are more likely to have a STM. Moreover, choice of crops and livestock farming has a significant role to play in migration decision. Current initiatives to increase coverage of irrigation and facilitating access to formal finance could improve livelihoods of small and marginal farmers thereby reducing the probability of distress short-term migration.
    Keywords: Short term migrants; Small-marginal farmers; Agricultural households; Mobility; Asia; India
    JEL: O1 R2
    Date: 2018–06
  6. By: Matthew Kirwin (US Department of State); Jessica Anderson (Institute for the Study of International Migration)
    Abstract: Since 2014 over 600 000 African migrants have arrived in Italy through the perilous Central Mediterranean route, and nearly 120 000 arrived in 2017. This paper is the first examination of migration motivations at the individual level using nationally representative surveys and focus group data collected in West Africa. Respondents in six West African countries cite economic factors as the reason for migrating and those who wish to stay claim family and love of country as the ties that bind. The study then specifically focuses on Nigeria, the country of origin for a quarter of all Africans traveling through the Central Mediterranean route. Half of the Nigerians were interested in leaving their country of origin if given the opportunity, well above the number in neighbouring countries. Evidence from the six-country survey suggests individuals are migrating for economic reasons but statistical analysis of the Nigeria data reveals a different set of push factors behind the desire to migrate. In fact, economic standing has a limited effect on Nigerians’ desire to leave their home. Instead, individual perceptions of the strength of Nigeria’s democracy are most strongly associated with Nigerians’ desire to migrate abroad, in addition to low levels of trust in local security institutions. Urban and more highly educated Nigerians, especially from Lagos, are also more likely to want to migrate abroad. These findings shed new light on domestic policy steps that could address the grievances and concerns of those who seek to migrate.
    Keywords: migrants, migration, Nigeria, smuggling, West Africa
    JEL: J11 O15 O20 R23
    Date: 2018–07–17
  7. By: Danzer, Alexander M. (Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt); Feuerbaum, Carsten (Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt); Piopiunik, Marc (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Woessmann, Ludger (Ifo Institute for Economic Research)
    Abstract: Does a high regional concentration of immigrants of the same ethnicity affect immigrant children’s acquisition of host-country language skills and educational attainment? We exploit the exogenous placement of guest workers from five ethnicities across German regions during the 1960s and 1970s in a model with region and ethnicity fixed effects. Our results indicate that exposure to a higher own-ethnic concentration impairs immigrant children’s host-country language proficiency and increases school dropout. A key mediating factor for this effect is parents’ lower speaking proficiency in the host-country language, whereas inter-ethnic contacts with natives and economic conditions do not play a role.
    Keywords: immigrant children, ethnic concentration, language, education, guest workers
    JEL: J15 I20 R23 J61
    Date: 2018–06
  8. By: Naomi Lightman
    Abstract: Social policy literature is divided on the ongoing relevance of welfare regime typologies given considerable heterogeneity within as well as between categories. Using 2010 Luxembourg Income Study data, this study disaggregates high and low status paid care work, quantifying any associate wage bonus or wage penalty, across three welfare regimes – liberal, conservative, and social democratic. In the majority of case study countries, immigrants are less likely to work in high status care than non-immigrants with equivalent human capital, suggesting access barriers to professional jobs in health, education and social work. The reverse pattern is evidenced in the case of low status service and sales work in care, demonstrating convergence across welfare regimes. However, there is also significant wage variation within care work. Pooled country models demonstrate a consistent wage bonus for high status care work, while regime type has a moderating effect in the case of low status care work, independent of immigrant status. A care wage penalty is found for both immigrants and non-immigrants working in low status care in liberal and conservative states, but no such penalty is found in the case of social democratic regimes.
    Keywords: -social policy, welfare regimes, work, immigration
    Date: 2018–06
  9. By: Balkan, Binnur (Central Bank of Turkey); Tok, Elif Ozcan (Central Bank of Turkey); Torun, Huzeyfe (Central Bank of Turkey); Tumen, Semih (TED University)
    Abstract: The massive inflow of Syrian refugees is argued to drastically affect various social and economic outcomes in the hosting countries and regions. In this paper, we use micro-level data to investigate whether the Syrian refugee inflows have affected the market for housing rentals in Turkey. The unexpected arrival of a large number of refugees due to civil conflict in Syria is used to construct a quasi-experimental design. Since the construction of new housing units takes a long time, refugee inflow resembles a positive demand shock to the sector. We find that the refugee inflows have led to an increase in the rents of higher-quality housing units, while there is no statistically significant effect in the rents of lower-quality units. This finding supports a residential segregation story, which suggests that the refugee wave has increased the demand for native-dominant neighborhoods with better amenities especially among natives. We argue that negative attitudes towards refugees – potentially due to refugee-native conflict along several dimensions – may be generating this result.
    Keywords: Syrian refugees, immigration, housing rents, quasi-experimental design, Turkey
    JEL: C21 F22 R21 R23
    Date: 2018–06
  10. By: Stefan Schiman (WIFO)
    Abstract: Austria's Beveridge Curve has shifted markedly outwards since labor market access for Eastern European neighbors was liberalized in 2011. I quantify the effects of labor supply shocks by means of a structural VAR with sign restrictions, distinguish domestic-worker from foreign-worker shocks and find that the latter contributed considerably to the counter-clockwise outward movement. On impact, the arrival of additional job seekers facilitates matching but it lowers the chance for existing job seekers to be matched, raising employment and unemployment simultaneously. In the medium run vacancies increase, the employment surge accelerates and unemployment declines. Labor supply shocks caused by foreigners have an unambiguous and positive effect on domestic employment in the long run, indicating complementarity between foreign and domestic labor. On a regional level Vienna, the capital in the east of the country, was most heavily exposed to the recent labor immigration boom.
    Keywords: labour supply shocks, Beveridge Curve, job-related immigration, sign restrictions, structural VAR
    Date: 2018–07–19
  11. By: Tak Wing Chan (Department of Social Science, UCL Institute of Education); Morag Henderson (Department of Social Science, UCL Institute of Education); Maria Sironi (Department of Social Science, UCL Institute of Education); Juta Kawalerowicz (Linkoping University)
    Abstract: We use data from a large scale and nationally representative survey to explore the social and cultural bases of Brexit. There are strong age and educational gradients in Brexit support. Net of individual characteristics, regional differences within England become insignificant. In fact, once local level of immigration is taken into account, people living in the English regions are less pro-Leave than Londoners. It is social status, not social class, which predicts Brexit support. Economic deprivation does not predict Brexit attitude. Individuals living in areas with a higher concentration of migrants are actually less pro-Brexit. But recent increase in immigration level has the opposite association. Individuals for whom being British is important are more likely to support Leave. But those who choose national identity over sub-national identity and those reporting omnivorous cultural consumption are less supportive of Brexit. Those who live in the county in which they were born are more pro-Leave, but those who have stronger ties with their neighbours and neighbourhood, and those who are more involved in civic associations are pro-Remain. Overall, our results do not support the 'left-behind' narrative of Brexit. Instead, we show a strong cultural dimension in Brexit support.
    Date: 2017–12–19
  12. By: Christine Benesch; Simon Loretz; David Stadelmann; Tobias Thomas
    Abstract: This paper empirically explores the link between mass media coverage of migration and immigration worries. Using detailed data on media coverage in Germany, we show that the amount of media reports regarding migration issues is positively associated with concerns about immigration among the German population. The association is robust to the inclusion of time-variant individual control variables and individual fixed-effects. We employ media spillovers from the neighboring country of Switzerland, which occur due to referendum decisions on immigration as an instrumental variable to address endogeneity concerns. The IV estimates suggest that media coverage has a causal impact on immigration worries. Exploring heterogeneous effects between respondents, the results reveal that the link between media reports and immigration worries is particularly relevant for women and respondents active in the workforce.
    Keywords: media, migration, news spillovers, political attitudes
    JEL: L8 D7 F2
    Date: 2018
  13. By: Blanca Sánchez-Alonso (Dept. of Economics, Universidad CEU-San Pablo, Madrid)
    Abstract: The experiences of Latin American countries are not fully incorporated into current debates concerning the age of mass migration even though 13 million Europeans migrated to the region between 1870 and 1930. This paper draws together different aspects of the Latin America immigration experience. Its main objective is to rethink the role of European migration to the region, addressing several major questions in the economics of migration: whether immigrants were positively selected from their sending countries, how immigrants assimilated into the host economies, the role of immigration policies, and the long-run effects of immigration. Immigrants came from the economically backward areas of Southern and Eastern Europe, yet their adjustment to the host labour markets in Latin America seems to have been successful. The possibility of rapid social upgrading made Latin America attractive for European immigrants. Migrants were positively selected from origin according to literacy. The most revealing aspect of new research is showing the positive long-run effects that European immigrants had in Latin American countries. The political economy of immigration policies deserves new research, particularly for Brazil and Cuba. The case of Argentina shows a more complex scenario than the classic representation of landowners constantly supporting an open-door policy.
    Keywords: Historical migration, Latin America, Immigrants’ selection, Socioeconomic impact.
    JEL: N36 O15 J61
    Date: 2018–07
  14. By: Zizhen Wang (School of Social Policy, Social Work and Social Justice & Geary Institute for Public Policy, University College Dublin, Ireland); Philip J O'Connell (School of Social Policy, Social Work and Social Justice & Geary Institute for Public Policy, University College Dublin, Ireland)
    Abstract: This study investigates the extent to which human capital and social capital may influence the likelihood of staying abroad or returning home upon graduation for international students in Ireland. The number of students from developing countries who migrate to pursue a tertiary degree in developed countries is notably high in recent years. Their choices of staying in the west or returning home upon graduation have strong impacts both on their personal career chances as well as on the economic prospects of both host and home countries. Instead of surveying among on-campus students, a survey was carried out during October 2017 to February 2018 among international alumni of Irish universities in order to collect information about their first-job location upon graduation. The main findings include: (1) human capital, especially degree major and language ability, is positively associated with the likelihood of staying abroad, (2) bridging social capital, especially bridging ties embedded with resources, is positively associated with the likelihood of staying abroad, while bonding social capital has no significant effect.
    Keywords: international students; migration choices; human capital; social capital, Ireland.
    Date: 2018–07–08

This nep-mig issue is ©2018 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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