nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2018‒04‒09
fifteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Dynamic Refugee Matching By Andersson, Tommy; Ehlers, Lars; Martinello, Alessandro
  2. Individual Social Capital and Migration By Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Rupasingha, Anil
  3. Social Capital, Migration, and Social Integration By Mai Le Thi
  4. Toxic Emissions and Executive Migration By Ross Levine; Chen Lin; Zigan Wang
  5. Global Migration in the 20th and 21st Centuries: the Unstoppable Force of Demography By Thu Dao; Frédéric Docquier; Mathilde Maurel; Pierre Schaus
  6. Deprivation, Segregation, and Socioeconomic Class of UK Immigrants: Does English Proficiency Matter? By Aoki, Yu; Santiago, Lualhati
  7. The Effect of Attitudes toward Migrants on Migrant Skill Composition By Besart Avdiu
  8. The tale of two international phenomena: International migration and global imbalances By Dramane Coulibaly; Blaise Gnimassoun; Valérie Mignon
  9. Socioeconomic Integration of U.S. Immigrant Groups over the Long Term: The Second Generation and Beyond By Brian Duncan; Stephen J. Trejo
  10. Costs and Benets of Seasonal Migration : Evidence from India By Imbert, Clément; Papp, John
  11. Trends in African Migration to Europe: Drivers Beyond Economic Motivations By Giménez Gómez, José M. (José Manuel); Walle, Yabibal M.; Zergawu, Yitagesu Zewdu
  12. Immigrants and Entrepreneurship: a Road for Talent or Just the Only Road? By Iranzo Sancho, Susana
  13. Trade and Migration: A Quantitative Assessment By Luca David Opromolla; Fernando Parro; Alessandro Sforza; Lorenzo Caliendo
  14. Dismantling the "Jungle": Migrant Relocation and Extreme Voting in France By Paul Vertier; Max Viskanic
  15. Calculating the net benefi t of admitting immigrants under the de fined-return-ratio pay-as-you-go pension system By Jinno, Masatoshi

  1. By: Andersson, Tommy (Department of Economics, Lund University); Ehlers, Lars (Département de sciences économiques, Université de Montréal); Martinello, Alessandro (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: Asylum seekers are often assigned to a locality in their host country directly upon arrival based on some type of uninformed dynamic matching system which does not take the background of the asylum seekers into consideration. This paper proposes an informed, intuitive, easy-to-implement and computationally efficient dynamic mechanism for matching asylum seekers to localities. This mechanism can be adopted in any dynamic refugee matching problem given locality-specific quotas and that asylum seekers can be classified into specific types. We demonstrate that any matching selected by the proposed mechanism is Pareto efficient and that envy between localities is bounded by a single asylum seeker. Via simulation, we evaluate the performance of the proposed mechanism in settings that resemble the US and the Swedish situations, and show that our mechanism outperforms uninformed mechanisms even in presence of severe misclassification error in the estimation of asylum seeker types.
    Keywords: forced migration; market design; refugee matching; dynamics; envy; efficiency
    JEL: C71 C78 D71 D78 F22
    Date: 2018–03–27
  2. By: Hotchkiss, Julie L. (Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta); Rupasingha, Anil (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
    Abstract: This paper determines how individual, relative to community, social capital affects individual migration decisions. We make use of nonpublic data from the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey to predict multidimensional social capital for observations in the Current Population Survey. We find evidence that individuals are much less likely to have moved to a community with average social capital levels lower than their own and that higher levels of community social capital act as positive pull-factor amenities. The importance of that amenity differs across urban/rural locations. We also confirm that higher individual social capital is a negative predictor of migration.
    Keywords: social capital; migration; Current Population Survey; amenities; nonpublic data; factor analysis
    JEL: C36 C38 D71 R23
    Date: 2018–03–01
  3. By: Mai Le Thi (Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam)
    Abstract: Objective –This paper focuses on exploring the ways in which social capital is utilised to promote the integration of Vietnamese women who married Taiwanese husbands into host families and the host. Methodology/Technique – Data was derived from a case study undertaken in 2014 on the Penghu Islands and in Taipei, Taiwan, with interviews and the observation of 31 people including Vietnamese women who married Taiwanese husbands, local people. Findings – Findings reveal the values and norms of responsibility of Vietnamese women in family that were educated themselves, have been practiced effectively by Vietnamese women married to Taiwanese husbands to integrate into their families. Research limitations/implications - The regulations and legal environment for immigrants have created favourable conditions for their integration into the host families. Traditional Vietnamese cooking skills are chosen by many Vietnamese women as a kind of social capital for their access to the Taiwanese job market. The social integration is reflected through social-economic, culture integration, and citizenship. Originality/value - It is hoped that study results will serve as the useful scientific basis for developing policies that promote the social integration of immigrants for the development of individuals and the social community.
    Keywords: Social Capital; Social Integration; Migration Marriage.
    JEL: O30 O39
  4. By: Ross Levine; Chen Lin; Zigan Wang
    Abstract: We study the impact of toxic emissions on the migration of corporate executives. We link data on the opening of industrial plants emitting toxic air pollutants with information on the career paths of executives at all S&P 1500 firms over the 1996-2014 period. We find that (1) the opening of toxic emitting plants increases the rate at which executives leave geographically close firms and move to firms in less polluted areas, (2) stock returns fall when these “treated” executives announce their departures, and (3) the replacement executives have less experience than the departing executives.
    JEL: G3 J61 J63 Q5 R32
    Date: 2018–03
  5. By: Thu Dao (UCL IRES - Institut de recherches économiques et sociales - UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain, University of Bielefeld); Frédéric Docquier (UCL IRES - Institut de recherches économiques et sociales - UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain, FNRS - Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique [Bruxelles], FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International); Mathilde Maurel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International); Pierre Schaus (UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: This paper sheds light on the global migration patterns of the past 40 years, and produces migration projections for the 21st century, for two skill groups, and for all relevant pairs of countries. To do this, we build a simple model of the world economy, and we parameterize it to match the economic and socio-demographic characteristics of the world in the year 2010. We conduct a backcasting exercise which demonstrates that our model fits the past trends in international migration very well, and that historical trends were mostly governed by demographic changes. We then describe a set of migration projections for the 21st century. In line with backcasts, our world migration prospects and emigration rates from developing countries are mainly governed by socio-demographic changes: they are virtually insensitive to the technological environment. As far as OECD countries are concerned, we predict a highly robust increase in immigration pressures in general (from 12 in 2010 to 17-19% in 2050 and 25-28%in 2100), and in European immigration in particular (from 15% in 2010 to 23-25% in 2050 and 36-39% in 2100). Using development policies to curb these pressures requires triggering unprecedented economic takeoffs in migrants countries of origin. Increasing migration is therefore a likely phenomenon for the 21st century, and this raises societal and political challenges for most industrialized countries.
    Keywords: international migration,migration prospects,world economy,inequality
    Date: 2018–03–26
  6. By: Aoki, Yu (University of Aberdeen); Santiago, Lualhati (Office for National Statistics, UK)
    Abstract: This paper studies the causal effect of English proficiency on residential location outcomes and the socioeconomic class of immigrants in England and Wales, exploiting a natural experiment. Based on the phenomenon that young children learn a new language more easily than older children, we construct an instrument for English proficiency using age at arrival in the United Kingdom. Taking advantage of a unique dataset, we measure the extent of residential segregation along different dimensions, and find that poor English skills lead immigrants to live in areas with a high concentration of people who speak their same native language, but not necessarily in areas with a high concentration of people of their same ethnicity or country of birth. This finding could suggest that, for immigrants with poor English proficiency, what matters for their residential location decision is language spoken by residents, as opposed to ethnicity or country of birth. We also find that language skills have an impact on the occupation-based socioeconomic class of immigrants: Poor English skills reduce the likelihood of being in the occupation-based class 'higher managerial and professional' and increase that of being in the class 'self-employment'.
    Keywords: language skills, deprivation, residential segregation, socioeconomic class
    JEL: J15 J61 R23 Z13
    Date: 2018–02
  7. By: Besart Avdiu
    Abstract: I investigate the effect of attitudes toward migrants on the average skill composition of immigrants in destination countries. A model is presented showing that negative attitudes toward migrants can reduce the average skill composition. The intuition for the result is that the highly skilled are more mobile and hence more sensitive to negative attitudes. To test the hypothesis, I use survey data on attitudes toward migrants as well as data on migrant stocks by education level and origin country. The empirical analysis is based on two classes of theoretical models and I find consistent evidence for the hypothesis that more positive attitudes increase the skill composition of immigrants. The results imply that general attitudes toward migrants can be relevant for policies seeking to attract highly skilled migrants.
    Keywords: international migration, high-skilled immigration, immigration attitudes
    JEL: F22 J15 J61
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Dramane Coulibaly; Blaise Gnimassoun; Valérie Mignon
    Abstract: Following the dynamics of globalization, international migration has increased dramatically since the 1990s. Given that these migrations may obscure the natural demographic structure of nations, they are likely to explain a signifcant part of global imbalances. This paper tackles this issue by investigating the role played by international migration in the dynamics of global imbalances. To this end, we rely on an overlapping generations model to derive the theoretical relationship between international migration and current account position. Through a series of robust estimates, we empirically investigate this relationship by relying on a panel of 157 developed and developing countries over the period 1990-2014. Our results point to substantial effects of international migration. Specifcally, we show that an increase in migration improves national savings and the current account balance in the destination country, while it has opposite impacts in the origin country. These effects are particularly pronounced in developing economies, and attenuated by migrants' remittances.
    Keywords: International Migration;Current Account;Global Imbalances;Remittances
    JEL: F22 F32 O55 C33
    Date: 2018–03
  9. By: Brian Duncan; Stephen J. Trejo
    Abstract: In this chapter, we document generational patterns of educational attainment and earnings for contemporary immigrant groups. We also discuss some potentially serious measurement issues that arise when attempting to track the socioeconomic progress of the later-generation descendants of U.S. immigrants, and we summarize what recent research has to say about these measurement issues and how they might bias our assessment of the long-term integration of particular groups. Most national origin groups arrive with relatively high educational attainment and/or experience enough improvement between the first and second generations such that they quickly meet or exceed, on average, the schooling level of the typical American. Several large and important Hispanic groups (including Mexicans and Puerto Ricans) are exceptions to this pattern, however, and their prospects for future upward mobility are subject to much debate. Because of measurement issues and data limitations, Mexican Americans in particular and Hispanic Americans in general probably have experienced significantly more socioeconomic progress beyond the second generation than available data indicate. Even so, it may take longer for their descendants to integrate fully into the American mainstream than it did for the descendants of the European immigrants who arrived near the turn of the twentieth century.
    JEL: J61 J62
    Date: 2018–03
  10. By: Imbert, Clément (University of Warwick,DepartmentofEconomics); Papp, John (R.I.C.E)
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on rural-to-urban migration decisions in developing countries. Using original survey data from rural India, we show that employment provision on local public works signicantly reduces seasonal migration. Workers who choose to participate in the program forgo much higher earnings outside of the village. Structural estimates imply that the utility cost of one day away may be as high as 60% of migration earnings. Up to half of this cost can be explained by higher living costs and income risk. The other half likely reects high non-monetary costs from living and working in the city.
    Keywords: Internal Migration ; Workfare Programs ; India ; Urban ; Rural
    JEL: H53 J22 J61 O15 R23
    Date: 2018
  11. By: Giménez Gómez, José M. (José Manuel); Walle, Yabibal M.; Zergawu, Yitagesu Zewdu
    Abstract: The current migration and refugee crisis in Europe requires an understanding of the different migration drivers beyond the well-known economic determinants. In this paper, we view migration from a broader human security perspective and analyze the determinants of regular and irregular migration flows from Africa to Europe for the period 1990-2014. Our results show that, in addition to economic determinants, a combination of push and pull factors influence the migration decisions of individuals. In particular, rising political persecution, ethnic cleansing, human rights violations, political instability and civil conflicts in African source countries are all signi cantly associated with increased migration flows into European destination countries. Therefore, our results underscore the need for the EU and European countries to collaborate with the source countries, not only in terms of supporting economic development in the source countries, but also in promoting human security: human rights, democracy, peace and social stability. Keywords: International migration; asylum seeker; refugee crisis; human security; Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood. JEL classi fication: F22; O15
    Keywords: Migracions de pobles -- Àfrica, 32 - Política,
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Iranzo Sancho, Susana
    Abstract: Casual evidence for some developed countries suggests that most talented migrants become entrepreneurs (positive sorting), but entrepreneurship might also be chosen by less talented migrants who have fewer opportunities in the labour market of the destination countries (negative sorting). Building upon Lucas (1978), we develop a theoretical framework to analyze the different mechanisms at play that draw migrants into entrepreneurship. The model can explain the selection into self-employment of both highskilled and less skilled migrants. We test the model predictions on a rich survey dataset of immigrants in Spain for 2006-2007. Our findings reject a U-shaped relationship between immigrants.skills and self-employment for the Spanish case and instead points to positive sorting into entrepreneurship. Self-employed migrants tend to have (statistically significant) better observable characteristics than salaried workers. However, non-market mechanisms, that is, penalties in the labour market beyond the mere human capital losses than migrants experience upon arrival, are also consistent with the relatively higher probability of self-employment and the lower entrepreneurial quality of certain migrant groups.
    Keywords: Treballadors estrangers -- Espanya, Emprenedoria -- Espanya, 331 - Treball. Relacions laborals. Ocupació. Organització del treball,
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Luca David Opromolla (Banco de Portugal); Fernando Parro (Johns Hopkins University); Alessandro Sforza (LSE); Lorenzo Caliendo (Yale University)
    Abstract: We present a dynamic model of international migration and trade and use the model to quantify the trade, migration, and welfare effects of actual changes in migration and trade policy. Using the EU labor force survey for 23 countries we measure the flow of workers by nationality across countries before and after the EU 2004 enlargement. We exploit the timing variation of the migration policy to measure the change in migration costs. We then use our model to quantify the gains from the actual reductions in tariff and migration restrictions. We find that the gains from trade and migration are quite different. While all countries gain from trade, new member states (NMS) gain from international migration while not all EU countries gain. We show how the results depend crucially on the extent to which the migrants congest the use of local public services and factors. Our results shades new light to the study of the policy implications of migration and trade policy reforms.
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Paul Vertier; Max Viskanic
    Abstract: Can a small scale inflow of migrants affect electoral outcomes? We study whether the relocation of migrants from the Calais “Jungle” to temporary migrant-centers (CAOs) in France affected the results of the 2017 presidential election. Using an instrumental variables approach that relies on the size of holiday villages present in municipalities, we find that the presence of a CAO reduced the vote share increase of the far-right party (Front National) by about 15.7 percent. These effects, which dissipate spatially and depend on city characteristics and on the size of the inflow, point towards the contact hypothesis (Allport (1954)).
    Keywords: political economy, voting, migration, EU, France, migrants
    JEL: C36 D72 J15 P16 R23
    Date: 2018
  15. By: Jinno, Masatoshi
    Abstract: This paper calculates the net benefit of admitting immigrants under the defined-return-ratio pay-as-you-go pension system, considering the assimilation costs the next generation whose parents are from abroad must pay as additional costs. As a result, no matter how many immigrants come, the host country can get the positive net benefits through the defined-return-ratio pension system. This result is quietly different from those in Jinno (2011, 2013).
    Keywords: Immigrants, the defined-return-ratio pension system, the net benefits.
    JEL: H55 J15 J61
    Date: 2018–03–04

This nep-mig issue is ©2018 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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