nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2018‒02‒26
twenty-six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Skilled Migration Policy and the Labour Market Performance of Immigrants By Tani, Massimiliano
  2. Invisible, successful, and divided: Vietnamese in Germany since the late 1970s By Frank Bösch; Phi Hong Su
  3. Understanding the Effects of Legalizing Undocumented Immigrants By Joan Monras; Javier Vázquez-Grenno; Ferran Elias
  4. China's "Great Migration": The Impact of the Reduction in Trade Policy Uncertainty By Facchini, Giovanni; Liu, Maggie Y.; Mayda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Minghai
  5. Imputation Match Bias in Immigrant Wage Convergence By Hersch, Joni; Shinall, Jennifer Bennett
  6. Shift-Share Instruments and the Impact of Immigration By Jaeger, David A.; Ruist, Joakim; Stuhler, Jan
  7. Religious roles in refugee resettlement: Pertinent experience and insights, addressed to G20 members By Marshall, Katherine; Casey, Shaun; Fitzgibbon, Attalah; Karam, Azza M.; Lyck-Bowen, Majbritt; Nitschke, Ulrich; Owen, Mark; Phiri, Isabel Apawo; Quatrucci, Alberto; Soetendorp, Rabbi Awraham; Vitillo, Robert J.; Wilson, Erin
  8. Women and Migration By Antman, Francisca M.
  9. Child Labor and the Arrival of Refugees: Evidence from Tanzania By Kofol, Chiara; Naghsh Nejad, Maryam
  10. Mental health assimilation of Australian immigrants By Janisch, Laura M.
  11. Immigration into Prejudiced Societies: Segregation and Echo Chambers effects By Levy, Gilat; Razin, Ronny
  12. "Brain gain" on Wikipedia: Immigrants return knowledge home By Slivko, Olga
  13. Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Diasporas and Exports By Bratti, Massimiliano; De Benedictis, Luca; Santoni, Gianluca
  14. Israel's Immigration Story: Winners and Losers By Razin, Assaf
  15. The intergenerational transmission of gender role attitudes: Evidence from immigrant mothers-in-law By Bredtmann, Julia; Höckel, Lisa Sofie; Otten, Sebastian
  16. Unity in Diversity? How Intergroup Contact Can Foster Nation Building By Samuel Bazzi; Arya Gaduh; Alexander Rothenberg; Maisy Wong
  17. Involuntary migration, context of reception, and social mobility: The case of Vietnamese refugee resettlement in the United States By Carl L. Bankston III; Min Zhou
  18. The tale of two international phenomena: International migration and global imbalances. By Dramane Coulibaly; Blaise Gnimassoun; Valérie Mignon
  19. Can digital technologies help reduce the immigrant-native educational achievement gap? By Margarida Rodrigues
  20. The Economic and Social Determinants of Migrants' Well-Being during the Global Financial Crisis By Danzer, Alexander M.; Dietz, Barbara
  21. Agricultural Productivity Shocks, Labor Reallocation, and Rural-Urban Migration in China By Luigi Minale
  22. South-South labour migration and the impact of the informal China-Ghana gold rush 2008–13 By Gabriel Botchwey; Gordon Crawford; Nicholas Loubere; Jixia Lu
  23. Making Big Decisions: The Impact of Moves on Marriage among U.S. Army Personnel By Payne Carter, Susan; Wozniak, Abigail
  24. Regional Integration: Do intra-African trade and migration improve income in Africa? By Blaise Gnimassoun
  25. The Diaspora and Economic Development in Africa. By Blaise Gnimassoun; John C. Anyanwu
  26. Job Market Outcomes of IDPs: The Case of Georgia By Torosyan, Karine; Pignatti, Norberto; Obrizan, Maksym

  1. By: Tani, Massimiliano (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: This paper studies whether migration policy, besides managing a country's population size, is a suitable tool to influence immigrants' labour market outcomes. To do so, it uses a migration policy change that occurred in Australia in the late 1990s and data collected by the Longitudinal Survey of Migrants to Australia. The statistical techniques employed in the empirical analysis consistently reveal that the policy change has no detectable impact on the employment rate, wages, over-education, occupational downgrading, and (self-reported) use of skills for male immigrants, who account for about 75% of the sample, while they have a modest short-term positive impact on female immigrants. These results support the view that migration policy is an ineffective policy tool to influence migrants' labour market outcomes. However, the economic relevance of making an effective use of migrants' skills provides scope for close coordination between immigration and employment policy to ensure that efforts in attracting foreign talent are not dissipated by labour market frictions and other inefficiencies.
    Keywords: skilled immigration, labour market, over-education, immigration policy
    JEL: J15 J24
    Date: 2017–12
  2. By: Frank Bösch; Phi Hong Su
    Abstract: Until the 1970s, only 1000 Vietnamese lived in West and East Germany, most of them international students. West Germany, in particular, had not yet been confronted with non-European refugees. This changed after 1978 with the influx of around 35,000 “boat people” from Viet Nam and other countries in South East Asia, who arrived as part of a contingent quota admission. Their entry led to new strategies for integration, including obligatory language classes and a host of measures resembling those in other countries of refugee resettlement. Yet, the German case differs from other countries because of the simultaneous arrival of non-refugee Vietnamese, who came on temporary labour contracts to socialist East Germany starting in 1980. These two migration streams would converge when Germany reunified in 1990. Drawing on mixed qualitative methods, this paper offers a strategic case for understanding factors that shaped the arrival and resettlement experiences of Vietnamese refugees and contract workers in Germany. By comparing two migration streams from the same country of origin that experienced varied contexts of reception (government, labour market, and ethnic community), we suggest that a context of reception need not be uniformly positive for immigrants and refugees to have an integration experience deemed successful.
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Joan Monras (CEMFI and CEPR); Javier Vázquez-Grenno (Universitat de Barcelona and IEB); Ferran Elias (University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the consequences of the legalization of around 600,000 immigrants by the unexpectedly elected Spanish government of Zapatero following the terrorist attacks of March 2004 (Garcia-Montalvo, 2011). Using detailed data from payroll-tax revenues, we estimate that each newly legalized immigrant increased local payroll-tax revenues by 4,189 euros on average. This estimate is only 55 percent of what we would have expected from the size of the influx of newly documented immigrants, which suggests that newly legalized immigrants probably earned lower wages than other workers and maybe affected the labor-market outcomes of those other workers. We estimate that the policy change deteriorated the labor-market outcomes of some low-skilled natives and immigrants and improved the outcomes of high-skilled natives and immigrants. This led some low-skilled immigrants to move away from high-immigrant locations. Correcting for internal migration and selection, we obtain that each newly legalized immigrant increased payroll-tax revenues by 4,801 euros, or 15 percent more than the estimates from local raw payroll-tax revenue data. This shows the importance of looking both at public revenue data and the labor market to understand the consequences of amnesty programs fully.
    Keywords: Immigration, undocumented immigrants, public policy evaluation
    JEL: F22 J31 J61 R11
    Date: 2018–02
  4. By: Facchini, Giovanni (University of Nottingham); Liu, Maggie Y. (Smith College); Mayda, Anna Maria (Georgetown University); Zhou, Minghai (University of Nottingham)
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of China's integration into the world economy on workers in the country and show that one important channel of impact has been internal migration. Specifically, we study the changes in internal migration rates triggered by the reduction in trade policy uncertainty faced by Chinese exporters in the U.S. This reduction is characterized by plausibly exogenous variation across sectors, which we use to construct a local measure of treatment, at the level of a Chinese prefecture, following Bartik (1991). This allows us to estimate a difference-in-difference empirical specification based on variation across Chinese prefectures before and after 2001. We find that prefectures facing the average decline in trade policy uncertainty experience an 18 percent increase in their internal in-migration rate – this result is driven by migrants who are "non-hukou", skilled, and in their prime working age. Finally, in those prefectures, working hours of "native" unskilled workers significantly increase – while the employment rates of neither native workers nor internal migrants change.
    Keywords: hukou, immigration, internal migration, trade policy uncertainty
    JEL: F22 J61 O15
    Date: 2018–01
  5. By: Hersch, Joni (Vanderbilt University); Shinall, Jennifer Bennett (Vanderbilt University)
    Abstract: Although immigrants to the United States earn less at entry than their native-born counterparts, an extensive literature finds that immigrants have faster earnings growth that results in rapid convergence to native-born earnings. However, recent evidence based on Census data indicates a slowdown in the rate of earnings assimilation. We find that the pace of immigrant wage convergence based on recent data may be understated in the literature due to the method used by the Census to impute missing information on earnings, which does not use immigration status as a match characteristic. Because both the share of immigrants in the workforce and earnings imputation rates have risen over time, imputation match bias for recent immigrants is more consequential than in earlier periods and may lead to an underestimate of the rate of immigrant wage convergence.
    Keywords: immigrant assimilation, imputation match bias
    JEL: J15 J31
    Date: 2018–01
  6. By: Jaeger, David A. (CUNY Graduate Center); Ruist, Joakim (University of Gothenburg); Stuhler, Jan (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: A large literature exploits geographic variation in the concentration of immigrants to identify their impact on a variety of outcomes. To address the endogeneity of immigrants' location choices, the most commonly-used instrument interacts national inflows by country of origin with immigrants' past geographic distribution. We present evidence that estimates based on this "shift-share" instrument conflate the short- and long-run responses to immigration shocks. If the spatial distribution of immigrant inflows is stable over time, the instrument is likely to be correlated with ongoing responses to previous supply shocks. Estimates based on the conventional shift-share instrument are therefore unlikely to identify the short-run causal effect. We propose a "multiple instrumentation" procedure that isolates the spatial variation arising from changes in the country-of-origin composition at the national level and permits us to estimate separately the short- and long-run effects. Our results are a cautionary tale for a large body of empirical work, not just on immigration, that rely on shift-share instruments for causal inference.
    Keywords: shift-share instrument, immigration, spatial correlation, past settlement instrument
    JEL: C36 J15 J21 J61
    Date: 2018–01
  7. By: Marshall, Katherine; Casey, Shaun; Fitzgibbon, Attalah; Karam, Azza M.; Lyck-Bowen, Majbritt; Nitschke, Ulrich; Owen, Mark; Phiri, Isabel Apawo; Quatrucci, Alberto; Soetendorp, Rabbi Awraham; Vitillo, Robert J.; Wilson, Erin
    Abstract: Religious entities play significant roles in the current forced migration crisis. These roles include innovative and experience based ideas to address flawed aspects of the humanitarian system, overall advocacy on behalf of refugees and migrants based on humanitarian and spiritual principles, direct action in refugee camps and communities, action in communities that refugees and migrants flee, and support for refugee integration in host countries, including explicit efforts to promote social cohesion and address trauma. Further, assumptions about religion and the religious identity of refugees and migrants play an influential role in societal and policy debates surrounding the crisis, particularly in relation to security and violent extremism. Broadly, however, religious factors and contributions are poorly understood and insufficiently taken into account by policy makers and in think tank analyses of these (among other) issues. In each area of measures to increase religious engagement, including understanding, harmonization and coordination of efforts, and support, could increase impact. G20 agendas and gatherings, as well as those of think tanks, can benefit from purposeful attention to these often neglected dimensions of a central global challenge.
    Keywords: refugees,resettlement,migration,sustainable development,religion,humanitarian values
    JEL: E61
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Antman, Francisca M. (University of Colorado, Boulder)
    Abstract: While scholars have long studied the economics of migration, increasing waves of international and regional migration around the world have placed greater focus on the varied impacts of migration in recent years. Critical to this line of research is an examination of the important role that women play in both sending and destination areas. This chapter addresses various aspects of the relationship between women and migration, including key ways in which non-migrant women are affected by migration, as well as how female migrants affect families and labor markets in both source and destination communities. Selection factors and determinants of female migration, as well as the gendered impacts of migrant networks, are also discussed.
    Keywords: migrant selection, women, left behind, gender, migration, networks
    JEL: F22 O15 R23 J16
    Date: 2018–01
  9. By: Kofol, Chiara (ZEF, University of Bonn); Naghsh Nejad, Maryam (IZA)
    Abstract: The impact of hosting refugees on child labor in host countries is unclear. This paper estimates both the short and the long term consequences of hosting refugees fleeing from the genocides of Rwanda and Burundi in the Kagera region of Tanzania between 1991 and 2004. The study uses longitudinal data from the Kagera Health and Development Survey. Using the exogenous nature of refugee settlement in Kagera due to geographic and logistical reasons, we find the causal impact of hosting refugees on child labor and children's schooling outcomes. The results suggest that the impact of hosting refugees on children living in Kagera decreases child labor in the short run (between 1991 and 1994), but increases it in the longer run (1991–2004). The results are heterogeneous across gender and age. The study aims at understanding the mechanisms behind the variation in child labor outcome due to the forced migration shock exploring various channels.
    Keywords: forced migration, child labor, school attendance, human capital
    JEL: J13 O15 R23
    Date: 2017–12
  10. By: Janisch, Laura M.
    Abstract: Mental diseases are a widespread phenomenon and trigger massive direct and indirect costs. Using Australian household survey data this study analyzes assimilation of immigrants' mental health over time. Therefore, this study contributes to the literature since previous literature has focused primarily on the assimilation of immigrants' physical health status. We find that the probability of suffering from poor mental health increases with time since migration. In addition, female immigrants display a 4 percentage points lower risk of suffering from poor mental health when entering the country. Furthermore, immigrants with English as mother tongue have a lower likelihood of suffering from poor mental health when compared to their counterparts with non-English mother tongues.
    Keywords: immigration,mental health,assimilation
    JEL: I14 J15 O15
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Levy, Gilat; Razin, Ronny
    Abstract: We analyze the dynamic short and long-run effects of immigration waves on attitudes towards immigrants and social cohesion. We consider a model in which both the home society and the immigrants have the same levels of cultural capacity for cooperation and mutual trust, but individuals in the home society have different degrees of prejudice about the culture of the immigrants. Prejudice is modelled as the beliefs of individuals in the home society about the immigrants' capacity for cooperation. We analyze social interactions in the presence of prejudice when individuals in the home society can segregate away from immigrants. We show that in societies with high levels of prejudice, segregation, by providing information about prejudice, can enhance cooperation in the short-term. However, when individuals learn and update their beliefs based on their experiences, segregation induces polarisation. Moreover, when individuals also socialise and exchange information in segregated communities, echo-chamber effects arise and imply that segregation reduces welfare and trust in society.
    Date: 2018–01
  12. By: Slivko, Olga
    Abstract: Economic literature acknowledges the impact of immigration on cross-border patenting and scientific publications. However, the role of immigration ows in the dissemination of knowledge in a broader sense is yet to be assessed. In this paper, I estimate the effect of immigration on the facilitation of online knowledge reagrding destination countries in the native languages of immigrants. To quantify online knowledge, I focus on one of the world's most viewed online knowledge platforms, Wikipedia. I combine data on immigration ows between the pairs of immigrants' origin and destination countries with contributions to Wikipedia describing the countries of immigrants' destinations in the languages spoken in immigrants' origin countries. I specifically focus on knowledge domains describing science and culture. In order to draw a causal inference, I use shocks to immigration due to economic and political crises as exogenous shocks to Wikipedia content and analyze subsequent changes in the contributions to Wikipedia. An increase in immigration yields more knowledge contributed to Wikipedia about science and culture in destination countries in the native languages of the origin countries. Interestingly, the increase in contributions is driven by anonymous contributors. In the Wikipedia community, these are considered occasional contributors who care personally about the topics they contribute to. The increase in content generated anonymously is driven by longer contributions.
    Keywords: Immigration,Knowledge dissemination,Online knowledge,Wikipedia
    JEL: L17 O15 O33 H41 L86
    Date: 2018
  13. By: Bratti, Massimiliano (University of Milan); De Benedictis, Luca (University of Macerata); Santoni, Gianluca (CEPII, Paris)
    Abstract: In this paper we highlight a new complementary channel to the business and social network effect à la Rauch (2001) through which immigrants generate increased export flows from the regions in which they settle to their countries of origin: they can become entrepreneurs. Using very small-scale (NUTS-3) administrative data on immigrants' location in Italy, the local presence of immigrant entrepreneurs (i.e. firms owned by foreign-born entrepreneurs) in the manufacturing sector, and on trade flows in manufacturing between Italian provinces and more than 200 foreign countries, we assess the causal relationship going from diasporas and immigrant entrepreneurs towards export flows. Both the size of the diaspora and the number of immigrant entrepreneurs have a positive, significant and economically meaningful effect on exports. We find that increasing the stock of (non-entrepreneur) immigrants by 10% would lead to a 1.7% increase in exports in manufacturing towards immigrants' countries of origin, while increasing the number of immigrant entrepreneurs in manufacturing by 10% would raise exports by about 0.6%. We also show that, besides these bilateral effects, the population of immigrant entrepreneurs raises a province's overall competitiveness and export flows towards all potential destinations.
    Keywords: exports, immigrants, gravity model, immigrant entrepreneurs, Italy
    JEL: F10 F14 F22 R10
    Date: 2018–01
  14. By: Razin, Assaf
    Abstract: The exodus of Soviet Jews to Israel in the 1990s was a unique event. The extraordinary experience of Israel, which has received three quarter million migrants from the Former Soviet Union within a short time, is also relevant for the current debate about globalization. The immigration wave was distinctive for its large high skilled cohort, and its quick integration into the domestic labor market. Immigration also changed the entire economic landscape: it raised productivity, underpinned by the information technological surge, and had significant impact on income inequality. This paper provides an explanation for a possible link between immigration and the level of redistribution in Israel's welfare state.
    Date: 2018–01
  15. By: Bredtmann, Julia; Höckel, Lisa Sofie; Otten, Sebastian
    Abstract: The recent literature on intergenerational mobility has shown that attitudes and preferences are an important pathway for the intergenerational transmission of economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by documenting that intergenerationally transmitted gender role attitudes also explain economic outcomes of individuals other than immediate relatives. Focusing on daughters-in-law, we examine whether the gender role attitudes of foreign-born mothers-in-law affect the fertility and labor supply decisions of native US women. Our results reveal that women's labor market participation is significantly positively related to the gender role attitudes in her mother-in-law's country of origin. Employing a new identification strategy, we show that this finding is due to the intergenerational transmission of gender roles rather than other unobservable characteristics of the mother-in-law's country of origin. These results suggest that the cultural values held in their source country do not only influence the behavior of immigrants and their descendants, but can also affect the labor force participation of native women. We do, however, not find any evidence that intergenerationally transmitted gender role attitudes affect the fertility behavior of native women.
    Keywords: intergenerational transmission,gender role attitudes,culture,immigration,fertility,female labor force participation
    JEL: J13 J15 J22 D1
    Date: 2017
  16. By: Samuel Bazzi (Boston University and CEPR); Arya Gaduh (University of Arkansas); Alexander Rothenberg (RAND Corporation); Maisy Wong (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: Throughout history, many governments have introduced policies to unite diverse groups through a shared sense of national identity. However, intergroup relationships at the local level are often slow to develop and confounded by spatial sorting and segregation. We shed new light on the long-run process of nation building using one of history's largest resettlement programs. Between 1979 and 1988, the Transmigration program in Indonesia relocated two million voluntary migrants from the Inner Islands of Java and Bali to the Outer Islands, in an effort to integrate geographically segregated ethnic groups. Migrants could not choose their destinations, and the unprecedented scale of the program created hundreds of new communities with varying degrees of diversity. We exploit this policy-induced variation to identify how diversity shapes incentives to integrate more than a decade after resettlement. Using rich data on language use at home, marriage, and identity choices, we find stronger integration in diverse communities. To understand why changes in diversity did not lead to social anomie or conflict, we identify mechanisms that influence intergroup relationships, including residential segregation, cultural distance, and perceived economic and political competition from migrants. Overall, our findings contribute lessons for the design of resettlement policies and provide a unique lens into the intergenerational process of integration and nation building.
    Keywords: Diversity, Identity, Language, Cultural Change, Migration, Nation Building
    JEL: D02 D71 J15 O15 R23
  17. By: Carl L. Bankston III; Min Zhou
    Abstract: In this study, we examine the Vietnamese population of the United States as a case study in the integration of a refugee group in a host country. We approach this case in three parts. We first offer a brief review of Vietnamese refugee resettlement in the US and the making of a new ethnic community. We then provide a quantitative analysis of socioeconomic mobility among Vietnamese refugees using American Community Survey data from 1980 to 2015 and survey data. We examine how this ethnic population has changed over time by focusing on key socioeconomic indicators, such as poverty rates and levels of education, occupation, and income. Third, we seek to explain what enables Vietnamese refugees and their children to overcome initial disadvantage and move up in society based on our own work over the span of 20 years with in-depth qualitative data. We consider how policies, institutions (government, civil society, and ethnic), and patterns of social relations in the Vietnamese American community have interacted with individual agency to shape mobility.
    Date: 2018
  18. By: Dramane Coulibaly; Blaise Gnimassoun; Valérie Mignon
    Abstract: Following the dynamics of globalization, international migration has increased dramatically since the 1990s. Given that these migrations may obscure the natural demographic structure of nations, they are likely to explain a significant part of global imbalances. This paper tackles this issue by investigating the role played by international migration in the dynamics of global imbalances. To this end, we rely on an overlapping generations model to derive the theoretical relationship between international migration and current account position. Through a series of robust estimates, we empirically investigate this relationship by relying on a panel of 157 developed and developing countries over the period 1990-2014. Our results point to substantial effects of international migration. Specifically, we show that an increase in migration improves national savings and the current account balance in the destination country, while it has opposite impacts in the origin country. These effects are particularly pronounced in developing economies, explaining the structural current account deficits that most of them face.
    Keywords: International migration, current account, global imbalances, remittances.
    JEL: F22 F32 O55 C33
    Date: 2018
  19. By: Margarida Rodrigues (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This report analyses the use of digital technologies by immigrant students and examine whether digital technologies play a role in the existent immigrant-native educational achievement gap and whether they could contribute to its reduction. PISA 2015 data are used for this purpose. We find evidence that ICT-related policies have the potential to decrease immigrant-native achievement gap, among which those targeting the use of ICT seem the most promising. In particular, our findings purport that the immigrants' achievement could be improved by a more intense use of ICT at home for schoolwork and for general purposes. At school, the evidence indicates that immigrant students may be overusing ICT at school for educational purposes, suggesting that the use of ICT by immigrants needs to be balanced with other face-to-face interactions and support. There are significant cross-country differences in our results, which should be taken into account to guide policy actions.
    Keywords: digital technology, immigrants, educational achievement, PISA
    Date: 2018–01
  20. By: Danzer, Alexander M. (Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt); Dietz, Barbara (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies, Regensburg)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the economic and social determinants affecting the well-being of temporary migrants before, during and after the financial crisis. Exploiting unique panel data which cover migration spells from Tajikistan between 2001 and 2011, we find that migrants earn less but stay longer in the destination during the crisis; at the same time, they become more exposed to illegal work relations, harassment and deportation through the Russian authorities. Especially illegal employment has negative second order effects on wages. Despite the similarities in the demographics and jobs of migrant workers, we find substantial heterogeneity in how the financial crisis affects their well-being. Migrants who experience wage losses during the crisis rationally stop migrating.
    Keywords: migration, informal employment, deportation, harassment, financial crisis, well-being, Russia
    JEL: J15 I31
    Date: 2018–01
  21. By: Luigi Minale (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the way households in rural China use rural-urban migration and off-farm work as a response to negative productivity shocks in agriculture. I employ various waves of a longitudinal survey to construct a panel of individual migration and labour supply histories, and match them to detailed weather information, which I use to instrument agricultural productivity. For identification, I exploit the year-by-county variation in growing season rainfalls to explain within-individual changes in labor allocation. Data on days of work supplied to each sector allow to study the responses to weather shocks along both the participation and the intensive margin. Results suggest that farming activity decreases by 4.5% while migration increases by about 5% in response to a 1-standard deviation negative rainfall shock. Increment in rural-urban migration derives from both longer spells in the city as well as raise in the likelihood to participate in the urban sector. I find interesting heterogeneous responses across generations driven by age-specific migration costs and changes in the relative productivity of sectors. Finally, land tenure insecurity seems to partially prevent households from freely reallocating labor away from farming in bad times.
    Keywords: Agricultural productivity, Labor supply, Rural-urban migration, China
    JEL: J22 R23 J61
    Date: 2018–02
  22. By: Gabriel Botchwey; Gordon Crawford; Nicholas Loubere; Jixia Lu
    Abstract: This paper examines irregular South-South migration from China to Ghana, and the role it has played in transforming livelihoods and broader developmental landscapes. It looks at the entry from the mid-2000s of approximately 50,000 Chinese migrants into the small-scale gold mining sector. They were mainly from Shanglin County, an area of alluvial gold mining. In Ghana, they formed mutually beneficial relationships with local miners, both legal and illegal, introducing machinery that substantially intensified gold production. However, the legal status of Chinese miners was particularly problematic as, by law, small-scale mining is restricted to Ghanaian citizens. In mid-2013 President Mahama established a military task force, which resulted in the deportation of many Chinese miners. This paper examines the experiences of undocumented Chinese migrants and Ghanaian miners. Findings are that this short-lived phenomenon has had long-lasting effects and significant consequences for Ghanaian and Chinese actors, as well as transforming economic, political, and physical landscapes in Ghana.
    Date: 2018
  23. By: Payne Carter, Susan (U.S. Military Academy, West Point); Wozniak, Abigail (University of Notre Dame)
    Abstract: We use exogenously determined, long-distance relocations of U.S. Army soldiers to investigate the impact of moving on marriage. We find that marriage rates increase sharply around the time of a move in an event study analysis. Reduced form exposure analysis reveals that an additional move over a five year period increases the likelihood of marriage by 14 percent. Moves increase childbearing by a similar magnitude, suggesting that marriages induced by a move are formed with long-term intentions. These findings are consistent with a model where the marriage decision is costly and relocation lowers the costs to making this decision. Our results have implications for understanding how people make major life decisions such as marriage, as well as the cost of migration.
    Keywords: marriage, migration, relocation, decision-making costs
    JEL: J12 J61
    Date: 2018–01
  24. By: Blaise Gnimassoun
    Abstract: Regional integration in Africa is a subject of great interest, but its impact on income has not been studied sufficiently. Using cross-sectional and panel estimations, this paper examines the impact of African integration on real per capita income in Africa. To do this, we consider intra-African trade and migration flows as quantitative measures reflecting the intensity of regional integration. In order to address the endogeneity concerns, we use a gravity-based IV strategy. Our results show that, from a long-term perspective, African integration has not been strong enough to generate a positive, significant and robust impact on real per capita income in Africa. However it appears to be significantly income-enhancing in the short term but only through inter-country migration. These results are robust to a wide range of specifications. Further analysis shows that economic diversification, financial development and the quality of transport and telecommunication infrastructure significantly affect the impact of intra-African trade on per capita income. Their improvement would make intra-African trade income-improving. Our policy recommendations have been formulated in this direction.
    Keywords: Income per capita, Trade, International Migration, Economic Integration, Africa.
    JEL: E64 F14 F22 F15 O55
    Date: 2018
  25. By: Blaise Gnimassoun; John C. Anyanwu
    Abstract: While the dominant collective belief asserts that brain drain is detrimental to the development of small economies, new studies hold the reverse view. This paper aims at studying the role of the African Diaspora in the economic development of Africa. It analyzes both the overall effect and the specific effect of emigration according to the level of education of emigrants. Then, through a deeper investigation, the paper analyzes the main channels through which the Diaspora influences economic development in Africa. The results show that the African Diaspora contributes positively, significantly and robustly to the improvement of real per capita income in Africa. These findings challenge the dominant collective belief since the higher the educational level of the emigrants, the greater the impact of the Diaspora on the level of economic development. Improvement in human capital, total factor productivity and democracy are effective transmission channels of this impact. Finally, the results show that while high-skilled emigrants have an overall greater impact on economic development and democracy, those with a low level of education contribute more to remittances to Africa. The establishment of an annual African Diaspora Summer School (ADSS) by the AfDB in partnership relevant international and regional stakeholders as a channel for the transfer of knowledge, technology and experience would further strengthen the role of the Diaspora in Africa’s economic development.
    Keywords: The African Diaspora, International migration, Economic development, Africa.
    JEL: F22 O55
    Date: 2018
  26. By: Torosyan, Karine (ISET, Tbilisi State University); Pignatti, Norberto (ISET, Tbilisi State University); Obrizan, Maksym (Kyiv School of Economics)
    Abstract: Internally displaced people (IDPs) constitute a serious economic, social and cultural problem for many countries, including countries in transition. Despite the importance of the problem, there are only a handful of previous studies investigating the issue of labor market outcomes of IDPs. We aim to fill this gap in the literature using 13 years of Integrated Household Surveys over 2004-2016 from Georgia, which experienced large flows of internal migrants from the early 1990s until now. Our analyses indicate that the labor market outcomes of IDPs are much worse than those of local residents. Specifically, IDPs are 3.9 to 11.2 percentage points less likely to be in the labor force, depending on the period and duration of IDP status. IDPs are also up to 11.6 percentage points more likely to be unemployed, sometimes even after 20 years of forced displacement. Finally, IDPs residing in a locality for more than 5 years receive persistently lower wages than local residents with similar characteristics, with the gap widening over time, reaching some 16 percentage points in the last period under analysis.
    Keywords: conflict, internally displaced people, IDPs, labor market outcomes, transition countries
    JEL: D74 J21 O15 P23 R23
    Date: 2018–01

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