nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2018‒01‒22
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The Effect of Air Pollution on Migration: Evidence from China By Shuai Chen; Paulina Oliva; Peng Zhang
  2. The Changing Family Structure of American Children with Unauthorized Parents By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Arenas-Arroyo, Esther
  3. Migration and Co-Residence Choices: Evidence from Mexico By Bertoli, Simone; Murard, Elie
  4. Immigrants' Genes: Genetic Diversity and Economics Development in the US By Philipp Ager; Markus Brueckner
  5. Migration Aspirations among NEETs in Selected MENA Countries By Ramos, Raul
  6. Migration Patterns and Labor Market Outcomes in Tunisia By Anda David; Mohamed Ali Marouani
  7. Immobility and the Brexit vote By Lee, Neil; Morris, Katy; Kemeny, Thomas

  1. By: Shuai Chen; Paulina Oliva; Peng Zhang
    Abstract: This paper looks at the effects of air pollution on migration in China using changes in the average strength of thermal inversions over five-year periods as a source of exogenous variation for medium-run air pollution levels. Our findings suggest that air pollution is responsible for large changes in inflows and outflows of migration in China. More specifically, we find that independent changes in air pollution of the magnitude that occurred in China in the course of our study (between 1996 and 2010) are capable of reducing floating migration inflows by 50 percent and of reducing population through net outmigration by 5 percent in a given county. We find that these inflows are primarily driven by well educated people at the beginning of their professional careers, leading to substantial changes in the sociodemographic composition of the population and labor force of Chinese counties. Our results are robust to different specifications, including simple counts of inversions as instruments, different weather controls, and different forms of error variance.
    JEL: O15 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2017–11
  2. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (San Diego State University); Arenas-Arroyo, Esther (Queen Mary, University of London)
    Abstract: Tougher immigration enforcement has been responsible for 1.8 million deportations between 2009 and 2013 alone, most of them involving fathers and heads of household. We exploit the geographic and temporal variation in intensified enforcement to gauge its impact on children's propensity to live without their parents in households headed by relatives or friends, or in households singly headed by their mothers with absentee spouses. Given the emotional, cognitive and long run socioeconomic costs of being raised without parents or in a single-headed household, gaining a better understanding of the collateral damage of heightened enforcement on the families to which these children belong is well warranted.
    Keywords: family structure, unauthorized immigration, immigration enforcement, United States
    JEL: J13 J15
    Date: 2017–11
  3. By: Bertoli, Simone (CERDI, University of Auvergne); Murard, Elie (IZA)
    Abstract: Household composition is traditionally regarded as exogenous in economic analyses. The migration literature typically assumes that the migration of a household member is not associated with further variations in co-residence choices. We rely on a large Mexican panel survey to provide novel evidence on the correlation between the occurrence of an international migration episode and additional changes in household composition. Migrant households have a 34.5 percent higher probability of receiving a new member within one year after the migration episode. Attrition is significantly higher among migrant households, and we provide suggestive evidence that this is due to the dissolution of the household of origin of the migrant, with all its members left behind joining another household. The endogeneity of co-residence choices has implications for survey-based measurement of migration flows, for the analysis of selection into migration, and for the effects of migration on the individuals left behind.
    Keywords: international migration, household composition, gender, remittances
    JEL: F22 J12
    Date: 2017–11
  4. By: Philipp Ager; Markus Brueckner
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between immigrants’ genetic diversity and economic development in the United States during the late 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, a period commonly referred to as the age of mass migration from Europe to the New World. Our panel model estimates show that during this period, immigrants’ genetic diversity is significantly positively correlated with measures of US counties’ economic development. There exists also a significant positive relationship between immigrants’ genetic diversity in 1870 and contemporaneous measures of US counties’ average income. Our findings demonstrate that a significant relationship between genetic diversity and economic growth does not imply that economic development outcomes are deterministic. Episodes of mass immigration, as experienced in the United States during the 19th century, can significantly change the genetic diversity of countries; and by doing so, they affect countries’ development path.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Genetic Diversity, Immigration, Melting Pot
    JEL: J11 O51 Z13
    Date: 2017–10
  5. By: Ramos, Raul (University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region shows high levels of unemployment rates among youth and the rate of youth not in education, employment or training (NEET) is also among the highest in the world. In this context, one of the more obvious reactions of youth facing unmet aspirations in the labour market is migration. The objective of the paper is to analyse the determinants of intentions to migrate of youth NEETs during their school-to-work transitions in selected MENA countries. With this aim, I use microdata from School-to-Work Transition Surveys (SWTS) conducted by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 2013-2015 in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Tunisia. These surveys targeted a nationally representative sample of young people between 15 and 29 and collected data on intentions to migrate (internal and international) and different factors related to their social and educational background. Microeconometric models are used to achieve a better understanding of factors influencing youth's decision to migrate.
    Keywords: inactivity, unemployment, NEETs, youth, intentions to migrate, school-to-work transition
    JEL: F22 J61 J65 R23
    Date: 2017–11
  6. By: Anda David (Agence Française de Développement); Mohamed Ali Marouani
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the emigration’s effects on non-migrants and particularly on the interactions with labor market outcomes in Tunisia before and after the revolution. We conduct an in-depth analysis of the structure and dynamics of migration including the migrants’ profile and their origin households, mainly in terms of skills and spatial composition. Our analysis confirms the role of emigration as a security valve for the Tunisian labor market. It also tends to confirm the effects of remittances on non-migrants’ labor supply, which can have a negative impact on Tunisia’s unemployment rate when a crisis in destination countries lowers remittances.
    Date: 2017–12–14
  7. By: Lee, Neil; Morris, Katy; Kemeny, Thomas
    Abstract: Popular explanations of the Brexit vote have centred on the division between cosmopolitan internationalists who voted Remain, and geographically rooted individuals who voted Leave. In this paper, we conduct the first empirical test of whether residential immobility – the concept underpinning this distinction – was an important variable in the Brexit vote. We find that locally rooted individuals – defined as those living in their county of birth – were 7 percent more likely to vote Leave. However, the impact of immobility was filtered by local circumstances: immobility only mattered for respondents in areas experiencing relative economic decline or increases in migrant populations
    Keywords: Brexit; globalisation; mobility; populism
    JEL: D72 J61 R23
    Date: 2018–01–04

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