nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2018‒01‒15
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Linguistic Distance, Networks and Migrants' Regional Location Choice By Bredtmann, Julia; Nowotny, Klaus; Otten, Sebastian
  2. Do Emigrants Self-Select along Cultural Traits? Evidence from the MENA Countries By Docquier, Frédéric; Tansel, Aysit; Turati, Riccardo
  3. Immigrant Locations and Native Residential Preferences: Emerging Ghettos or New Communities? By Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Saiz, Albert
  4. The Migration of Fear: An Analysis of Migration Choices of Syrian Refugees By Mehmet Balcilar; Jeffrey B. Nugent
  5. Displaced Loyalties: The Effects of Indiscriminate Violence on Attitudes Among Syrian Refugees in Turkey By Kristin Fabbe; Chad Hazlett; Tolga Sinmazdemir
  6. New Evidence of Generational Progress for Mexican Americans By Brian Duncan; Jeffrey Grogger; Ana Sofia Leon; Stephen J. Trejo
  7. Ethnic Diversity and Political Participation: The Role of Individual Income By Giorgio Bellettini; Carlotta Berti Ceroni; Chiara Monfardini
  8. Administrative Regions Discovery Based on Human Mobility Patterns and Spatio-Temporal Clustering By Miguel Núñez del Prado; Hugo Alatrista-Salas
  9. Adoption et transfert de normes politiques : le cas des migrants maliens By Lisa Chauvet; Flore Gubert; Sandrine Mesplé-Somps

  1. By: Bredtmann, Julia (RWI); Nowotny, Klaus (University of Salzburg); Otten, Sebastian (RWI)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the interaction between migrant networks and linguistic distance in the location choice of migrants to the EU at the regional level. We test the hypothesis that networks and the ability to communicate in the host country language, proxied by linguistic distance, are substitutes in the location decision. Based on individual level data from a special evaluation of the European Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) and a random utility maximization framework, we find that networks have a positive effect on the location decisions while the effect of linguistic distance is negative. We also find a strong positive interaction effect between the two factors: networks are more important the larger the linguistic distance between the home country and the host region, and the negative effect of linguistic distance is smaller the larger the network size. In several extensions and robustness checks, we show that this substitutable relationship is extremely robust.
    Keywords: location choice, ethnic networks, linguistic distance, EU migration, multilateral resistance
    JEL: F22 J61 R23
    Date: 2017–11
  2. By: Docquier, Frédéric (Université catholique de Louvain); Tansel, Aysit (Middle East Technical University); Turati, Riccardo (IRES, Université catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates whether emigrants from MENA countries self-select on cultural traits such as religiosity and gender-egalitarian attitudes. To do so, we use Gallup World Poll data on individual opinions and beliefs, migration aspirations, short-run migration plans, and preferred destination choices. We find that individuals who intend to emigrate to OECD, high-income countries exhibit significantly lower levels of religiosity than the rest of the population. They also share more gender-egalitarian views, although the effect only holds among the young (aged 15 to 30), among single women, and in countries with a Sunni minority. For countries mostly affected by Arab Spring, since 2011 the degree of cultural selection has decreased. Nevertheless, the aggregate effects of cultural selection should not be overestimated. Overall, self-selection along cultural traits has limited (albeit non negligible) effects on the average characteristics of the population left behind, and on the cultural distance between natives and immigrants in the OECD countries.
    Keywords: international migration, self-selection, cultural traits, gender-egalitarian attitudes, religiosity, MENA region
    JEL: F22 J61 Z10
    Date: 2017–11
  3. By: Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid); Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada (IAE Barcelona (CSIC)); Saiz, Albert (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: While the impact of immigrants on labor markets may be small, strong political movements voicing opposition to the growth of resident foreign-born populations are on the upswing. We study whether natives voted with their feet in reaction to the largest and fastest migration shock in the OECD. The inflow, causing the population of Spain to grow by 10 percent between 1998 and 2008, represented largely a new phenomenon the size of which had not been factored into previous expectations, thereby providing quasi-experimental sources of variance. Our results show that immigrant inflows caused mild native flight from denser, established neighborhoods, but also more real estate development there. In parallel, both natives and immigrants were concurrently moving into new booming suburban communities, resulting in no changes in overall measures of ethnic segregation. In contexts where large ethnic minority arrivals spur the creation of new neighborhoods, conventional empirical methods may overstate the degree of segregationist behavior.
    Keywords: residential segregation, international migration, white flight
    JEL: F22 J61 D33
    Date: 2017–11
  4. By: Mehmet Balcilar (Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University); Jeffrey B. Nugent (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, US)
    Abstract: The current literature on forced migration offers only limited knowledge of how each of the different consequences of war, such as damage to property and casualties to family members, and the services provided to the refugees in the host country, affect the difficult choices that refugees subsequently must make as to when and where to migrate once again. This paper contributes to the literature on forced migration by studying the effects of armed violence in the country that has given rise to the largest number of refugees in the world in the last decade, namely Syria, on those various migration-related decisions. The study is based on all three waves (2013, 2014 and 2015) of a survey conducted of Syrian refugees in Turkey, the country with the largest number of Syrian refugees. The study first examines the various impacts of war (property damage, casualties, sleeping disorders) on the refugees by gender, age, education, income and other characteristics. More importantly, it then investigates the consequences of these different impacts of war as well as the duration of the refugee’s stay in Turkey, the quality of services provided to these refugees and the individual characteristics of the refugees on various alternative choices about the timing and destination of future migration by refugees using a logit model. The results show that (1) the longer and greater the level of violence in the country of origin, and the longer the time spent outside of Syria, the lower the likelihood of the choice to return to the country of origin; (2). the longer the time the refugee has spent in Turkey, the higher is the probability of permanent settlement in another European country; and (3) the more and higher quality of services provided to the refugees, the more likely they are to remain in Turkey While females are more likely to want to return to Syria, men and especially those with greater education, higher income and personal networks are more likely to want to relocate somewhere in Europe or elsewhere.
    Keywords: refugees, forced migration, labor market, employment, immigration, logit model, civil war, Syria, Turkey.
    JEL: F22 J10 J15 R23 C25 N45
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Kristin Fabbe (Harvard Business School); Chad Hazlett (UCLA); Tolga Sinmazdemir (Bogazici University)
    Abstract: How does violence during conflict affect the political attitudes of civilians who leave the conflict zone? Using a survey of 1,384 Syrian refugees in Turkey, we employ a natural experiment owing to the inaccuracy of barrel bombs to examine the effect of having one’s home destroyed on political and community loyalties. We find that refugees who lose a home to barrel bombing, while more likely to feel threatened by the Assad regime, are less supportive of the opposition, and instead more likely to say no armed group in the conflict represents them – opposite to what is expected when civilians are captive in the conflict zone and must choose sides for their protection. Respondents also show heightened volunteership towards fellow refugees. Altogether, this suggests that when civilians flee the conflict zone, they withdraw support from all armed groups rather than choosing sides, instead of showing solidarity with their civilian community.
    Keywords: Syria; Turkey
    JEL: J15 F22
    Date: 2017–12
  6. By: Brian Duncan (University of Colorado, Denver); Jeffrey Grogger (The University of Chicago); Ana Sofia Leon (Universidad Diego Portales); Stephen J. Trejo (University of Texas at Austin)
    Abstract: U.S.-born Mexican Americans suffer a large schooling deficit relative to other Americans, and standard data sources suggest that this deficit does not shrink between the 2nd and later generations. Standard data sources lack information on grandparents' countries of birth, however, which creates potentially serious issues for tracking the progress of later- generation Mexican Americans. Exploiting unique NLSY97 data that address these measurement issues, we find substantial educational progress between the 2nd and 3rd generations for a recent cohort of Mexican Americans. Such progress is obscured when we instead mimic the limitations inherent in standard data sources.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, immigration, educational attainment
    JEL: J61 J62
    Date: 2017–12
  7. By: Giorgio Bellettini; Carlotta Berti Ceroni; Chiara Monfardini
    Abstract: We exploit a unique dataset merging data on individual socio-economic characteristics and political participation in an Italian municipality to investigate the relationship between ethnic diversity in residential neighborhoods and individuals’ propensity to vote. We document a sizable negative impact of diversity on overall electoral turnout which reflects differential effects at the individual level, depending on household equivalent income. Specifically, we show that ethnic heterogeneity in the neighborhood reduces the political participation of the poor, while it fosters that of the more affluent. These results highlight a potential democratic deficit stemming from reduced and unequal electoral turnout in increasingly ethnically heterogeneous neighborhoods.
    Keywords: ethnic heterogeneity, electoral turnout, income
    JEL: D72
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Miguel Núñez del Prado (Universidad del Pacífico); Hugo Alatrista-Salas (Universidad del Pacífico)
    Abstract: Currently, the understanding of the human mobility is an important challenge that has a large number of applications, especially in the study of a nations ability to thrive economically and socially. Some works have shown that, it is possible to observe developed and developing countries reviewing their administrative regions borders, in order to reduce costs, or to solve ethnic claims and/or independence movements. In this context, the present work leverages mobile phone data to analyze human mobility patterns. Specifically, we propose a new method to detect administrative regions and paths of interaction between regions, both relying on subscribers mobility patterns extracted from Call Detail Records (CDR). Thus, our method offers a different point of view to redefine administrative boundaries.
    Keywords: Mobility model, Mobility Markov chain, administrative region, clustering, region interactions
    Date: 2016–12
  9. By: Lisa Chauvet (IRD, UMR DIAL, PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine); Flore Gubert (IRD, UMR DIAL, PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine); Sandrine Mesplé-Somps (IRD, UMR DIAL, PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine)
    Abstract: Cet article examine l’influence de l’émigration internationale sur la vie politique malienne à travers l’acquisition de nouvelles normes politiques par les migrants et leur diffusion à la communauté d’origine. Tout d’abord, nous examinons dans quelle mesure l’expérience migratoire altère le regard porté par les migrants maliens sur les institutions démocratiques maliennes. Plus particulièrement, nous étudions les différences de perception des institutions maliennes entre les migrants et les non-migrants. Pour ce faire, nous mobilisons des données d’enquête collectées auprès de Maliens vivant en France, en Côte d’Ivoire et au Mali lors de l’élection présidentielle de 2013. Ensuite, nous analysons si les migrants de retour au Mali, du fait de leur expérience dans des pays aux institutions différentes, participent à la consolidation des institutions démocratiques maliennes. Ont-ils des opinions et des attitudes différentes concernant la politique nationale de leur pays d’origine? Sont-ils à même d’influencer les personnes non-migrantes et de modifier les pratiques politiques dans leur pays d’origine?
    Keywords: Migration, élection, transfert de norme, Afrique
    JEL: F22 O15 D72
    Date: 2017–12

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