nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2018‒01‒01
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Settlement and labour force outcomes for Afghan immigrants and their children in Canada By Ravi Pendakur
  2. The resettlement of Vietnamese refugees across Canada over three decades By Feng Hou
  3. The (Struggle for) Labour Market Integration of Refugees: Evidence from European Countries By Francesco Fasani; Tommaso Frattini; Luigi Minale
  4. Involuntary return migration to Kosovo: Tackling challenges for successful reintegration By Möllers, Judith; Traikova, Diana; Herzfeld, Thomas; Bajrami, Egzon
  5. Deterring Emigration with Foreign Aid: An Overview of Evidence from Low-Income Countries By Clemens, Michael A.; Postel, Hannah M.
  6. Trends in African migration to Europe: Drivers beyond economic motivations By Giménez-Gómez, José-Manuel; Yabibal Mulualem Walle; Zergawu, Yitagesu Zewdu
  7. Migration and FDI: The role of job skills By Ana Cuadros; Joan Martín-Montaner; Jordi Paniagua
  8. The influence of economic migration on the Polish economy By Joanna Tyrowicz

  1. By: Ravi Pendakur
    Abstract: Past research suggests that Afghan immigrants and their children face challenges in settlement, stemming from the impact of displacement, language barriers, poor health, limited education, limited knowledge of or access to services, and discrimination. Using data from Canada’s 2011 National Household Survey and 2009 Longitudinal Immigration Database, this paper adds to these findings, pointing to poor labour force outcomes for most Afghan immigrants as compared to other immigrants. Home ownership probabilities are found to be concomitantly poor. Sons of Afghan immigrants fare better than their fathers, but no better than other immigrant men. However, the daughters of Afghan immigrants fare much better both in terms of employment probabilities and earnings as compared to other immigrant women.
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Feng Hou
    Abstract: Welcoming 60,000 Southeast Asian refugees in the 1979–80 period has become a celebrated part of Canada’s history, but the eventual integration of these refugees into Canadian society has received insufficient attention. This study provides a comprehensive overview of Vietnamese refugees’ economic outcomes over the three decades after their arrival. This study also explores how regional contexts contributed to shaping economic outcomes. Based on analyses of the 1981, 1991, and 2001 census and the 2011 National Household Survey, this study finds that adult Vietnamese refugees arrived with little human capital, but they had high employment rates, and over time they closed their initial large earnings gap with other immigrants. Childhood Vietnamese refugees out-performed other childhood immigrants and similar-aged Canadian-born individuals in educational attainment and earnings when they reached adulthood. The geographic region of residence was associated with some large variations in refugees’ socioeconomic outcomes; and regional differences in refugees’ human capital characteristics, ethnic enclave, and economic conditions played varying roles depending on the outcome measure and length of residence.
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Francesco Fasani (QMUL, CReAM, IZA and CEPR); Tommaso Frattini (University of Milan, LdA, CReAM, IZA and CEPR); Luigi Minale (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, CReAM and IZA)
    Abstract: This paper studies the labour market performance of refugees vis-à -vis comparable migrants across several EU countries and over time. We use recently released repeated cross–sectional survey data and find that refugees are 13% less likely to have a job and 32% more likely to be unemployed than migrants with similar characteristics. Their performance is relatively weaker also when analysing participation in the labour market, quality of occupation and income. Between 60 and 80% of the “refugee gap†remains unexplained even when conditioning on unobservable factors by means of a rich set of fixed effects for areas of origin, entry cohorts, destination countries as well as their interactions. These gaps are larger for the areas of origin from which most refugees currently arrive and they persist until about ten years after immigration. We also assess the role played by asylum policies. First, we exploit the differential timing of the enactment of dispersal policies across European countries in a difference–in–differences setup and find that refugee cohorts exposed to these polices have persistently worse labour market outcomes. Second, we document how entry cohorts admitted when refugee status’ recognition rates were relatively high integrate better in the host country labour market.
    Keywords: Asylum seekers; Assimilation; Refugee gap; Asylum policies
    JEL: F22 J61 J15
    Date: 2017–12
  4. By: Möllers, Judith; Traikova, Diana; Herzfeld, Thomas; Bajrami, Egzon
    Abstract: Kosovo currently faces the challenge of reintegrating thousands of returned migrants who left the country in 2014 /2015. This migration wave was discussed in the IAMO Policy Brief 24. After facing restrictive asylum policies in the destination countries in Western Europe, more than 20,000 people returned to Kosovo in 2015 and 2016. Based on the results of an empirical survey of around 180 returnees, this policy brief discusses a number of reintegration issues. In addition to low levels of education and skills, reintegration is impeded above all by the precarious state of Kosovo's labour market. This is compounded by a psychological burden that often arises from the sometimes traumatic experience of migration and involuntary return. The migration of Kosovars is at risk of becoming a vicious cycle composed of involuntary return and problems reintegrating, resulting in a further attempt at migration. Indeed, the results of the study show that many returnees do not intend to remain in Kosovo.
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Clemens, Michael A. (Center for Global Development); Postel, Hannah M. (Princeton University)
    Abstract: In response to the recent migrant and refugee crisis, rich countries have redoubled policy efforts to deter future immigration from poor countries by addressing the "root causes" of migration. We review existing evidence on the effectiveness of such efforts. First, aid disbursements do not generally follow "root causes" rhetoric. The sectoral distribution of aid to migrant-origin countries does not significantly differ from its distribution in other countries. Second, the evidence suggests that aid's capacity to deter migration is small at best. Aid can only encourage economic growth, employment, and security to a limited degree. Beyond this, successful development in almost all formerly-poor countries has produced an increase in emigration. Third, this evidence implies that donors could achieve greater impact by leveraging foreign aid not to deter migration but to shape it for mutual benefit.
    Keywords: root causes, migration, migrant, crisis, aid, ODA, development, push
    JEL: F22 F35 O15
    Date: 2017–12
  6. By: Giménez-Gómez, José-Manuel; Yabibal Mulualem Walle; Zergawu, Yitagesu Zewdu
    Abstract: The current migration and refugee crisis in Europe requires an understanding of the different migration drivers beyond the well-known economic determinants. In this paper, we view migration from a broader human security perspective and analyze the determinants of regular and irregular migration flows from Africa to Europe for the period 1990-2014. Our results show that, in addition to economic determinants, a combination of push and pull factors influence the migration decisions of individuals. In particular, rising political persecution, ethnic cleansing, human rights violations, political instability and civil conflicts in African source countries are all significantly associated with increased migration flows into European destination countries. Therefore, our results underscore the need for the EU and European countries to collaborate with the source countries, not only in terms of supporting economic development in the source countries, but also in promoting human security: human rights, democracy, peace and social stability.
    Keywords: international migration,asylum seeker,refugee crisis,human security,Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood
    JEL: F22 O15
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Ana Cuadros (IIE and Economics Department, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Joan Martín-Montaner (IIE and Economics Department, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Jordi Paniagua (IIE and Department of Economic Structure, University of Valencia, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper models and quantifies the role played by migrants occupying a variety of jobs positions (managers, professional and non-qualified) in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Higher shares of migrants with management skills are expected to mitigate management and transaction costs of foreign affiliates. We test our model on a global panel data set of Greenfield bilateral investment with wide variety of gravity specifications, both at the extensive and intensive margins. The paper provides a novel rationale for the heterogeneous effects of low-skilled migration and new insights into the mechanisms by which migration operates in the firm’s FDI decisions, with particular attention to the relevance of firm size and activity.
    Keywords: migration; foreign Direct Investment; FDI; job skills; gravity equation; extensive margin
    JEL: F21 F22 F23
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Joanna Tyrowicz
    Abstract: This essay will deal with four issues that are important for a discussion on economic migration to Poland. First, we show the demographic patterns that will mark the labor market for the next few decades. Secondly, against this background we discuss the patterns of labor supply in Poland, with particular attention to barriers and the groups affected by them. After the barriers we reach the third important aspect: how well the Polish labor market functions. This third aspect is important insofar as the literature on the experiences of countries that accept immigrants suggests a specific pattern: Immigrants usually begin flowing into a country to plug a gap in the labor market, but with the exception of a few countries, this process does not take place on a scale sufficient to mitigate the unfavorable phenomena (including legal regulations and other institutional conditions). Fourth, the scale is usually too small for this to viably influence the longstanding domestic trends.
    Keywords: economic migration, immigration, economy, labor market, Poland
    JEL: J2 J3 J6
    Date: 2017–11

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