nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2017‒11‒19
six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Effects of a Cash Transfer Program on Origin-Destination Migration Flows By Gabriel Lyrio de Oliveira; André Luis Squarize Chagas
  2. Can’t Keep Up with the Joneses: How Relative Deprivation Pushes Internal Migration in Austria By Stefan Jestl; Mathias Moser; Anna K. Raggl
  3. Closing Heaven’s Door: Evidence from the 1920s U.S.Immigration Quota Acts By Philipp Ager; Casper Worm Hansen
  4. Globalizing labor and the world economy: the role of human capital By DELOGU Marco; DOCQUIER Frédéric; MACHADO Joël
  5. A Spatial Perspective on European Integration: Heterogeneous Welfare and Migration Effects from the Single Market and the Brexit By Marcel Henkel; Tobias Seidel
  6. A Macro-level Analysis of Adult-age Language Learning By Silke Übelmesser; Severin Weingarten

  1. By: Gabriel Lyrio de Oliveira; André Luis Squarize Chagas
    Abstract: In this research we estimate the effects of the management of a cash transfer program, the Bolsa Família, on migration flows among Brazilian municipalities from 2008 to 2010. We consider the aggregated origin-destination flows coming from a Spatial Dependent Discrete Choice Model, and focus on the interest variables of release of resources and surveillance of the Program. Then, we discuss the possible lying mechanisms relating the interest variables and individual migration decisions. Each mechanism differs according to the individual status, beneficiary of the program or not, income profile, specific characteristics of its home municipality and of potential destinations. Among our results, the control variables appear in agreement with the main findings of migration literature, and the management of the program was revealed relevant to the beneficiary and potential beneficiary locational choices, specially the release of resources.
    Keywords: Migration; Origin-Destination Flow; Discrete Choice; Spatial Dependence; Bolsa Família.
    JEL: O15 R12 R23
    Date: 2017–10–31
  2. By: Stefan Jestl (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Mathias Moser; Anna K. Raggl
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of regional income inequality on emigration rates of Austrian municipalities using a unique data set that is constructed based on individual level data from Austrian administrative registers. The register-based data contain information on the municipality of residence of all individuals aged 16 and over that have their main residency in Austria, as well as their income and socio-demographic characteristics. Aggregating this information to the municipality level allows us to assess the role of relative deprivation – a measure of relative income – on top of absolute income in shaping internal migration in Austria. We find that increases in relative deprivation in a municipality lead to higher emigration from the municipality. Allowing for heterogeneous effects across income, education, and age groups reveals that the effect is stronger among those with comparably low levels of income, and among low-skilled and young individuals.
    Keywords: relative deprivation, inequality, internal migration
    JEL: D31 R23
    Date: 2017–09
  3. By: Philipp Ager (Department of Business and Economics, University of Southern Denmark); Casper Worm Hansen (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: The introduction of immigration quotas in the 1920s fundamentally changed U.S. immigration policy. We exploit this policy change to estimate the economic consequences of immigration restrictions for the U.S. economy. The implementation of the quota system led to a long-lasting relative decline in population growth in areas with larger pre-existing immigrant communities of affected nationalities. This effect was largely driven by the policy-restricted supply of immigrants from quota-affected nationalities and lower fertility of first- and second-generation immigrant women. In the more affected areas labor productivity growth in manufacturing declined substantially and native workers were pushed into lower-wage occupations. While native white workers faced sizable earnings losses, black workers benefited from the quota system and improved their relative economic status within the more affected areas.
    Keywords: Immigration restrictions, productivity growth, local labor markets, racial wage gap
    JEL: J31 J61 N31 O15
    Date: 2017–10–31
  4. By: DELOGU Marco; DOCQUIER Frédéric; MACHADO Joël
    Abstract: We develop a dynamic model of the world economy that jointly endogenizes individual decisions about fertility, education and migration. We then use it to compare the shortand long-term effects of immigration restrictions on the world distribution of income. Our calibration strategy replicates the economic and demographic characteristics of the world, and allows us to proxy bilateral migration costs and visa costs for two classes of workers and for each pair of countries. In our benchmark simulations, the world average level of income per worker increases by 12% in the short term and by approximately 52% after one century. These results are highly robust to our identifying strategy and technological assumptions. Sizable differences are obtained when our baseline (pre-liberalization) trajectory involves a rapid income convergence between countries or when we adjust visa costs for a possible upward bias. Our quantitative analysis reveals that the effects of liberalizing migration on human capital accumulation and income are gradual and cumulative. Whatever is the size of the short-term gain, the long-run impact is 4 to 5 times greater (except under a rapid convergence in income).
    Keywords: Migration; Migration policy; Liberalization; Growth; Human Capital; Fertility; Inequality
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2017–11
  5. By: Marcel Henkel; Tobias Seidel
    Abstract: We use a quantitative model to study the implications of European integration for welfare and migration flows across 1,318 regions. The model suggests that an increase of trade barriers to the level of 1957 reduces welfare by about 1-2 percent on average, depending on the presumed trade elasticity. However, remote regions may face initial welfare losses of up to 4 percent causing an estimated migration of about 8 million individuals to the European core. This implies that the dismantling of trade barriers in Europe has led to a more homogeneous spatial distribution of economic activity. With regard to the Brexit, we find moderate welfare losses for the UK of -0.44 percent in the most pessimistic scenario while continental Europe’s welfare declines by 0.18 percent. In the most unfavorable scenario, about 500,000 people would leave the UK in the long run.
    Keywords: regional integration, labor mobility, spatial inequality
    JEL: F10 F12 F15 R11 R12 R13 R23
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Silke Übelmesser; Severin Weingarten
    Abstract: This article investigates the macro-level drivers of adult-age language learning. We construct a new dataset that covers German language learning in 77 countries (including Germany) for 1992-2006. Fixed-effects regressions show that language learning in the EU is strongly associated with immigration. Instead, immigration by non-EU citizens in associated with language learning in Germany. Additionally, trade flows are strongly associated with language learning in non-EU high-income economies.
    Keywords: language skills, language learning, migration, migrant networks, migration policy
    JEL: F22 J24 J61
    Date: 2017

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