nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2017‒10‒01
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Climatic variation as a determinant of rural-to-rural migration destination choice: Evidence from Tanzania By Zaneta Kubik
  2. Rural-Urban Migration, Structural Transformation, and Housing Markets in China By Carlos Garriga; Aaron Hedlund; Yang Tang; Ping Wang
  3. The Impact of Non-Cognitive Skills and Risk Preferences on Rural-to-Urban Migration: Evidence from Ukraine By Ayhan, Sinem H.; Gatskova, Kseniia; Lehmann, Hartmut
  4. The Effects of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills on Migration Decisions By Bütikofer, Aline; Peri, Giovanni
  5. “What drives migration moves across urban areas in Spain?” By Celia Melguizo; Vicente Royuela
  6. Exporting Creative and Cultural Products: Birthplace Diversity Matters! By Gianluca Orefice; Gianluca Santoni
  7. Educational Attainment and Neighbourhood Outcomes: Differences between Highly-Educated Natives and Non-Western Ethnic Minorities in the Netherlands By de Vuijst, Elise; van Ham, Maarten
  8. Is There Still Son Preference in the United States? By Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Peter Brummund; Jason Cook; Miriam Larson-Koester
  9. Immobile Australia: Surnames Show Strong Status Persistence, 1870–2017 By Clark, Gregory; Leigh, Andrew; Pottenger, Mike
  10. Border Communities Understanding on The Human Trafficking in Indonesia-Malaysia Border Region: Case Study in Sambas District, West Kalimantan By Muhammad Iqbal
  11. IAB-BAMF-SOEP-Befragung von Geflüchteten 2016 : Studiendesign, Feldergebnisse sowie Analysen zu schulischer wie beruflicher Qualifikation, Sprachkenntnissen sowie kognitiven Potenzialen By Brücker, Herbert; Rother, Nina; Schupp, Jürgen

  1. By: Zaneta Kubik (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This paper attempts to establish if climate acts as the determinant of destination choice in case of rural-to-rural migration. In the context of climate change where the link between climate and rural income has been well established, it is argued that migrants who move within rural areas choose destinations with more favourable climate conditions allowing for higher incomes. Employing the alternative-specific conditional logit model, this paper shows that such indirect effect of climate on migration destination choice is non-negligible, since one per cent increase in the expected income differentials between origin and destination, attributable to climate, increases the probability of choosing a given destination by at least nine percentage points. On the other hand, distance acts as a constraint for migration, in particular for the poorest individuals who might be inhibited from reaping full benefits of mobility
    Keywords: climate change; regional migration; rural economics; agriculture; regional economics
    JEL: R11 R23 Q15 Q54
    Date: 2017–08
  2. By: Carlos Garriga; Aaron Hedlund; Yang Tang; Ping Wang
    Abstract: This paper explores the contribution of the structural transformation and urbanization process to China's housing-market boom. Rural to urban migration together with regulated land supplies and developer entry restrictions can raise housing prices. This issue is examined using a multi-sector dynamic general-equilibrium model with migration and housing. Our quantitative findings suggest that this process accounts for about 80 percent of urban housing price changes. This mechanism remains valid in extensions calibrated to the two largest cities with most noticeable housing booms and to several alternative setups. Overall, supply factors and productivity account for most of the housing price growth.
    JEL: E20 O41 R21 R31
    Date: 2017–09
  3. By: Ayhan, Sinem H. (IZA); Gatskova, Kseniia (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies, Regensburg); Lehmann, Hartmut (University of Bologna)
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence on the impacts of non-cognitive skills and attitudes towards risk on the decision to migrate from rural to urban areas. Our analysis is based on a unique four-wave panel of Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for the period between 2003 and 2012. Adopting the Five Factor Model of personality structure, and using it in the evaluation of non-cognitive skills, our results suggest that such personality traits as openness to new experience and the willingness to take risks increase the probability of migration. On the other hand, the non-cognitive skills conscientiousness and extraversion are found to be negatively associated with the propensity to migrate. The effects are statistically and quantitatively significant, and mainly driven by movements from rural areas into cities. Our results are robust to several sensitivity checks, including tests for reverse causality.
    Keywords: migration, non-cognitive skills, Big Five, risk attitudes
    JEL: J61 D03 D81 R23
    Date: 2017–09
  4. By: Bütikofer, Aline (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Peri, Giovanni (UC Davis)
    Abstract: There is growing evidence that cognitive and noncognitive skills affect the economic and social outcomes of individuals. In this paper, we analyze how they affect the migration decisions of individuals during their lifetimes. We use data that combine military enlistment and administrative records for the male population born in 1932 and 1933 in Norway. Records of interviews with a psychologist at age 18 allow us to construct an index of `sociability' and `adaptability' for each individual, as well as an index of cognitive ability, the intelligence quotient. We find that adaptability and cognitive ability have significant and positive impacts on the probability of an individual migrating out of his area, whether this involves rural{urban, long distance, or international migration. Adaptability has a particularly strong impact on migration for individuals with low cognitive skills, implying a strong positive selection of less educated migrants with respect to the (previously unobserved) adaptability skill. We also show that cognitive skills have a strong positive effect on the pre- and post-migration wage differential, whereas adaptability has no significant effect. Moreover, individuals with high cognitive ability migrate to areas with large wage returns to cognitive abilities, whereas this is not true for individuals with high adaptability. This evidence suggests that adaptability reduces the psychological cost of migrating, whereas cognitive skills increase the monetary returns associated with migration.
    Keywords: Noncognitive Skills; Mobility Costs; Returns to Migration
    JEL: J24 J61 R23
    Date: 2017–09–19
  5. By: Celia Melguizo (Department of Econometrics, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 696; 08034 Barcelona,Spain.); Vicente Royuela (Department of Econometrics, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 696; 08034 Barcelona,Spain.)
    Abstract: In Spain, economic disparities between regions have traditionally played a relevant role in migration. Nevertheless, during the previous high-instability period, analyses provided conflicting results about the effect of these variables. In this work, we aim to determine the role that labour market factors play in internal migration during the Great Recession, paying special attention to the migration response of the heterogeneous population groups. To do so, we resort to an extended gravity model and we consider as a territorial unit the 45 Spanish Functional Urban Areas. Our results point to real wages as having a significant influence on migration motivations.
    Keywords: Migration, Spanish urban areas, Labour market factors. JEL classification: C23, J61, R23.
    Date: 2017–09
  6. By: Gianluca Orefice; Gianluca Santoni
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of birthplace diversity on exports of creative and cultural goods, for 19 OECD countries, over the period 1990-2010. By matching UNESCO's creative and cultural exports classification to trade and migration data, we find a strong positive effect of birthplace diversity on the export of creative products. In particular, a 10% increase in the birthplace diversity index implies a 4% increase in creative goods export. These results are robust across several specifications and shed light on a potential new channel through which migrants can contribute to the host country's export performance. It is interesting to note that only diversity of secondary and tertiary educated immigrants contributes to an increase in exports of creative and cultural goods. An instrumental variables approach addresses the potential endogeneity problems and confirms our results.
    Keywords: Creative Products;International Trade;Birthplace Diversity;Migration
    JEL: F14 F16 F22
    Date: 2017–09
  7. By: de Vuijst, Elise (Delft University of Technology); van Ham, Maarten (Delft University of Technology)
    Abstract: In the Netherlands, obtaining a higher education increases the chance to move to a better neighbourhood for native Dutch adults who grew up in a deprived parental neighbourhood. For non-Western minorities, education does not have this positive effect on socio-spatial mobility. In this study we investigate potential explanations for these ethnic differences in the relationship between educational attainment and neighbourhood outcomes over time. We use longitudinal register data from the Netherlands to study a complete cohort of parental home leavers who attained a higher education by the end of the measurement period (1999 to 2012). We supplemented this data with information gathered in the WoON-survey. We examined differences in income trajectories for highly-educated native Dutch and non-Western ethnic minorities; investigated the strength of intergenerational transmission of income for both groups; and assessed individual neighbourhood experiences and contentment. We find that the highly-educated native Dutch in our subpopulation have a substantially higher average income over time, and a weaker association to the income of their parents compared to the non-Western ethnic minorities. Additionally, for ethnic minorities, our results show that the level of contentment with their neighbourhood is highest in deprived neighbourhoods compared to more affluent residential environments, and they more often reside in close proximity to their parents compared to the native Dutch, both suggesting an element of choice in neighbourhood selection.
    Keywords: neighbourhood histories, intergenerational transmission, income, education, ethnicity, longitudinal data
    JEL: I30 J60 P46 R23
    Date: 2017–09
  8. By: Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Peter Brummund; Jason Cook; Miriam Larson-Koester
    Abstract: In this paper, we use 2008-2013 American Community Survey data to update and further probe Dahl and Moretti’s (2008) son preference results, which found evidence that having a female first child increased the probability of single female headship and raised fertility. In light of the substantial increase in immigration, we examine this question separately for immigrants and natives. Among the population in the aggregate, as well as among the native-born separately, consistent with Dahl and Moretti (2008), we find that having a female first child raises the likelihood that the mother is a single parent. However, in sharp contrast to Dahl and Moretti (2008), we find that having a female first child is actually associated with lower fertility. Thus, by the 2008-2013 period, any apparent son preference among natives in their fertility decisions appears to be outweighed by factors such as cost concerns in raising girls. This change may be plausible in light of the reversal of the gender gap in college attendance beginning in the 1980s (Goldin, Katz and Kuziemko 2006), making girls more costly. For immigrants, we also find evidence that having a female first child contributes to female headship, with an effect that has the same magnitude as that for natives although is not statistically significant. However, in contrast to natives, we do find a positive fertility effect, suggesting son preference in fertility among this group. This interpretation is further supported by evidence that, for both first and second generation immigrants (second generation immigrants were examined using the Current Population Surveys) having a girl has a more positive effect on fertility for those whose source countries have lower values of the World Economic Forum’s Gender Equity Index, or lower female labor force participation rates and higher sex (boy-to-girl) ratios among births. We also examine sex selection and find no evidence that sex selection has spread beyond the race groups identified in previous work (e.g., Almond and Edlund 2008).
    JEL: J1 J11 J12 J13 J15 J16
    Date: 2017–09
  9. By: Clark, Gregory (University of California, Davis); Leigh, Andrew (Australian National University); Pottenger, Mike (University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: The paper estimates long run social mobility in Australia 1870–2017 tracking the status of rare surnames. The status information includes occupations from electoral rolls 1903–1980, and records of degrees awarded by Melbourne and Sydney universities 1852–2017. Status persistence was strong throughout, with an intergenerational correlation of 0.7–0.8, and no change over time. Notwithstanding egalitarian norms, high immigration and a well-targeted social safety net, Australian long-run social mobility rates are low. Despite evidence on conventional measures that Australia has higher rates of social mobility than the UK or USA (Mendolia and Siminski, 2016), status persistence for surnames is as high as that in England or the USA. Mobility rates are also just as low if we look just at mobility within descendants of UK immigrants, so ethnic effects explain none of the immobility.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, social mobility, inequality
    JEL: J62
    Date: 2017–09
  10. By: Muhammad Iqbal (Universitas Mercu Buana Jakarta, Indonesia. Author-2-Name: Yuherina Gusman Author-2-Workplace-Name: National Chengchi University Taipei)
    Abstract: "Objective – The aim of this study is to determine the understanding of people in the periphery of Indonesia-Malaysia border on safe migration and human trafficking. Methodology/Technique – This study used survey methodology with quantitative and qualitative approaches. The quantitative approach was used to determine the general data about the knowledge of the society – regarding the content and objectives of the campaign– as campaign target groups. Qualitative approach is also used to measure the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) of the informant. The population of this study are the head of the family or the breadwinner of the family who have productive age as family member(s). Data sampling technique were collected by using purposive sampling. This study was conducted in Sambas district, West Kalimantan Province. Findings –The results showed that among 150 respondents, only 68 people, or approximately 45.3% of them know the terminology of trafficking. The respondents were able acknowledged trafficking when it was replaced with the phrase “perdagangan orang” (trafficking in Bahasa, literally means the selling of people). There were 71 people or about 47% of respondents aware of what can be categorized as trafficking in persons, namely: fraud, use of violence, forgery, threatened with violence, abuse of power, confinement and kidnapping. Novelty – Based on the findings that migrant workers from the border areas, especially at region of Sambas a are vulnerable to human trafficking, due to their very limited knowledge about the crime of Trafficking in Persons and this will suggest for further educational development initiative by authorities in those areas."
    Keywords: Community; Human Trafficking; Indonesia-Malaysia Border; Safe Migration.
    JEL: I21 I25
    Date: 2017–07–20
  11. By: Brücker, Herbert (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Rother, Nina; Schupp, Jürgen
    Abstract: "With a representative and anonymous survey of more than 4.500 refugees, the Institute for Employment Research (IAB), the Socio-economic Panel (SOEP) at the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) and the Research Centre on Migration, Integration and Asylum of the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF-FZ) provide a unique and extensive dataset for analysis of forced migration and the integration of refugees. Among others the refugees were asked about their education, vocational training and work experience in home and transition countries, about the reasons they left their home countries and their experiences during their escape. Furthermore, there have been questions about their attitudes, values and expectations regarding living in Germany as well as first experiences in Germany and about their social and labor market integration. Due to the nature of sampling and by defining sample weights, the presented results are representative for the population of refugees coming to Germany from January 2013 to January 2016. After the first part of the survey was presented in November 2016 on the basis of about half of all interviews (Brücker et al., 2016), the following report provides a complete methodical documentation of the study as well as information on the field results of the entire 2016 survey year." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Flüchtlinge, Schulabschluss, berufliche Qualifikation - Anerkennung, Sprachkenntnisse, kognitive Fähigkeit, Bildungsniveau, Qualifikationsniveau, Qualifikationsstruktur, Sprachförderung, Bildungsmotivation, Muttersprache, Analphabetismus, Herkunftsland, IAB-SOEP-Migrationsstichprobe
    Date: 2017–09–18

This nep-mig issue is ©2017 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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