nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2017‒09‒24
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Female Brain Drain in Poland and Germany: New Perspectives for Research By Karolina Beaumont; Matthias Dauner; Matthias Kullas
  2. Interregional Migration, Human Capital Externalities and Unemployment Dynamics: Evidence from Italian Provinces By Basile, Roberto; Girardi, Alessandro; Mantuano, Marianna; Russo, Giuseppe
  3. Goods and Factor Market Integration: A Quantitative Assessment of the EU Enlargement By Lorenzo Caliendo; Fernando Parro; Luca David Opromolla; Alessandro Sforza
  4. The “CHARM” Policy Analysis Framework: Evaluation of Policies to Promote Immigrant Students’ Resilience By Özge Bilgili
  5. Building transnational labor markets: The case of Taiwan By Wang, Chih-Chieh
  6. Where Are Migrants from? Inter- vs. Intra-Provincial Rural-Urban Migration in China By Su, Yaqin; Tesfazion, Petros; Zhao, Zhong
  7. Is There Still Son Preference in the United States? By Blau, Francine D.; Kahn, Lawrence M.; Brummund, Peter; Cook, Jason; Larson-Koester, Miriam
  8. Social harmonization in the eyes of Polish stakeholders – in search of consensus By Karolina Beaumont; Katarzyna Mirecka; Izabela Styczyñska
  9. Causes and Impacts of Remittances: Household Survey Evidence from Egypt By Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Sherif Maher Hassan; Ribal Abi Raad

  1. By: Karolina Beaumont; Matthias Dauner; Matthias Kullas
    Abstract: This report provides an analysis of the issues related to female brain drain between Poland and Germany in the years 1989-2015: female and male migration patterns during specific time periods, the challenges of female migration, the emigration of highly-skilled individuals in Poland and Germany, as well as the issues regarding brain drain from a gender perspective.
    Keywords: Brain drain, brain gain, brain circulation, labour migration, intra-EU migration, Poland, Germany, gender equality, women’s migration, highly-educated migrants
    JEL: J11 J16 J24 F22 O15 R23
    Date: 2017–03
  2. By: Basile, Roberto; Girardi, Alessandro; Mantuano, Marianna; Russo, Giuseppe
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of interregional migration on regional unemployment in Italy. With the help of a simple two-region model adapted to the main features of the Italian NorthSouth dualism, we illustrate the effects of labor mobility with and without human capital externalities. Using longitudinal data over the years 2002-2011 for 103 NUTS-3 Italian regions, we document that net outflows of human capital from the South to the North have increased the unemployment rate in the South, while it did not affect the unemployment rate in the North. Our analysis contributes to the literature on interregional human capital mobility suggesting that reducing human capital flight from Southern regions should be a priority.
    Keywords: Unemployment,Migration,Human Capital,Exernalities,Italian Regions
    JEL: C23 R23 J61
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Lorenzo Caliendo (Yale University); Fernando Parro (Johns Hopkins University); Luca David Opromolla (Banco de Portugal); Alessandro Sforza (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: The economic e?ects from labor market integration are crucially a?ected by the extent to which countries are open to trade. In this paper we build a multi-country dynamic general equi¬librium model with trade in goods and labor mobility across countries to study and quantify the economic e?ects of trade and labor market integration. In our model trade is costly and features households of di?erent skills and nationalities facing costly forward-looking relocation decisions. We use the EU Labour Force Survey to construct migration ?ows by skill and na¬tionality across 17 countries for the period 2002-2007. We then exploit the timing variation of the 2004 EU enlargement to estimate the elasticity of migration ?ows to labor mobility costs, and to identify the change in labor mobility costs associated to the actual change in policy. We apply our model and use these estimates, as well as the observed changes in tari?s, to quantify the e?ects from the EU enlargement. We ?nd that new member state countries are the largest winners from the EU enlargement, and in particular unskilled labor. We ?nd smaller welfare gains for EU-15 countries. However, in the absence of changes to trade policy, the EU-15 would have been worse o? after the enlargement. We study even further the interaction e?ects between trade and migration policies and the role of di?erent mechanisms in shaping our results. Our results highlight the importance of trade for the quanti?cation of the welfare and migration e?ects from labor market integration
    Keywords: International trade, Factor mobility, Market integration, EU enlargement, Welfare
    JEL: F16 F22 F13 J61 R13 E24
    Date: 2017–09
  4. By: Özge Bilgili (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on children with a migration background and conceptualises their migration experience as adversity. The paper adapts the resilience framework to understand how immigrant children can overcome adversity. The paper discusses policy models that can be derived from adopting a resilience approach to the measurement of immigrant students' integration prospects and proposes a policy analysis framework. The "CHARM" framework helps to assess the extent to which destination country policies and practices support the educational and socioemotional well-being of immigrant children. Namely, it evaluates whether policies consider 1) Cumulative adversity; adopt a 2) Holistic approach; consider 3) Adjustment as a dynamic process; identify a 4) Relational development; and implement a 5) Multilevel approach. The paper finally applies the CHARM framework to the education policies of Ontario, Canada and underscores the relevance of applying the CHARM framework across countries and jurisdictions to evaluate education policies that can promote the resilience of immigrant children.
    Date: 2017–09–20
  5. By: Wang, Chih-Chieh
    Abstract: Taiwan has embedded itself in the global markets and established strong economic relations with many countries, especially the neighbors in East Asia. However, working in a foreign country, as part of international economic exchange is still constrained by the regulations and/or socio-cultural barriers in respective countries. Nonetheless, it is argued that transnational labor markets, which are primarily constructed by private actors, are emerging in East Asia. Taking up Taiwan as a case, this study investigates how private actors - temporary help agencies - go ahead of the states and forge institutions that facilitate labor mobility across national borders in the absence of supra-national institutions, such as EU or ASEAN Economic Community, where freedom of movement has taken place or is expected to launch. Based on interviews with staffing agencies, union activists and government officials, it is found that staffing agencies serve as a transnational HR management function, as they develop international networks and provide their clients and workers with services such as visa application and employment arrangements that accommodate to business, employment and social welfare regulations in both sending and receiving countries. Moreover, staffing agencies translate and diffuse socio-cultural meanings between countries by engaging in socio-cultural training for workers as well as their clients to ensure the success of cross-border labor placements. This research contributes to the understanding of transnational labor mobility by studying the process of building transnational institutions and how these institutions make sense to the involved actors.
    Keywords: transnational labor markets,institution building,staffing agency,employment regulation,industrial relations,Taiwan,East Asia
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Su, Yaqin; Tesfazion, Petros; Zhao, Zhong
    Abstract: Using a representative sample of rural migrants in cities, this paper investigates where the migrants in urban China come from, paying close attention to intra-provincial vs. inter-provincial migrants, and examining the differences in their personal attributes. We find that migrants who have come within the province differ significantly from those who have come from outside of the province. Using a nested logit model, we find that overall, higher wage differentials, larger population size, higher GDP per capita, and faster employment growth rate are the attributes of a city that attract migrants from both within and outside province. In addition, moving beyond one’s home province has a strong deterrent effect on migration, analogous to the “border effect” identified in international migration studies. We also explore the role of culture, institutional barrier, and dialect in explaining such a pronounced “border effect”.
    Keywords: Rural-urban migration,Inter- vs. intra-provincial migration,Border effect,China
    JEL: J62 O15
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Blau, Francine D. (Cornell University); Kahn, Lawrence M. (Cornell University); Brummund, Peter (University of Alabama); Cook, Jason (University of Pittsburgh); Larson-Koester, Miriam (Cornell University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we use 2008-2013 American Community Survey data to update and further probe Dahl and Moretti's (2008) son preference results, which found evidence that having a female first child increased the probability of single female headship and raised fertility. In light of the substantial increase in immigration, we examine this question separately for immigrants and natives. Among the population in the aggregate, as well as among the native-born separately, consistent with Dahl and Moretti (2008), we find that having a female first child raises the likelihood that the mother is a single parent. However, in sharp contrast to Dahl and Moretti (2008), we find that having a female first child is actually associated with lower fertility. Thus, by the 2008-2013 period, any apparent son preference among natives in their fertility decisions appears to be outweighed by factors such as cost concerns in raising girls. This change may be plausible in light of the reversal of the gender gap in college attendance beginning in the 1980s (Goldin, Katz and Kuziemko 2006), making girls more costly. For immigrants, we also find evidence that having a female first child contributes to female headship, with an effect that has the same magnitude as that for natives although is not statistically significant. However, in contrast to natives, we do find a positive fertility effect, suggesting son preference in fertility among this group. This interpretation is further supported by evidence that, for both first and second generation immigrants (second generation immigrants were examined using the Current Population Surveys) having a girl has a more positive effect on fertility for those whose source countries have lower values of the World Economic Forum's Gender Equity Index, or lower female labor force participation rates and higher sex (boy-to-girl) ratios among births. We also examine sex selection and find no evidence that sex selection has spread beyond the race groups identified in previous work (e.g., Almond and Edlund 2008).
    Keywords: gender, son preference, family structure, fertility, sex selection, immigrants
    JEL: J1 J11 J12 J13 J15 J16
    Date: 2017–09
  8. By: Karolina Beaumont; Katarzyna Mirecka; Izabela Styczyñska
    Abstract: Aspects of labor mobility and discrepancies in social benefits schemes in Member States became an urgent matter to address. Revision of the Posting of Workers Directive, the European Pillar of Social Rights and the European Mobility Package were aimed at introducing more harmonization within the EU countries. However, the EU propositions faced a strong resistance from some groups of stakeholders and Member States. Moreover, the debate has been evolving quickly given recent events such as the economic and migration crises and Brexit. CASE held a forum with various Polish stakeholders, where CASE experts gathered views on the future of social situation in the EU. They are all summarized in this Policy Brief. Main policy recommendations emphasize that proposed legislation is important for Poland, however it still needs more debate, since under current form certain policies might be harmful for many EU Member States.
    Keywords: posted workers, labor mobility, social harmonization, social model, social rights, social convergence, labor market
    JEL: J31 J32 J61 H53
    Date: 2017–03
  9. By: Mohammad Reza Farzanegan (Philipps-Universität Marburg); Sherif Maher Hassan (Philipps-Universität Marburg); Ribal Abi Raad (Concordia university, Montreal)
    Abstract: This research provides a qualitative and empirical investigation of the microeconomic causes and impacts of remittances in Egypt. We use data from a field study, involving interviews of 304 remittance-receiving families across 16 Egyptian governorates during May 2015–May 2016. Our Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Tobit regressions show that the duration of migration, migrant’s age, household income, and household head’s job are the most important predictors of the level of remittances. The first three variables induce the value of received remittances, while the final variable, household head’s job, acts to the contrary and reduces remittances. In terms of remittances allocation, everyday expenses and real estate investments absorb the vast majority of channeled remittances. Most of the respondents (85%) do not invest remittances, and those who invest remittances mainly reside in Upper and Lower Egypt due to the low living costs in these regions.
    Keywords: remittances; Egypt; altruistic; self-interest; Tobit
    JEL: D14 J6 O15
    Date: 2017

This nep-mig issue is ©2017 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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